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BAHAN KULIAH

EKONOMI POLITIK

PROF. M. MASUD SAID, PhD


masudsaid@yahoo.com

DOCTORAL DEGREE
FACULTY OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA

TUJUAN DAN OUTPUT KULIAH


TUJUAN UMUM:
MAHASISWA DAPAT MEMAHAMI TEORI EKONOMI POLITIK
MAHASISWA DAPAT MENJELASKAN BAGAIMANA KETERKAITAN ANTARA

EKONOMI DAN POLITIK DAN POLITIK DALAM EKONOMI


MAHASISWA DAPAT MENJELASKAN BAGAIMANA EKONOMI BISA
DIPENGARUHI OLEH POLITIK DAN MENGGUNAKA ILMU POLITIK SEBAGAI
POINT OF VIEW PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI

OUTPUT KULIAH:
PADA AKHIR KULIAH, MAHASISWA MEMBUAT MAKALAH BERSTANDAR

JURNAL NASIONAL.
PADA AKHIR KULIAH, MAHASISWA DAPAT MENJELASKAN BAHWA SISTEM
POLITIK, SISTEM HUKUM DAN IDEOLOGI BERPENGARUH PADA
PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI

DEFINISI EKONOMI POLITIK


Ekonomi Politik adalah studi interdisipliner. Ekonomi Politik
adalah cabang ilmu yang mempelajari ekonomi dg
perspektif ilmu politik. Ekonomi Politik mendalami
bagaimana institusi politik, lingkungan politik dan
kapitalisme dapat saling berpengaruh antara satu dengan
lainnya.
In the present, political economy refers to a variety of
different, but related, approaches to studying economic and
political behavior, which range from combining economics
with other fields, to using different fundamental
assumptions which challenge those of orthodox economics:

EKONOMI POLITIK:
STUDI INTERDISIPLINER
ADALAH ILMU MENGENAI RELASI EKONOMI DALAM MAKNA PEMENUHAN

KEBUTUHAN MASYARAKAT DENGAN YANG DIPENGARUHI OLEH KEBIJAKAN


NEGARA ,KEKUASAAN DAN POLITIK DAN PENGARUH LINGKUNGAN
DOMINAN LAINNYA.
WALAUPUN BEGITU PENGERTIAN EKONOMI POLITIK PUNYA MAKNA YANG

SANGAT LUAS. IA BAHKAN MENYANGKUT RELASI SOSIAL, PENGEMBANGAN


TEKNOLOGI , HUKUM YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP EKONOMI

Political economy is most commonly used to refer to

interdisciplinary studies that draw on economics, law, and


political science in order to understand how political
institutions, the political environment and capitalism
influence each other.

Perbandingan antara
Ilmu Ekonomi dengan Ekonomi Politik
Ilmu Ekonomi Ansich, mempelajari pemenuhan kebutuhan

manusia, produksi, konsumsi dari perspektif penggunaan modal


ekonomis seperti tanah, tenaga kerja dan proses produksi dan
distribusi melalui pasar.
Ekonomi Politik meletakkan Ekonomi sebagai pergumulan antara

kebijakan negara, politik, hukum, lingkungan sosial dan ideologi


politik dengan proses ekonomi konvesional
Within political science, the term Political Economy refers to

modern liberal, realist, Marxian, and constructivist theories


concerning the relationship between economic and political power
among states. This is also of concern to students of economic
history and institutional economics.

PERBANDINGAN EKONOMI DAN EKONOMI POLITIK


IN ECONOMIC TERMS, the aforementioned DEFINITION OF

DEVELOPMENT indicates that for the population of a country,


there are employment opportunities, satisfaction -at least- of
basic needs(food, education, health, shelter, clothes, milk) and
the achievement of a positive rate of distribution and
redistribution of national wealth..
Economists often associate the term with approaches using

game theory Others, especially anthropologists, sociologists and


geographers, use the term "political economy" to refer to neoMarxian approaches to development and underdevelopment set
forth by Andre Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein

Ekonomi Politik, Ekonomi Kelembagaan


Ekonomi Politik mempelajari perkembangan politik kemasyarakatan dan ekonomi

negara. Jadi Ekonomi Politik mempelajari bagaimana umat manusia memproses


sumber ekonomi dan makanisme distribusi hasil ekonomi baik dalam kondisi
kekurangan maupun dalam kondisi kelebihan dari proses tersebut.
Political economy is centrally focused on the development of the polity. Political

economy, then, studies the mechanism of human activity in organizing material,


and the mechanism of distributing the surplus or deficit that is the result of that
activity.
Note the difference between this paradigm and that of economics which sees

human wants as unlimited, resources as generically scarce, historical context as


not particularly important, and income distribution issues as less important than
efficiency and growth. While for some there is no difference between the two
terms, for others the difference is one of basic method. Economics studies tradeoffs through measurable values, whereas political economy focuses on structural
relationships. However, there is no generally accepted distinction between these
terms, and they are most often used on a case by case basis.

EKONOMI POLITIK
LEBIH DARI SEKEDAR PROSES PRODUKSI
Tidak sama dengan ekonomi konvesional atau ekonomi Orthodox, Ekonomi
Politik mempelajari hal hal yang tak hanya berkaitan dengan proses
produksi dan pengelolaan sumber daya alam, namun ia adalah hal hal
yang lebih luas, semisal bagaimana faktor tenaga kerja manusia, dan
juga teknologi berperan penting pada masa era sesudah ekonomi klasik
dimana faktor hukum negara dan ideologi politik sangat besar perannya
dalam ekonomi bangsa.
In contradistinction to the economic theory, in which land was seen as the
source of all wealth, some political economists proposed the labour
theory of value (first introduced by John Locke, developed by Adam Smith
and later Karl Marx,
according to which labour is the real source of value. Many political
economists also attracted attention to the accelerating development of
technology whose role in economic and social relationships grew ever
more important.

Political Economy
Awalnya, setidaknya akhir abad 19, istilah Ekonomi Politik bereitan erat dan tak

lepas dari istilah ekonomi pada umumnya, khususnya saat ahli matematika ekonomi
dan studi filsafat ekonomi muncul saat perkembangan setelah ekonomi konvesional
yang hanya mempelajari hubungan struktural dalam konteks produksi dan
konsumsi.

Namun kini Ekonomi Politik -walalupun masih berkaitan erat dengan pandangan

ekonomi umum- namun telah berkembang jauh pada tataran konteks hubungannya
dengan perilaku politik yang menghubungkan atau memakai pendekatan selain ilmu
ekonomi dimana ia justru merubah asumsi asumsi konvensional pada umumnya.

In the late 19th century, the term "political economy" was generally superseded by

the term economics , which was used by those seeking to place the study of
economy on a mathematical and axiomatic basis, rather than studying the
structural relationships within production and consumption. (See Marginalism .
Alfred Marshall)

In the present, political economy refers to a variety of different, but related,

approaches to studying economic and political behavior, which range from


combining economics with other fields, to using different fundamental assumptions
which challenge those of orthodox economics:

Political Economy

BANDINGKAN DENGAN TEORI EKONOMI


KLASIK
Pada umumnya saat orang belajar Ilmu Ekonomi di Fakultas Ilmu

Ekonomi, maka orang akan pasti mempelajari Buku Utama yang ditulis
oleh ADAM SMITH, 1776, yang berjudul An Inquiry into the Nature and
Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Buku ini sangat berpengaruh bahkan
menjadi paradigma mahasiswa dan dosen serta semua kajian yang
meyakini bahwa campur tangan peraturan pemerintah (khususnya di
Eropa barat) saat itu bisa merusak pertumbuhan ekonomi negara dan
juga mengurangi kesejahteraan masyarakat.
Smith argued that the form of regulation made by the government in

Western Europe in the eighteen centuries as detrimental to the


economic growt of the country and greater wealth for all citizen.
He also believed that the proposed system would be regulated by the

invisible hand of the market rather than the state. Individual will act
in self interest....

CLASSICAL AND NEO LIBERAL ECONOMIC


DEVELOPMENT THEORIES

Ruang Lingkup Ekonomi


Politik
Kebijakan Ekonomi
Strategi pembangunan
Keberpihakan
Ide ide dasar kesejahteraan
Paradigma Pembangunan

Giovanni E. Reyes, 2008


Reyes defines development with respect to the stage of intended social,
economic and political conditions achieved by a nation. Therefore, Reyes
believes that definition of development could be seen in many respects;
Economic, Social and Political.

Kattie Wlilis, 2005;3


People look at development largely in economic term. For example The
World Bank uses Groos National Product (GNP) to divide the country of
the world in to development categories. Low income countries are
defined as those with US$ 745 or less, lower middle income have US$
746-2,975 and upper-middle income countries are those with GNP 2,976
9,205 and high income countries are those with GNP US$ 9, 206 or
more
Traditional economics, is concerned primarily with the efficient, least cost
allocation of scare productive resources and with the optional growth of
these resources over time so as to produce an ever-expanding range of

PERUBAHAN
Definisi Ekonomi dan Pembangunan
Setelah Munculnya Ekonomi Politik.
Ideas of development are linked to concepts of

modernity. Modernity in its broader sense means the


condition of being modern, new or update, so the idea
of modernity situates people in time ( Katie Wilis , Theories
and Practices of Developmet, 2005)

In economic term modernity encompasses

industrialization, urbanization and the increased use of


technology within all sectors of economy. (Katie Wilis
(Theories and Practices of Developmet, 2005)

ILMU YANG BERKAITAN


DENGAN EKONOMI POLITIK

SOSIOLOGI

POLITIK

DEMOGRAPY
DAN
GOOPRAFI

PSIKOLOGI

ILMU
EKONOMI
SEJARAH

HUKUM

16

Ekonomi Politik, Multi Disiplin


Economics, because it studies activity and price relationships and the effects

of scarcity, grew out of political economy. It is often used in political economy


to argue policy effects and study the results of actions, and it is often in
opposition to political economy, in that many, if not most, practicing
economists see political economy as being a hindrance to the operation of
economic forces.
From the point of view of political economy, economics is a branch of the entire
study, and economics has, at its basis, a theory of political economy which
should be open to examination.
Law since it concerns the creation of policy, or the mediation of policy ends
through political acts which have specific individual results, is seen, in political
economy, as both political capital and social infrastructure, on one hand - and
as the result of the sociology of a society on the other.
Human Geography concerned, amongst others, with economic and political
processes with an emphasis on spatial and environmental aspects thereof.
Ecology is often involved in political economy, because human activity is one
of the single largest effects on the environment, and because it is the
suitability of the environment for human beings which is one of the central
concerns of most human beings.
The ecological effects of economic activity on the environment have spurred
the creation of a great deal of research studying means of changing the
incentives balance of the market economy. This work is particularly
controversial in its interaction with economics, since it questions the
fundamental econometric assumptions of market economics and their basic
validity. See the commons.

Ekonomi Politik, Multi Disiplin


Sociology is the study of the effects of involvement in

society on individuals as members groups, and how this


changes their ability to function. Many sociologists begin
from a framework of production determining relationship
drawn from Karl Marx.
Anthropology often studies political economy by
studying the relationship between the world capitalist
system and local cultures.
Psychology is frequently the fulcrum around which
political economy centers, in that it deals with decision
making, not as being a black box whose effects are seen
only in price decisions, but as being a source of study, and
therefore the assumptions in a model of political economy.
History since it documents change over time, is often
used as a means of arguing in political economy, and often
historical works have a framework of political economy
which they assume or argue as the basis for the narrative
structure.

Ekonomi dan Sosiologi

Economy dan Sosiologi: The Future


Back to nature : gejala umum di AS, di Eropa di Jepang

dan beberapa negara ekonomi maju


Back to basic: gejala umum dan menjadi trend orang
modern orang lebih enjoy hidup di Kampung, merasa
segar kalau berada di gunung, menggelar tikar, tinggal
di pantai yg natural, menyukai huma, cottage, suka
terhadap atraksi budaya dan tradisi
Simplicity, simpel life, tai chi, yoga, sholat dhuha
Back to religion, agama akselerasinya cepat di AS,
Australia, Inggris, Jepang, China dlsb
Seeking soul peace, kesejatian, Transendental,

Kajian Sosiologis
Keseimbangan Global Dalam Ekonomi:

Statement 1:
We have collective responsibility to uphold the
principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the
global level (United Nation, Millennium Declaration, September 2000,
Signed by the 189 UN member countries)

Statement 2:
As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the worlds
people, especially that most vulnerable, in particular, the
children of the world, to whom the future belongs. (United
Nation, Millennium Declaration, September 2000,
Signed by the 189 UN member countries)

Bahan 2
HUBUNGAN ANTARA EKONOMI DAN POLITIK
Politics is a process by which groups of people make

decisions. Politik, segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan


negara dan kehidupan warga negara. Politik, segala
sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan kekuasaan dan
pengambilan keputusan dalam negara.
KAJIAN TENTANG HASIL DAN PROSES PEMBANGUNAN

EKONOMI DI SUATU NEGARA BANYAK ATAU SETIDAKNYA


DIPENGARUHI OLEH POLITIK

Ekonomi dan Ilmu


Politik

As political scientist Harold Lasswell said, politics is "who gets

what, when and how." Politik itu berkisar pada gejala dan
proses siapa mendapat apa, kapan dan bagaimana cara
memperolehnya.
Sedangkan Ilmu Ekonomi banyak membicarakan bagaimana

aktor aktor dalam negara (sebagai produsen, konsumen


maupun penyalur) berinteraksi sehingga dalam kacamata
ekonomi akan didapat angka siapa mendapat apa dan
bagaimana.

BEBERAPA CONTOH IDEOLOGI POLITIK


DAN PENGHARUHNYA ATAS EKONOMI
PADA NEGARA DEMOKRASI YANG MENGANUT SISTEM LIBERAL,

MAKA KONDISI EKONOMI NEGARA AKAN BERLANGSUNG TATA CARA


LIBERALIME DAN DEMOKRASI, CONTOHNYA USA, AUSTRALIA,
CANADA, EROPA, INDONESIA
PADA NEGARA YANG MENGANUT SISTEM DEMOKRASI SOSIALISTIK,

MAKA KONDISI DAN SISTEM PERDAGANGAN JUGA MENGANUT


SISTEM DEMOKRASI SOSIALISTIK. CONTOHNYA CHINA, GERMANY,
HAL YANG SAMA TERLIHAT DI NEGARA DENGAN SISTEM

COMMUNISM SEPERTI , KORUT, SOVIET, CHINA, CUBA, ATAU SISTEM


CONSERVATISM SEPERTI, IRAN ATAU NATIONALISM CAMPURAN ;
MALAYSIA, INDONESIA, ATAU RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM, IRAN,
IRAQ, AFGANISTAN, PAKISTAN

Robert A. Dahl:
A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do
something that B wouldnt otherwise do. (Dahl 1957, p.
203).
A memiliki kekuatan atas B dalam keadaan A dapat
meminta B untuk berbuat sesuatu walaupun B tidak setuju
untuk melakukannya
Nelson W. Polsby:
Power should be analyzed by investigating who participates, who
gains and who loses from alternative outcomes, and also who prevails
in decision making. (Polsby 1970, p. 3f).
Kekuasaan harus dianalisis dengan cara mencari tahu siapa yang
terlibat, siapa yang mendapat keuntungan dan siapa yang dirugikan
dari pilihan yang ditetapkan dan juga siapa yang tetap dalam proses
pengambilan keputusan

ARAH
EKONOMI
BESARAN
EKONOMI
MEKANISME
DISTRIBUSI
KONTROL
EKONOMI
NEGARA

Bahan 3
PARADIGMA EKONOMI POLITIK
Political economists are divided over the nature of two paradigms:

the paradigm of distribution and the paradigm of production. These


paradigms may be related, especially at the extremes, but there
are a vast number of individuals who hold almost diametrically
opposite views on these two paradigms in the same context.
Ahli ekonomi politik memiliki pendapat yg berbeda atas dua

paradigma: paradigma distribusi dan paradigma produksi.


Keduanya sesungguhnya saling berhubungan namun beberapa
diantaranya malah berhadap hadapan satu dengan lainnya dalam
kaitan hal yang sama.

Paradigma Distribusi
LIBERALISME,
CONSERVATISME,
SOSIALISME,
LIBERTARIANISME,
COMMUNISM

Bahan 4
Pembangunan Ekonomi
Dunia
Evaluasi
Pembangunan Dunia

PERKEMBANGAN PENDEKATAN PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI


DECADE

MAIN APPROACHES

1950s

MODERNIZATION THEORIES, FOLLOWING EUROPEAN MODELS


STRUCTURALIST MODEL

1960s

MODERNIZATION THEORIES, dependency theories: Southern


countries poor because of exploitation by Nothern countries

1970s

DEPENDENCY THEORIES, basic need approaches, government


should provides the basic needs of the poorest people

1980s

NEO LIBERAL, focus on Market, lower level involvement of


government in economics activities
GRASS ROOT APPROACHES, considerning local context
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, need to ballance needs of current
generation against environtmental, future generations
GENDER MAINSTREAMING,

MAIN APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT

DECADE

MAIN APPROACHES

1990s

NEO LIBERAL MODELS,


POST DEVELOPMENT, ideas about development represent
colinilaism and Eurocentrism
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
CULTURE AND DEVELOPMENT, awarenes of how diferent
social and cultural group afected by development

2000s

NEO LIBERALISM, increased engangement with concept of


globelization
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
POST DEVELOPMENT
GRASS ROOT APPROACHES

MDGS

International Development Goals:


Attacking Poverty
The World Bank Report 2000
Reduce the proportion of people living in extreme poverty

by half between 1990-2015


Enroll all children in primary school by 2015
Make Progress towards gender equality and empowering
women..
Reduce infant and child mortality
Reduce maternal mortality ratio
Provide access for all who need reproductive health
service by 2015
Implement national strategies for sustainable
development

Distribution of population on less


than $1 a day 1998 (1,2 billion)
Europe and Central Asia
Latin America and Caribbean

2.0%
6.5%
East Asia and Pacific
23.2%
Sub-Saharan African
24.3%
South Asia
43%
Middle-east and North Africa
0.5%

data
If the developed country donates their GDP

more 1%, it will be able to uplift 1 billion


people who live in poverty
The worlds richest 500 individual equal with
416 million
2.5 billion people living with less than 2 $ a
day,

Important (moral) Enquiries to the


Meaning of Development

What is the meaning of the growth


if it is not translated into the lives
of the people?
(United Nation Development Program,
Human Development Report 1995)

The statement of The World Bank


President
Our primary goal in development must be
reduce the disparities across and within
countries.The key development
challenge of our time is the challenge of
inclusion
(James. D. Wolfensohn, President, The
World Bank)

James D. Wolfensohn
The President of The World Bank, 2000

He stated in 2000 that Poverty amid plenty is the


worlds greatest challenge

Wolfensohn, then recommended actions in the

three areas:
1. Promoting Opportunity: Expanding opportunity
for the poor by people
2. Facilitating empowerment: Making state
institutions more accountable and more
responsible to the poor
3. Enhancing Security: Reducing poor people
vulnerability to ill health

ACTORS IN SOCIAL. ECONOMY AND


POLITICS
1) INDIVIDUAL,
2)

youth, students, artists,


HOUSEHOLD, COMMUNITY, peasant,

3) GOVERNMENT, POLITICAL PARTIES


4) NON GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
5) PRIVATE COMPANIES, government owned companies
6) MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATION,
7) CULTURAL GROUPS,

urban society, rural society

8) ACADEMICS, EDUCATIONS; UNIVERSITY

9) Cultural and relegious leaders


10) Mass media, bureaucracy, professionals, investors,

commuters, workers,

Contoh Struktur Ekonomi


Politik (fisik - alamiah)

Kondisi alam terisolir, sulit


dijangkau

SDM dan budaya kerja rendah

Jumlah penduduk miskin besar

Infrastruktur minim

Makanan, tempat tinggal apa


adanya

Rentan penyakit
JENIS KEMISKINAN:
ALAMIAH, KULTURAL DAN
STRUKTURAL JADI SATU

KULTUR POLITIK dan kultur ekonomi


Keyakinan dan pandangan masyarakat tentang kekuasaan,

negara dan posisi pemimpin mereka.


Pola hubungan masyarakat dengan negara dan proses politik.
Bagaimana sebaiknya pemimpin memberikan dan menggunakan
kekuasaan
Habbit dalam memilih dan mereaksi kondisi politik.Konsekuensi
apa yang terjadi atas sesuatu kegiatan politik.
Pandangan mesyarakat tentang baik dan buruk, apa yang
seharusnya dan apa yang tidak seharusnya dalam pencapaian
tujuan bersama
Pandangan masyarakat terhadap sumber sumber kekuasaan dan
siapa yang disebut pemimpin.

DEVELOPMENT
KATIE WILIS
CLASSICAL AND NEO LIBERAL DEVELOPMENT

THEORIES
STRUCTURALISM DEVELOPMENT THEORY
NEO MARXISM AND SOCIALISM THEORY
GRASS ROOT DEVELOPMENT

Pemimpin, berbagai strategi


pembangunan ekonomi

Political Ideology and Development


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M Masud Said

M MASUD SAID

Guru Besar Ilmu Pemerintahan.


Asisten Staf Khusus Presiden RI Bidang

Pembangunan Daerah dan Otonomi Daerah


Email masudsaid@yahoo.com
Web: profmmasudsaid.com

M. Masud Said