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Where does that

comma go???

There are many


different ways to use a
comma!

, Lets learn ,
them
all!
,
,
,

First of all What is


a comma?

,
, ,
, ,
, ,

Definition:
Definition Generally used to separate
words or groups of words so that the
meaning of the sentence is clear.

Apostrophe

Dont get a comma


confused with an
apostrophe!

Apostrophes
are at the
top; commas
are at the
bottom!

Rule #1: USE COMMAS FOR


ITEMS IN A SERIES

Words, Phrases, and Clauses in a series are usually separated


by commas to show the reader where one item in the series
ends and the next begins.

Words in a Series:
Series
In the early morning, the lake looked cold

, ,
,
gray

On the boat, we took extra clothes fishing poles

and calm.
and some snacks.

Phrases in a Series

Checking his shoelaces fastening his helmet strap and

positioning his kneepads Brandon prepared for the


skateboarding competition.

Where
do the
comma
s go?

What is a phrase
again?!
A group of words that
does not have a S & V
together

Clauses in
The lightsa
dimmed
,the curtain rose ,
Series
and the play began.

We didnt know where we were going ,


how we would get there,or when we
would arrive.
What is a clause again?

Where do the
commas go?

Group of words with a S & V. It can stand alone.

Use Commas to Separate 2 or More


Adjectives Before a Noun

,
, ,

Pomeranians are small energetic dogs.


These intelligent loyal playful pets
always enjoy a challenge.

NOTE!
Repeated Conjunction

*If all of the items in a series


are joined by and, or, or nor,
do NOT use commas to
separate them!

an
d
an
d
an
d

Example

I voted for Corey


and Mona and
Ethan in the
student council
election.

an
d
or
or
or
nor

STEPS:
1. Get in groups of 4 (with people beside
you).
2. Take out a piece of paper: 1 per group.
3. Write down 1 sentence using words in a
series, 1 sentence using phrases in a
series, & 1 sentence using clauses in a
series with commas used correctly.
4. The 1st group done correctly wins a
prize!!!!

Lets
,
Practice!

Items in a Series!

Place commas where needed!


1. The delicate colorful wings of the hummingbird vibrate as
many as two hundred times each second.

2. The cool soft wind blew across the forest.

3. Last week I read the novel The Lucky Stone the short story
Flowers for Algernon and the poem Legacy II.

, ,
,

4. I want to visit Thailand Nepal


China and Japan.

5. I sanded the the boards Jennifer

primed them and Paul painted them.

Rule # 2: Compound Sentences: Use a


comma before a coordinating
conjunction when it joins
independent clauses in a compound
I enjoyed A Christmas Carol
sentence.
but Romeo and Juliet is still my

FANBOYS

favorite play.

So

For
Yet
And
Or
Nor But

I enjoy plays and movies.


No comma needed b/c
there are not 2
independent clauses.

I enjoy going to plays and


my sister likes them too.
2 Indep. Clauses & a Conjunction so
we need a comma!

STEPS:
1. Get a Partner
2. Take out your lined index card
3. Lined side: Write 5 sentences
using 1 coord. conj. in each
sentence & do NOT use commas.
4. Unlined side: Write the same 5
sentences using commas.
5. Give to Mrs. Duncan when done!

Rule #3: Interrupters


Use commas to set off an expression
that interrupts a sentence
2 commas are used with interrupters: 1 goes before the
expression, and 1 goes after.

Whats the interrupter?


EXAMPLE:
Elise born in Texas moved to
Colorado before coming to Ohio.

So where do the commas go?

Interrupters Continued
Some interrupting expressions come at the beginning or
end of a sentence. In this case, only 1 comma is needed.

Born in Texas Elise moved to Colorado before coming


to Ohio.

The applications were mailed three days ago by the


way.

Where
does the
comma

Nonessential & Essentialtheres


a difference
A.K.A. Needed & Not Needed

Nonessential
A
phrase or clause
that is not
Definition
:

needed in a sentence. Doesnt take


away
from the meaning.
Example:
This small turtle, crossing the
street slowly, was in danger.

Essential Definition :

NO COMMAS
NEEDED!
Adds info that makes the N or Prn it
identifies more specific. DO NOT SET
OFF AN ESSENTIAL PHRASE!!!
Example:
All farmers growing the new hybrid corn
should have a good harvest.
We need this info or the sentence
changes meaning totally! SO no
commas needed!

Lets Practice a Few

1. Leonardo Dicaprio the actor has appeared in many films.


2. The composer Mozart wrote 5 short piano pieces when he was 6.
Correct!

3. The card game canasta is descended from mah-jongg an


ancient Chinese game.

Use Commas to Set off Words of


Direct Address
Examples:
Mrs. Clarkson, this package is
addressed to you.
Do you know, Odessa, when
the next bus is coming?
Id like to go now, Jeff.

Using a Comma When


Speaking to Someone Can
Make a Big Difference!
For Example

(LOL!!!)

Lets eat Grandpa!


Lets eat, Grandpa!

Ahhh!

Rule # 4 : Introductory Words, Phrases, &


Clauses
Use a comma after certain introductory elements.

Focusing on Words 1st:


Use a comma to set off a mild exclamation such as:
well, oh, or why at the beginning of a sentence.
Other words such as yes and no are also set off with
commas!

Where
should
theask for
1. Well I think
we should
comma go?
help.

Examples:

,
2. Yes I understand the problem.

Focusing on Introductory Phrases


& Clauses Now

Use a comma after an


introductory phrase or
clause.
If an introductory prep. phrase
is long, USE A COMMA!

Example: At night in the desert the


temperature falls rapidly.

If an introductory prep. phrase is short, a


comma MAY or MAY NOT be used!
EXAMPLES:

In the morning, well tour our favorite


sites.
In the morning well tour our favorite sites.
Either way works!!!

Commas with Verbal Phrases!


Use a comma after a
verbal phrase that
introduces a
sentence!
Examples:
Signaling the referee for a
time out, the coach gathered
her players for a pep talk.

To keep your bones strong be sure


to eat foods rich in calcium.

Gumball Question!: What


is a verbal phrase?

HINT!
When
youre
writing
As a general
rule

When you start a


sentence with a
phrase or a
clause, usually

Practice Makes Perfect!


Turn in Your Textbooks to
Pages 371-372!

Lets Move & Put


Some on the Bard!

OopsI Mean
Board!

RULE # 5:Conventional Situations (Dates,


Addresses, Letters)

1. Dates & Addresses

Where should the commas


go in the following
examples?
January 7 2010

Mike Jones
1456 Palm Lane

Lakewood California 87653

Fix any
mistakes in
the letter!

1113 Collins St

Fort Worth TX 76106

September 16 2010

Dear Aunt Sally


What a great time I had at
your house last week Your
two dogs Buffy and Pepper
certainly kept me entertained
Ive really missed taking
them for walks and playing
fetch When summer begins
I could come visit again
Anyway thank you very
much for inviting me.

,
.

Sincerely

James

Nice Job!

Congratulations!
Now

Youre a
Comma Pro!!!