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Nov 23, 2015

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usaha dan energi fisika

© All Rights Reserved

14 tayangan

usaha dan energi fisika

© All Rights Reserved

- Advanced Lashing Calculation
- resonance Dpp
- Hw 9
- Reliance to Baldor - Cross Reference
- flow of bulk solids in chute design.pdf
- ME302_Spring2011_HW1sec3
- Definições BHP EHP SHP.doc
- Usaha Dan Energi
- tanque rio frio direccion Y.pdf
- Accounting for P-Delta 2
- 07_LectureOutline
- RK PHY - WORK POWER ENERGY.pdf
- 000_toc-11
- Class VIII(Nerul) CA2
- ICSE Sample Papers for Class 10 on WORK
- Work and Energy
- Impulse Ppt
- 2004 Iit Mains
- WPE Theory(1).pdf
- Assignment 6

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Work

Work

straight line displacement is given by

W F S

force on an object while that object moves from one place to another

(undergoes displacement):

Work

W F S

Jewel

1 J = 1 Nm

James Joule

1818 - 1889

Work

the direction of motion:

W F S

angle to the direction of motion:

W F S cos

From the definition of work we know that the total work done on an

object is related to its displacement (changes in position).

W F S

force, and the force F exerted by the hand.

A.

in the direction of its

motion. From N2L, this

means that the block

speeds up. W=FS also

tells us that the total work

will be positive.

B.

Fcos contributes to Wtotal.

The block speeds up as well.

force, and the force F exerted by the hand.

C.

the displacement. From

N2L, this means that the

block slows down. W=FS

also tells us that the total

work will be negative.

D.

so the speed of the block

stays the same, and Wtotal is

zero.

force, and the force F exerted by the hand.

Consider a particle with mass m moving along the x-axis under the action of

a constant net force with magnitude F directed along the positive x-axis.

displacement S=x2-x1 from point x1 to x2.

v22 v12 2 a x S

v22 v12

F ma x m

2S

v22 v12

ax

S x2 x1

2S

1

1

F S mv22 mv12

2

2

1 2 1 2

F S mv2 mv1

2

2

The product FS is the work done by the net force. Thus, it is equal to the

total work Wtotal done by all the forces acting on a particle.

1 2

K mv

2

particles mass and speed, not its direction of motion.

Car has the same kinetic energy when going north at 10m/s as

when going east at 10m/s.

Kinetic energy can never be negative; its zero when particle is at rest.

F S

1 2 1 2

mv2 mv1

2

2

Ki

1 2

mvi

2

F S K 2 K1

Work done by the net force on a particle equals the change in the

particles kinetic energy:

Wtot K 2 K1 K

object will "maintain the same speed (constant) if Wtotal =0, K2=K1

Kinetic energy and work have the same units (Joules, or Nm):

1J 1N m 1(kg ) m 1kg

m

s2

m2

s2

Kinetic Energy

The example with the hammerhead gives insight into the physical

meaning of kinetic energy.

The hammerhead was dropped from rest, and its kinetic energy when it

hits the I-beam equals the total work done on it up to that point by the

net force.

To accelerate a particle with mass m from rest (zero kinetic energy) up

to a speed v, the total work done on it must equal the change in kinetic

energy from zero to K=0.5mv2:

Wtot K 0 K

K 1 mv 2

2

done to accelerate it from rest to its present speed.

Or from its present speed to rest!

Catch the ball right pull your hand back, increasing distance to stop

the ball: ball does the work on your hand equal to the balls initial kinetic

energy Wtot=FS=0.5mv2.

Pulling hand back, you maximize the distance over which this force acts

and thus minimize the force on your hand.

Composite Systems

surface, pushes against the rigid wall, setting himself in

motion to the right.

Forces acting on him: his weight W, upward normal

forces n1 and n2 exerted by the ground on his skates,

and the horizontal force F exerted on him by the wall.

No vertical displacement, so forces W, n1 and n2 do

NO work. Force F exerted on him by the wall is

horizontal force that accelerates him to the right, but his

hands dont move. So this force doesnt do work as well.

Where does the mans kinetic energy come from?

This system is not a single point (or particle)

Various parts of the body interact with each other (here:

his hands are still, but his torso moves)

Total kinetic energy of this composite system of body

parts can change, even no work is done by forces

applied outside the system.

Forces

undergoing a straight line displacement is given by

W F S

and the object moves in path which is NOT straight?

More you stretch it, the harder you have to pull: thus the

force is non-constant

Total work done during segment xa: ~ by the average force Fa in this

segment multiplied by the displacement xa.

All segments:

W Fa xa Fb xb ... F f x f Fm xm

x2

W lim Fm xm Fx dx

x 0

x1

position, the total work done by this

force is represented by the area

under the curve between the initial

and final positions.

straight-line displacement

x2

x2

x1

x1

W Fx dx Fx dx Fx ( x2 x1 ) F S

Hookes Law

need to apply on the end the force which is proportional to x:

Fx k x

Floppy toy spring: k=1 N/m

K spring (force) constant, [N/m]

Robert Hooke

1635 1703

... lean, bent and ugly man ...

Hookes Law

To stretch a spring, you must do work

Suppose one end of a spring is fixed, you apply force on another end

That end moves, so the force does work

Work done by the force when spring elongation goes from zero to X:

1 2

W Fx dx kxdx kX

2

0

0

elongation

Graph, Area under the curve: W

1

X kX

2

distance x1, the work to stretch it to a

greater elongation x2:

x2

x2

1 2 1 2

W Fx dx kxdx kx2 kx1

2

2

x1

x1

compress the spring?

Hookes Law

What happens if you compress the spring?

Compression:

Force Fx and displacement x are both negative

Example is following

Fx

x

Theorem

One can use the same approach: divide total displacement into segments

Another way:

dv x

dx

ax

, vx

dt

dt

x2

x2

x2

x1

x1

x1

Wtot Fx dx ma x dx

dv x

mvx

dx

dx

Wtot

x2

x1

dv x dv x dx

dv x

ax

vx

dt

dx dt

dx

1 2 1 2

mvx dv x mv2 mv1

2

2

Work Energy Theorem is the same: valid for varying forces as well !

Displacement lies along a curved path: particle moves from P1 to P2

F is the force at a point along the path, is the angle between F and d.

dW F cos d F d F d

P2

P2

P2

P1

P1

P1

W F cos d F d

F d

Power

Watts

Engine

Power man

Mr. Olympia

Power

Definition of work makes no reference to the passage of time

Average power:

Instantaneous power:

Pav

W

t

W dW

P lim

t 0 t

dt

Power is a scalar.

Power

In the British system of units power is in ftlb/sec or in a larger unit called horsepower

(hp).

James Watt

in terms of force and velocity

W F S

S

Pav

F

F vav

t

t

t

W dW

Fv

t 0 t

dt

P lim

1736 1819

Watt's steam engines

Started with nothing,

died as a very wealthy

man

P F v

In terms of scalar product

Conservation

Warm-Up: Power

Power climb

Runner with mass m runs up the stairs to the top of 443-m-tall Sears

Tower. To lift herself there in 15 minutes (900 s), what must be her

average power output in watts? Kilowatts? Horsepower?

Lets find first how much work she must do

against the gravity to lift herself at height h.

W 2.17 105 J

Pav

t

900 s

multiply by upward velocity

Upward force here is vertical, average vertical component of

velocity is (443m) / (900s) = 0.492 m/s

Gravitational Potential

Energy

zero has been selected then the expression for the gravitational

potential energy as a function of position y is given by

U grav mgy

by the gravitational force according to

Wgrav U1 U 2 (U 2 U1 ) U

Forces

Forces

and final positions, and doesnt depend on the path

has these properties:

between the initial and final values of a

potential energy function: U = -W.

It is reversible.

depends only on the starting and ending points.

(closed loop), the total work is zero.

All forces which do not satisfy these properties are non-conservative forces.

elastic deformation of the spring

force that stretches it

until you let it go

energy to the projectile

shape and size after being deformed

Equilibrium

Spring is stretched

It does negative work on block

Spring relaxes

It does positive work on block

Spring is compressed

Positive work on block

much work does the elastic (spring) force do on the block?

from elongation x1 to a different elongation

x2

positive work on the spring

the spring is negative

1 2 1 2

W kx2 kx1

2

2

negatives of each other

spring in terms of a given quantity at the

beginning and end of the displacement

1 2 1 2

Wel kx1 kx2

2

2

1 2

kx

2

1 2

U kx

2

for ideal spring is a parabola

negative!

energy:

Wel U1 U 2 U

1 2 1 2

kx1 kx2

2

2

1 2 1 2

Wel U1 U 2 U kx1 kx2

2

2

U increases: greater amount of elastic potential energy is stored

in the spring

U decreases: spring loses its elastic potential energy

potential energy

Theorem

what kind of forces are acting on the body. Thus:

Wtot Wel U 2 U1

Wtot U1 U 2 K 2 K1 K1 U1 K 2 U 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

mv1 kx1 mv2 kx2

2

2

2

2

and kinetic energy) is conserved

bounces on its suspension

does work

E K U

work on the body, the total work is

K1 U1 Wother K 2 U 2

elastic force + other forces

1 2 1 2

1

1

mv1 kx1 Wother mv22 kx22

2

2

2

2

The work done by all forces other than the elastic force

equals the change in the total mechanical energy E of

the system, where U is the elastic potential energy:

spring of force constant k

E K U

We have studied in detail two specific conservative

forces, gravitational force and elastic force.

We have seen there is a definite relationship between a

conservative force and the corresponding potential

energy function.

The force on a mass in a uniform gravitational field is

Fy = - mg. The corresponding potential energy function

is U(y) = mgy.

The force exerted on a body by a spring of force

constant k is Fx = - kx. The corresponding potential

energy function is Us(x) = (1/2)kx2.

potential energy as a function of position and have to

find corresponding force.

Consider motion along a straight line, with coordinate x

Fx(x) is the x-component of force as function of x

U(x) is the potential energy as function of x

Work done by conservative force equals the negative of the change

U in potential energy:

W U

this displacement is ~ Fx(x)x (suppose that this interval is so small that

the force will vary just a little)

Fx ( x)x U

U

Fx ( x)

x

Fx ( x)

dU ( x)

dx

energy, one dimension

dU ( x)

Fx ( x)

dx

energy, one dimension

In regions where U(x) changes most rapidly with x (i.e. where dU(x)/dx is

large) the greatest amount of work is done during the displacement, and

it corresponds to a large force magnitude

energy function

system toward lower potential energy

Lets verify if this expression correctly gives the gravitational force and the elastic force

when using the gravitational potential energy and the elastic potential energy:

U ( y ) mgy

Fy ( x)

1

U ( x) kx 2

2

Fx ( x)

dU ( y )

d

mgy mg

dy

dy

dU ( x)

d 1

kx 2 kx

dx

dx 2

elevation (i.e. constant slope) and the force is constant.

The elastic potential energy varies quadratically with position.

The force varies in a linearly.

Energy Diagrams

Energy Diagrams

one-dimension only under influence of a

single conservative force it is very useful

to study the graph of the potential

energy as a function of position U(x)

force can be calculated as the negative

of the slope of the potential energy

function

Fx = - dU/dx

Limits of the motion are the points

where U curve intersects the

horizontal line representing the total

mechanical energy E

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