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Siklus Hidup

Pengembangan SI

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Key Ideas
Banyak sistem gagal dibuat
karena analis mencoba
membuat sistem yang bagus
tanpa mengerti organisasi.
Tujuan utama adalah
menciptakan nilai bagi
organisasi.
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Key Ideas
systems analyst adalah orang kunci yang
menganalisa kegiatan bisnis,
mengidentifikasi peluang untuk
pengembangan dan mendisain sistem
informasi untuk mengimplementasi
idenya.
Sangat penting untuk mengerti dan
membangun kemampuan melalui praktek
agar berhasil dalam mendisain dan
mengimplementasikan sistem informasi.
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Atribut utama dalam


Siklus Hidup
Proyek-Perubahan secara sistematis dalam
setiap fase memiliki standar hasil.
Menghasilkan proyek yang
deliverables
Menggunakan deliverables dalam
implementasi
Hasil yang nyata dalam SI
Menggunakan gradual refinement
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fase Proyek
Planning (Mengapa membangun
sistem? Bagaimana cara tim
membangunnya?)
Analysis (Siapa yang menggunakan
sistem, apa yang akan dilakukan,
dimana dan kapan sistem akan
digunakan?)
Design (Bagaimana sistem bekerja?)
Implementation (System delivery)
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

A simple process for


making lunch

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Planning
Mengidentifikasi business value
Menganalisa feasibility
(kelayakan)
Membangun rencana kerja
Menyiapkan staf proyek
Mengontrol proyek dan terjun
langsung dalam proyek
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Analysis
Analysis strategy
Mengumpulkan business
requirements
Requirements definition use
cases
Process modeling
Data modeling
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Design
Design selection
Architecture design
Interface design
Data storage design
Program design

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Implementation
Construction
Program building
Program and system testing

Installation
Conversion strategy
Training plan
Support plan
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Processes and
Deliverables
Process
Planning

Analysis
Design
Implementation
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Product
System Request
Feasibility Analysis
Workplan
System Proposal
System
Specification
New System and
Maintenance Plan

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
METHODOLOGIES

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

What Is a Methodology?
A formalized approach to
implementing the SDLC
A series of steps and deliverables

Methodology Categories
ProcessStructured Design
Centered
Rapid Application
Data-Centered Development
ObjectAgile Development
Oriented
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Waterfall Development
Methodology

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pros and Cons of the


Waterfall Methodology
Pros
Identifies systems
requirements long
before programming
begins
Minimizes changes to
requirements as
project progresses

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Cons
Design must be
specified on paper
before programming
begins
Long time between
system proposal and
delivery of new
system

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Parallel Development
Methodology

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pros and Cons of


Parallel Development
Methodology
Pros

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Cons

Reduces Schedule
Time

Still Uses Paper


Documents

Less Chance of
Rework

Sub-projects May Be
Difficult to Integrate

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rapid Application
Development
Incorporate special techniques
and tools:
CASE tools
JAD sessions
Fourth generation/visualization
programming languages
Code generators
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Three RAD Categories


Phased development
A series of versions developed
sequentially

Prototyping
System prototyping

Throw-away prototyping
Design prototyping
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Phased Development
Methodology

Insert Figure 1-4 here

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pros and Cons of


Phased Development
Methodology
Pros
Users Get a System
To Use Quickly
Users Can Identify
Additional Needs
For Later Versions

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Cons

Users Work with a


System that is
Intentionally
Incomplete

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

How Prototyping Works

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pros and Cons of


Prototyping
Methodology
Pros

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Cons

Users Interact with


Prototype Very Quickly

Tendency to do
Superficial Analysis

Users Can Identify


Needed Changes
And Refine Real
Requirements

Initial Design
Decisions May
Be Poor

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Throwaway Prototyping

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pros and Cons of


Throwaway
Prototyping
Pros
Methodology
Risks are Minimized

Cons

May Take Longer


Than Prototyping

Important Issues are


Understood Before the
Real System is Built

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Agile Development:
Extreme Programming

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pros and Cons of Agile


Methodologies
Pros
Fast Delivery of Results

Works Well in Projects


With Undefined or
Changing Requirements

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Cons
Requires Discipline
Works Best in
Small Projects
Requires Much
User Input

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Criteria for Selecting the


Appropriate Methodology
Clear user requirements
Familiarity with technology
Complexity of system
Reliability of system
Time schedule
Schedule visibility
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

TEAM ROLES AND


SKILLS

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Information Systems
Roles
Business analyst
Systems analyst
Infrastructure analyst
Change management analyst
Project manager

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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Summary
The Systems Development Lifecycle consists of
four stages: Planning, Analysis, Design, and
Implementation
There are six major development
methodologies: the waterfall method, the
parallel development method, the phased
development method, system prototyping,
design prototyping, and agile development.
There are five major team roles: business
analyst, systems analyst, infrastructure analyst,
change management analyst and project
manager.
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2003
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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programs or from the use of the information contained
herein.
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PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design, 2nd Edition
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.