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Quality control (QC) of raw material

Quality control (QC) of raw material


menyediakan input yang baik, misalnya bibit
yang baik
technical assistance and training program of
raw material quality
facilities such as warehouse, driers
suppliers yg mengerti tentang quality
premium prices and penalty to stimulate good
quality of raw material
sometimes the plant must produce raw material
itself to ensure adequate quality control
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Sortasi mutu : memilahkan biji kopi kering atas dasar


ukuran

Penyimpanan biji kopi beras dalam


karung goni siap ekspor

Questions when examining the quality of


raw material

What are the markets qualitative requirement?


Different segments standard? Price for
premiums for quality?
How does handling and transport affect quality?
Personnel adequate trained? Availability and
quality of transport?
How does the storage affect quality? Type of
facilities? Quality of facilities?

PANEN

PEMECAHAN BUAH
Kapasitas : 800 1000
buah/HOK

Pisahkan biji sehat dari:


1. Benda asing atau Kotoran
2. Biji cacat
3. Biji terserang hama dan
penyakit

Appropriate timing

Biological nature of raw material


Major characteristic that depend on time
are seasonality, perishability, period of
availability

Seasonality

Complicated, karena sifat biologis and


siklus tanaman
Aliran dari lahan ke processing unit
disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan unit.
Meskipun kapasitas external storage
cukup, perush juga menyediakan storage
sendiri

PANEN. Menggunakan pisau/golok pendek,


golok panjang dan pisau yang dikaitkan
pada tangkai bambu. Tergantung pada
posisi buah kakao yang akan dipanen.
PANEN. Harus dilakukan hati-hati,
pisau jangan merusak bantalan
bunga. Tempat ini merupakan
tempat pembuahan pada periode
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panen berikutnya.

Perishability (mudah rusak)

Suhu yang bervariasi


Waktu pemanenan
Penundaan proses setelah panen (post
harvest)
Harvest programming and scheduling of
farm-to-factory transport

Availability

Lamanya waktu antara penanaman raw


material dengan saat awal aliran ke
pengolahan
Supplier switch to other product
Raw material merupakan by-product of other
product

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Pembelahan buah masak di kebun

- Mengambil biji kakao


dari kulit buah
- Memisahkan ikatan
masing-masing biji
dari
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plasentanya.

Important questions for examining the timing


of procurement system

What is the seasonal harvesting pattern? (period

of harvest, effect of seed, effect of planting)


What facilities are required by the seasonal
pattern? (drying capacity, storage capacity)
How perishable is the raw material?
What facilities are necessitated by the raw
materials perishability? (harvesting, transport
and storage)
When and for how long will the raw material be
available?
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Kapasitas kerja : 1.500


kg/batch [1 batch = 50 jam]

Kapasitas kerja : 3.000


kg/batch [1 batch = 50 jam]

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Pengeringan : menghasilkan biji kakao dengan kadar air 7 %


Metode

: penjemuran, mekanis dan kombinasi

Keuntungan : murah, mutu baik jika cuaca baik


Kekurangan : tergantung cuaca, kontaminasi, biji pecah 14

Reasonable Cost

Cost determinant : supply demand, system


structure (middleman?), logistical service
(transportation), governmental involvement.
Pricing mechanism: spot prices, multiple
sources, support prices, contracting, joint
farmer-processor ventures.
Backward integration (own transportation)
Sensitivity analysis of raw material cost: to
determine the effect of variation in raw material
prices or profit and investment returns.
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Organization of procurement system

System structure (number of producers,


transporters, buyers, location)
Channel power
Vertical integration
Producer organization

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