Anda di halaman 1dari 42

101010

STRATEGIC
MANAGEMENT
MANAJEMEN STRATEGI
PENGANTAR PENGERTIAN DAN PROSES

PENYEDERHANAAN OLEH :

HISKAK SECAKUSUMA
IR-ITB, SE-UI, MM-UI
secakusuma@gmail.com

seca @ 2010

Samurai Warriors

seca @ 2010

Sony diikuti Panasonic dan


Sharp mengumumkan angka
kerugian trilyunan rupiah. Hargaharga saham mereka roboh
berkeping-keping. Sanyo bahkan
harus rela menjual dirinya ke
perusahaan China. Sharp
berencana menutup divisi AC
dan TV Aquos-nya. Sony dan
Panasonic mem-PHK ribuan
karyawan mereka. Dan Toshiba?
Divisi produk televisi mereka
juga mati.
Oleh :Yodhia Antariksa, Msc (2012)

What would you do, if your doctor said you have only one month to
live?

101010

Attitude towards the Future

Passive

Reactive

Kita tunggu saja perubahan yang terjadi, kita sesuaikan/adaptasi dengan keadaan
perubahan itu.

Anticipative

Tak peduli apa itu masa depan, kerjakan semua sebaik-baiknya sekarang. Yang penting,
kita kerja keras dan makin efisien.

Kita perlu mencari tahu perubahan apa yang akan terjadi, dari sumber-sumber
perubahannya. Kita harus sudah menyiapkan sarana prasarana dan ikut berubah
bersama.

Proactive

Menjadi pemimpin perubahan, ikut menentukan dan menciptakan perubahan, dan


menentukan standar-standar baru.

Modified from:
Brown & Eisenhardt, Competing on the Edge, 1998, Chapt. 1

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Strategy
If the only tool you have is a hammer,
you treat everything like a nail.
Abraham Maslow (1908 1970)

An early and precise definition would help to avoid conflicting


interpretations.
However, any such sharp definition of strategy would actually
be misleading.
There are strongly differing opinions on most of the key issues
and the disagreements run so deep that even a common
definition of the term strategy is illusive.
The conflicting views mean that strategy cannot be
summarized into broadly agreed on definitions, rules, matrices
and flow diagrams.
(De Witt & Meyer, 2010. Strategy, 4th Edition)

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Drawing Game

Gambarlah sebuat bintang, yang terdiri dari


garis lurus sinambung (tanpa boleh berimpit
digaris yang sama).
(no more than one minute)

seca @ 2010

FIGURE 2.1

The Strategy-Making, Strategy-Executing Process

Strategic Plan

seca @ 2010

26

THE DOMAIN & FRAMEWORKS


(Secakusuma, 2008)

101010

The Process

T&C

The Context
Stable
Dynamic
Turbulent

Crisis

Network Level
Corporate Level
Business Level

Pro + Ma + Te
Go + Phi + Sel

Functional Level

For Profit
Non-Profit
Government
Industry
Organization
International
Etc.

The Theories

seca @ 2010

IE + EE
+ CP + FC

PO

S + LO
OS + AO + P

The Tools
The Analytical Tools:
BCG
Nine Cells
Industry Analysis
Generic Strategies
Value Chain
Scenarios
Etc.

The Content
Strategy + Objective + Annual + Policy
Balanced Scorecard & Strategy Map*
Business Strategy Diamond **
* Kaplan & Norton, 1992
** Hambrick & Fredrickson, 2001

SLCR + Control
The Factors to Performance
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Entrepreneurship
Governance
Leadership
Etc.

The Context

Stable
Dynamic (BO-strategy)
Turbulent (Scenario)
Network Level
Corporate Level
Business Level
Functional Level
For Profit
Non-Profit
Government
Industry
Organization
International

(versions)

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Life Cycle Curve


Mission Focused

Parenting

State Owned
Family Owned
Public Owned
Controlled Ec.
Emerging Ec.
Developed Ec.
Etc.

The Content

Strategy + Objective + Annual + Policy


Balanced Scorecard & Strategy Map*
Business Strategy Diamond **

* Kaplan & Norton, 1992


** Hambrick & Fredrickson, 2001

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

The Factors (1)

seca @ 2010

Entrepreneurship
Strategic Innovation
Stakeholders
Governance
Leadership
Growth (Smart)
Off Competition (Blue Ocean)
Disrupting Markets (Reverse Innovation)
Business Model
Lean Organization
Positioning
Competitive Dynamics
The Channels
The Conflicts
The Teams
The Vision
The Change
Mergers & Acquisitions
Exiting
The Failures

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

The Factors (2)

seca @ 2010

The Measurements
Sustainable Competitive Advantage
Creating Value
The Emerging Markets
Globalization
Corporate Capabilities
Differentiations (Repeatable, Sustainable)
Value Based
Capabilities and Routines
Public Private Partnership
Competing Alliances

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

The Tools (Analytical and Frameworks)

seca @ 2010

BCG
Nine Cells (GE, McKinsey etc.)
TOWS
Industry Analysis
Generic Strategies
Blue Ocean
Value Chain
Scenarios
Competitive Advantage of Nations
Etc.
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

The Theories

Industrial Organization Economics (I/O)*

Competitive Dynamics
Organizational Economics

Transaction Cost Economics, Agency Theories


Stewardship Theories

Resource-Based View (RBV)

Neoclassical Perfect Competition Theory (Combiners of Inputs)


Bain-Mason Paradigm (Output restrainers S-C-P), Porter
Schumpeters Response (Seekers of New Ways of Competing)
The Chicago Response (Seekers of Efficiencies)

The Theory of the Growth of the Firm


The Knowledge-Based View
Strategic Leadership and Strategic Decision Theory
The Behavioral Theory of the Firm
The Dynamics Capabilities

Game Theory

*Conner, 1991.

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Strategy Formulation Framework


000601

STAGE 1 : THE INPUT STAGE


External Factor
Evaluation (EFE)
Matrix

Competitive
Profile
Matrix

Internal Factor
Evaluation (IFE)
Matrix

STAGE 2 : THE MATCHING STAGE


TOWS
Matrix

SPACE
Matrix
Internal-External
Matrix

BCG
Matrix
Grand Strategy
Matrix

STAGE 3 : THE DECISION STAGE


QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 6-2

991122
991129

PERNYATAAN MISI
BISNIS
TIGA SEHAT ENAM SEMPURNA

Produk dan/atau Jasa (Products/Services, yang menyediakan nilai


atau manfaat sepadan dengan harganya)

Pasar atau Konsumen (Consumers, kebutuhan segmen pasar


tertentu yang akan dilayani/dipenuhi)

Andalan (Specifics, sesuatu yang menjadi andalan khusus berbisnis ini)


Tujuan (Goals, tujuan yang akan diperjoangkan untuk periode
perencanaan: survival, growth, profitability)

Falsafah (Philosophy, dasar keyakinan dan nilai-nilai yang menjadi


landasan kebersamaan dalam berinteraksi)

Konsep Diri (Self Consept, kompetensi dan ciri keunggulan yang


diagungkan, termasuk mana intern: apakah kita ini dan ekstern: apakah citra yang
kita inginkan)

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Modified from: Pearce & Robinson, Strategic Management


And R. David, Strategic Management

991122
120911

PERNYATAAN MISI
KORPORASI
TIGA SEHAT ENAM SEMPURNA

P
P
A
Tujuan (Stakeholders Oriented, Measurable)
Falsafah (Philosophy, dasar keyakinan dan nilai-nilai yang menjadi
landasan kebersamaan dalam berinteraksi)

Konsep Diri (Self Consept, kompetensi dan ciri keunggulan yang


diagungkan, termasuk mana intern: apakah kita ini dan ekstern: apakah citra yang
kita inginkan)

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Modified from: Pearce & Robinson, Strategic Management


And R. David, Strategic Management

PORTERS COMPETITIVE STRATEGY


101010

CAON
INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
GENERIC STRATEGIES
VALUE CHAIN

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

External Environment
991129

Remote Environment
(Global and Domestic)
Economic, Social, Political, Technological, Ecological

Industry Environment
(Global and Domestic)
Entry barriers, Supplier, Buyer,
Substitute, Rivalry

Operating Environment
(Global and Domestic)
Competitors, Creditors,
Customers, Labors,
Suppliers

THE FIRM

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-1

National Competitive Advantage


(Porters Diamond)
000524

Strategy,
Strategy,Structure,
Structure,
Rivalry
Rivalry

Factor
Factor
Endowments
Endowments

National
Competitive
Advantage

Demand
Demand
Conditions
Conditions

Related
Related&&Supp.
Supp.
Industries
Industries

CLUSTER
seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Hill&Jones, 4th Ed, 1998, Fig. 3-8

Industry Analysis
(Porters Five Forces)
991129

Potential
Potential
entrants
entrants
Threat of
new entrants

Bargaining power of
Suppliers
Suppliers

Bargaining power of
Rivalry among
existing firms

Buyers
Buyers

Threat of
Substitutes
Substitutes

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-4

Competitive Profile Matrix


000601

Company
Success Factors

Weight

Competitor 1
Rate

Score

Rate

Competitor 2
Score

Rate

Score

Market Share
Price
Fin. Position
Product Quality
Customer Loyalty
etc.

Total Weighted Score

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 4-18

991122

TOWS Analysis Matrix

W
SW

trenghts

pportunities

OT
T
seca @ 2010

hreats

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

SO

eaknesses

WO

Use strengths to
take advantage of
opportunities

Overc. weaknesses
taking advantage
of opportunities

ST

WT

Use strengths to
avoid threats

Min. Weaknesses
and avoid threats

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-3

BCG Growth-Share Matrix


(Boston Consulting Group)

Low

Industry Growth Rate

High

991122

High

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Relative Market Share

Low

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.1

CFROI
991122

(Cashflow Return on Investment, BCG)


Strategies for Value Creation

CFROI (%)

A
Cost of Capital (Tolok Ukur)

B
Positive
Spread
Business

C D
Neutral
Spread
Business

Negative
Spread
Business

F
Size

* Increase CFROI
* Hold CFROI, Grow Fast
* Erode CFROI, Grow Faster

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

* Increase CFROI
* Then Grow

* Increase CFROI
* Reduce Reinvestment
* Divest or Liquidate

Memilih Core of Business :


Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997

MISSION and VALUE


High

991122

C
E

Fitness to Mission*

Creat Value /
Divest if cannot
improve

Invest & Grow

D
F

Low

A
Sell & Realise Value
High

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Close / Divest

Value Creation
Potential

Low
* Istilah Vision dipakai oleh BCG
Memilih Core of Business :
Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997

Porters

GENERIC STRATEGIES

Narrow/Focus

Strategic Target

Broad

991122

Differentiation
in
Broad Target

Overall
Cost
Leadership

Differentiation
in
Narrow Target

Low Cost
in
Narrow Target

Differentiation

Low Cost

Strategic Advantage

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Michael Porters on Competitive Strategy, Video, 1988

Porters

Typical Value Chain


991122

Firm Infrastructure

Support Activities

n
rgi
Ma

Human Resources Management


Technology Development
Procurement

Ma
rgi
n

Service

Marketing and Sales

Outbound Logistic

Operation

Inbound Logistic

Primary Activities

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, 1985

Decision Matrix
991122

THE QSPM MATRIX


(The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix )
KEY FACTORS

STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES
Weight

Strategy 1

Strategy 2

Strategy 3

EXTERNAL FACTORS
Economy
Political/Legal/Governmental
Social/Cultural/Demographic/Env.
Technological
Competitive
INTERNAL FACTORS
Management
Marketing
Finance/Accounting
Production/Operation
Research and Development
Computer Information Systems

SUM OF WEIGHTED SCORES

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Tab. 6-5

Evolusi Daur
Industri/Produk

Demand

000524

Embryonic
Growth

Shakeout

Maturity

Decline

Time
seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.6

Corporate Level Strategy

The
Parenting Fit Matrix

Henry, Understanding Strategic Management, 2nd Ed.

seca @ 2010

GE Nine Cell Planning Grid

High

Invest/Grow

Selectivity

Invest/Grow

Selectivity

Harvest/Divest

Selectivity

Harvest/Divest

Harvest/Divest

Strong

Average

Weak

Medium

Invest/Grow

Low

Industry (product-market) attractiveness

991122

Business Strength

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Fig. 8-7

McKinsey Matrix

(McKinsey & Company)

991122

Winner

Winner

Question Mark

Winner

Average

Loser

Loser

Loser

Industry Attractiveness

High

Medium

Profit
Producer
Low

Good

Medium

Poor

Competitive Position

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.2

Industry Attractiveness - Business Strength


991122

Matrix

(McKinsey & Company and General Electric)


Industry Attractiveness

Business Strength

High

Medium

Low

seca @ 2010

High

Medium

Low

Invest

Selective
Growth

Grow or
Let Go

Selective
Growth

Grow or
Let Go

Harvest

Grow or
Let Go

Harvest

Divest

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-4

991122

Lifecycle Portfolio Matrix


Stage of Market Life Cycle

Competitive Strength

Introduction

seca @ 2010

High

Growth

ly
ve
i
h
s
s s
Pu gre
g
tA
s
ve
In

Moderate
I

Low

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Maturity

n ty
io ctivi
t
u le
Ca t Se
es
nv

Decline

er
g
n e st
a
D arv
H

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-5

Core Competence Agenda

New

Existing

Core Competence

991122

Premier plus 10 yrs

Mega-opportunities

Fill in the Blanks

White Spaces

Existing

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Market

New

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.3

SWOT Analysis Diagram


991122

Numerous
Environmental
Opportunities

Turnaround
Oriented
Strategy

Aggressive
Strategy

Critical
Internal
Weaknesses

Substantial
Internal
Strengths
Defensive
Strategy

Diversification
Strategy

Major
Environmental
Threats

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-1

Grand Strategy Selection


991122

Overcome
Weakness

Turnaround
Divest
Liquidation
Internal
Resources

Vertical Integration
Congl. Diversification
External
Resources

Concentrated
Market Development
Product Development
Innovation

Horizontal Integration
Concentric Diversification
Joint Venture

Maximize
Strength

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-4

Grand Strategy
991122

Matrix/Cluster

Rapid
Market Growth

Weak
Competitive
Position

Market Penetration
Market Development
Product Development
Horizontal Integration
Divestiture
Liquidation

Concentric Diversification
Horizontal Diversification
Conglomerate Diversification
Retrenchment
Divestiture
Liquidation

Market Penetration
Market Development
Product Development
Horizontal Integration
Vertical Integration
Concentric Diversification

Strong
Competitive
Position

Concentric Diversification
Horizontal Diversification
Conglomerate Diversification
Joint Venture

Slow
Market Growth

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-11


Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-5

SPACE
Matrix
Evaluation)

(Strategic Position and Action

991122

Financial Strength
+6
+5
+4

Conservartive

+3

Aggressive

+2
+1

Competitive
Advantage

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

+1

+2

+3

+4

+5 + 6

Industrial
Strength

-1

Defensive

-2
-3

Competitive

-4
-5
-6
Environmental
Stability

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-5

991122

McKinsey 7-S Framework


Strategy

Structure

Systems

Shared Value
(Culture)

C
S

kill
(Management)

tyle
(Leadership)

taf
(Management)

L
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-1

seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

991129

Visionary Leadership
External
Environment

Spokesperson

Direction Setter

Present

Future

Coach

Change Agent

Internal
Environment
seca @ 2010

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992, page 13

Terminology
1
(order by appearance)

Strategy
Rational & Instrumental
Competitive Advantage
Strategic Thinking
Strategic Management Process
Analysis, Formulation, Implementation
Key Success Factors
Visions, Missions, Core Values
Core Ideology, Credo, Beliefs
Purpose, Goals, Objectives
Theory of the Business
Business Models
Types of Strategy
Corporate Strategies
Business Strategies
Functional Strategies

seca @ 2010

Approaches to SM
Industrial Organization (I/O)
Resource-based View (RBV)
Perspectives on SF
Design School
Learning School
Intended, Deliberate, Realized
Unrealized, Emergent
Strategic Management Framework
Resources & Capabilities
Structure & Processes
Strengths & Weaknesses
Stakeholders
General Environment
Competitive Environment
Opportunities & Threats