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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT (MANAJEMEN STRATEGIS) YOSRI AZWAR

STRATEGIC

MANAGEMENT

(MANAJEMEN

STRATEGIS)

YOSRI AZWAR

DEFIN

ISI

Strategi, adalah pola dalam pengambilan keputusan yang memposisikan organisasi di dalam lingkungannya dan berpengaruh kepada perilaku organisasi. Strategy adalah rencana yang berorientasi ke masa depan (future-oriented) yang menjadi panduan bagi para manajer dalam pengambilan keputusan.

Perencanaan Strategis, adalah serangkaian proses yang digunakan oleh organisasi untuk memahami situasi dan menghasilkan panduan dalam pengambilan keputusan bagi organisasi.

Manajemen Strategis, adalah falsafah di dalam mengelola organisasi yang berorientasi eksternal dan menghubungkan perencanaan strategis dengan pengambilan keputusan operasional. Manajemen Strategis bertujuan untuk

internal organisasi.

internal organisasi.

mencapai kesesuaian yang produktif dan kreatif antara lingkungan luar

dengan situasi

Strategic Thinking Map of

Strategic Management Strategic Planning Situational Analysis External External • External Analysis Environment Environment • Internal Analysis
Strategic Management
Strategic Planning
Situational Analysis
External
External
• External Analysis
Environment
Environment
• Internal Analysis
• Directional Strategies
Managing
Managing
Strategic Thinking
Strategic Thinking
Strategy Formulation
Strategic
Strategic
External Orientation
• Directional Strategies
External Orientation
Momentum
Momentum
Analyze Data
• Adaptive Strategies
Analyze Data
Managerial Action
Question Assumptions
• Market Entry Strategies
Managerial Action
Question Assumptions
Strategy Evaluation
Generate New Ideas
• Competitive Strategies
Strategy Evaluation
Generate New Ideas
Emergent Learning
Emergent Learning
Re-initiate Strategic
Re-initiate Strategic
Thinking
Planning the Implementation
Thinking
• Service Delivery Strategies
• Support Strategies
• Action Plans
External
Environment
STRATEGIC THINKING (PEMIKIRAN STRATEGIS) YOSRI AZWAR

STRATEGIC

THINKING

(PEMIKIRAN STRATEGIS)

YOSRI AZWAR

STRATEGIC

THINKING

Strategic thinking adalah proses intelektual individu, cara berfikir, atau metode analisa intelektual, yang mengharuskan seseorang mengambil posisi sebagai pemimpin dan melihat secara global (see the “big picture”)

Secara spesifik, strategic thinking adalah:

Memahami realitas suatu perubahan Bertanya tentang asumsi dan aktivitas terkini (current assumptions and activities) Membangun berdasarkan “pemahaman sistem” Mimpi akan masa depan yang mungkin (possible future) Menghasilkan/ membangkitkan gagasan-gagasan baru (new ideas), dan Mempertimbangkan kesesuaian organisasi dengan lingkungan luarnya

STRATEGIC THINKING

Strategic thinkers senantiasa bertanya tentang:

Apa yang sedang kita lakukan sekarang, namun seharusnya dihentikan? Apa yang tidak kita lakukan sekarang, tetapi harus kita mulai melakukannya?

Apa yang sedang kita lakukan sekarang dan harus dilanjutkan, tetapi dengan cara yang samasekali berbeda?

Pertanyaan ini adalah berlaku bagi seluruh kegiatan di dalam organisasi – produk dan jasa, proses internal, kebijakan dan prosedur, strategi dan lain sebagainya.

STRATEGIC THINKING

Strategic thinkers memeriksa/ menguji asumsi-asumsi, memahami sistem, dan mengembangkan alternatif skenario masa depan.

Strategic thinkers meramalkan teknologi eksternal, perubahan sosial dan demografi, demikian juga dengan perubahan penting dalam politik dan kebijakan/ peraturan.

Sebagaimana dunia yang berubah, demikian juga halnya dengan “cara menuju sukses” (“rule for success”). Teknologi baru, perubahan nilai sosial, pergeseran demografi, lingkungan politik yang bermusuhan, peraturan yang rumit, kondisi ekonomi yang bergejolak, dan persaingan yang tinggi, mengharuskan adanya pendekatan baru, produk dan jasa baru, dan cara baru dalam memberikannya.

STRATEGIC THINKING

The Link Between Levels of Strategic Management

Strategic Strategic Thinking Thinking
Strategic Strategic
Thinking Thinking

Corporate Level

Strategic Strategic

Momentum Momentum

Strategic Strategic Planning Planning Strategic Strategic Thinking Thinking
Strategic Strategic
Planning Planning
Strategic Strategic
Thinking Thinking

Managing Managing

the the Strategy Strategy

STRATEGIC THINKING The Link Between Levels of Strategic Management Strategic Strategic Thinking Thinking Corporate Level Strategic

Managing Managing

the the Strategy Strategy

Divisional/Business

Level

Strategic Strategic Planning Planning Strategic Strategic Thinking Thinking
Strategic Strategic
Planning Planning
Strategic Strategic
Thinking Thinking

Organizational

Level

Strategic Strategic Planning Planning Strategic Strategic Thinking Thinking
Strategic Strategic
Planning Planning
Strategic Strategic
Thinking Thinking

Unit Level

Operasional/

Functional Level

Managing Managing

the the Strategy Strategy

Strategic Strategic Planning Planning
Strategic Strategic
Planning Planning

STRATEGIC THINKING

The Strategy Concept

Levels of Analysis

Where to

compete? How to

compete? How to

contribute?

Corpora te Strateg y Busines
Corpora
te
Strateg
y
Busines

s

Strateg y Functio nal Strateg
Strateg
y
Functio
nal
Strateg

y

Choice of products

Choice of markets

Choice of competitors

STRATEGIC THINKING

The Strategy Concept

Levels of Analysis

INDUSTRY

ATTRACTIVENESS

RATE OF PROFIT ABOVE THE COMPETITIVE LEVEL

STRATEGIC THINKING The Strategy Concept Levels of Analysis INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS RATE OF PROFIT ABOVE THE COMPETITIVE

Which

Businesses

should we be

STRATEGIC THINKING The Strategy Concept Levels of Analysis INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS RATE OF PROFIT ABOVE THE COMPETITIVE

in?

CORPORATE

STRATEGY

How do we

Make

money?

STRATEGIC THINKING The Strategy Concept Levels of Analysis INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS RATE OF PROFIT ABOVE THE COMPETITIVE

COMPETITIVE

ADVANTAGE

How should

we compete?

STRATEGIC THINKING The Strategy Concept Levels of Analysis INDUSTRY ATTRACTIVENESS RATE OF PROFIT ABOVE THE COMPETITIVE

BUSINESS

STRATEGY

Deliberate

strategy

STRATEGIC THINKING

Forms of Strategy

Intended strategy Intended strategy strategies
Intended strategy
Intended strategy
strategies
Deliberate strategy STRATEGIC THINKING Forms of Strategy Intended strategy Intended strategy strategies Realized strategy Realized strategy
Deliberate strategy STRATEGIC THINKING Forms of Strategy Intended strategy Intended strategy strategies Realized strategy Realized strategy
Realized strategy Realized strategy
Realized strategy
Realized strategy

Non-realized

Deliberate strategy STRATEGIC THINKING Forms of Strategy Intended strategy Intended strategy strategies Realized strategy Realized strategy

Emergent

strategies

Deliberate strategy STRATEGIC THINKING Forms of Strategy Intended strategy Intended strategy strategies Realized strategy Realized strategy

Mintzberg’s Critique of Formal Strategic

Mintzberg’s Critique of Formal Strategic

Planning: Planning:

The The fallacy fallacy of of prediction prediction the the future future is is unknown unknown

The fallacy of detachment – impossible to divorce

The fallacy of detachment – impossible to divorce

formulation from implementation

formulation from implementation

Deliberate strategy STRATEGIC THINKING Forms of Strategy Intended strategy Intended strategy strategies Realized strategy Realized strategy

Normally emergent strategy comes from

learning and dissemination within the organization.

The The fallacy fallacy of of formalization formalization inhibits inhibits flexibility, flexibility,

spontaneity, intuition and learning.

spontaneity, intuition and learning.

STRATEGIC THINKING

TEN STRATEGIC THINKING BIG IDEAS

  • 1. LONG-RANGE PERSPECTIVE. WHEN DONE CORRECTLY, STRATEGIC THINKING PROPELS MANAGERS TO THINK ABOUT THE LONG RUN – STRATEGIES AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION BEYOND THE CURRENT YEAR.

  • 2. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS. STRATEGIC THINKING ADVANCED THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW, SHARPER ANALYTICAL TOOLS. THESE TOOLS HELP STRATEGISTS TO MAKE BETTER SENSE OF THEIR MARKETS, COMPETITORS, AND INDUSTRIES.

  • 3. QUALITY. THE RECOGNITION OF QUALITY AS A STRATEGIC VARIABLE REPRESENTED AN IMPORTANT EVENT IN THE EVOLUTION OF STRATEGIC THINKING. THE USE OF TARGETED DATA TO UNDERSTAND AND CONTROL PROCESSES WAS A LEAP FORWARD FOR COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS.

STRATEGIC THINKING

TEN STRATEGIC THINKING BIG IDEAS

  • 4. PORTFOLIO THEORY. THIS THEORY IS BASED ON THE PROPOSITION THAT BUSINESSES CAN DISAGGREGATE THEIR PRODUCTS, SERVICES, AND MARKETS INTO CATEGORIES THAT BETTER INFORM RESOURCE ALLOCATION DECISIONS.

  • 5. SCENARIO PLANNING. SCENARIOS HAVE PROVEN TO BE A USEFUL AND PRACTICAL WAY TO THINK ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION AS A WHOLE AND ITS INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. SCENARIO PLANNING HAS BECOME A “STAPLE” OF MANY STRATEGIC THINKING PROCESSES.

  • 6. RESOURCE ALLOCATION MODELS. TWO PRIMARY RESOURCE ALLOCATION MODELS EXIST IN STRATEGIC THINKING. ONE IS THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMISTS WHO THINK OF THE FIRM AS APPLYING ITS RESOURCES TO OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY THE ACTIONS OF COMPETITORS OR THE NEEDS OF CONSUMERS. THE RESOURCE-BASED VIEW, ON THE OTHER HAND, CONTENDS THAT SUCCESSFUL STRATEGIES DERIVE FROM A FIRM’S ABILITY TO LEVERAGE ITS OWN UNIQUE INTERNAL RESOURCES AND

STRATEGIC THINKING

TEN STRATEGIC THINKING BIG IDEAS

  • 7. CORPORATE CULTURE. STRATEGIES THAT ARE CONSISTENT WITH CULTURE ARE MORE LIKELY TO SUCCEED.

  • 8. LEADERSHIP. EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IS AN ESSENTIAL VARIABLE IN THE STRATEGY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES. LEADERS MUST ENSURE THAT STRATEGY LINKS TO THE VALUES AND VISION OF THE ORGANIZATION.

  • 9. METRICS THAT MATTER. FOR STRATEGIES TO WORK, MANAGERS MUST MONITOR IMPLEMENTATION. GOOD METRICS ARE REQUIRED FOR SUCCESSFUL MONITORING.

10.STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN. EVEN THOUGH IT WAS ONCE A CONTROVERSIAL IDEA, MOST AGREE THAT ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN (STRUCTURE) MUST FOLLOW AND FACILITATE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY.

STRATEGIC PLANNING (PERENCANAAN STRATEGIS) YOSRI AZWAR

STRATEGIC

PLANNING

(PERENCANAAN

STRATEGIS)

YOSRI AZWAR

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

Strategic planning is the periodic process of developing a set of steps for an organization to accomplish its mission and vision using strategic thinking. Therefore, periodically, strategic thinkers come together to reach consensus on the desired future of the organization and develop decision rules for achieving that future. The result of the strategic planning process is a plan or strategy.

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS More specifically, strategic planning:

provides a sequential, step-by-step process for creating a strategy, involves periodic group strategic thinking (brainstorming) sessions, requires data/information, but incorporates consensus and judgment, establishes organizational focus, facilitates consistent decision making, reaches consensus on what is required to fi t the organization with the external environment, and results in a documented strategic plan.

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

EXTERNAL ANALYSIS

General Environment

Health Care Environment

Government Institution

Government Institution

Business Organization

Business Organization

Planning/Regulator

Planning/Regulator

y Organization

y Organization

Primary Providers

Primary Providers

Secondary

Secondary

Providers

Providers

• Provider • Provider Representatives Representatives • Individual/Consume • Individual/Consume rs rs
Provider
Provider
Representatives
Representatives
Individual/Consume
Individual/Consume
rs
rs
STRATEGIC PLANNING SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS EXTERNAL ANALYSIS General Environment Health Care Environment • • • • •

Educational Institution

Educational Institution

Religious Institution

Religious Institution

Research Organization

Research Organization

Individual/Consumers

Individual/Consumers

STRATEGIC PLANNING SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS EXTERNAL ANALYSIS General Environment Health Care Environment • • • • •

Service Area

Competitors

Gov’t/Private Services

Business Organization

Non-profit Organization

Other Local Organization

Individual/Consumers

Demographics

Psychographics

Health Status

STRATEGIC PLANNING

Service Area Determinants

Consumer Determinants

Service Type

Usage Rate

Personal Values

Social Values

 
  • Brand Predisposition

Epistemic Values

Brand Predisposition Epistemic Values
 
   

Preferred Image

Past Experiences

Personal State of Health

 
Service Area
Service Area

Location

Service Available

Drive Time

Service

Transportation

Friendliness

Parking Ease/Access

Caring

Convenience

Wait Time

  • Hours of Operation

Quality of Information

• Hours of Operation Quality of Information
 
   

Safety

Way finding

Price Level

Image

Website

Phone Consult

Brochures and Advertisements

Instructions

Demonstrations

Market/Organization Determinants

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

EXTERNAL ANALYSIS

Technologic Competitiv Political al e General Health Care Environme Environme nt nt Regulatory Social Economic
Technologic
Competitiv
Political
al
e
General
Health Care
Environme
Environme
nt
nt
Regulatory
Social
Economic

Monitoring

Process

Environmental Analysis Tools & Techniques

Technique

Primary

Advantage

Disadvantage

Focus

Simple Trend

Scanning

Simple

Need a good deal of data

Identification

Monitoring

Logical

in order to extend trend

and

Forecasting

Easy to communicate

Limited to existing trend

Extrapolation

Assessing

May not foster creative

thinking

Delphi Method

Scanning

Use of field experts

Members are physically

Monitoring

Avoid intimidation

dispersed

Forecasting

problems

No direct interaction of

Assessing

Eliminate management’s

participants

biases

May take a long tome to

complete

Nominal

Scanning

Everyone has equal

Structure may limit

Group

Monitoring

status and power

creativity

Technique

Forecasting

Wide participation

Time consuming

Assessing

Ensure representation

Eliminate management’s

biases

Brainstorming Forecasting

Assessing

Foster creativity

Develop many ideas

No process for making

decision

Environmental Analysis Tools & Techniques

Techniqu

Primary

Advantage

Disadvantage

e

Focus

Focus

Forecasting

Uses experts

Finding experts

Group

Assessing

Management/expert

No specific structure for

interaction

reaching conclusions

New viewpoint

Dialectic

Forecasting

Surfaces many sub issues

Does not provide a set of

Inquiry

Assessing

and factors

procedures for deciding what is

Conclusions are reached

important

on issues

Considers only a single issue at

Based on analysis

a time

Time consuming

Stakeholde

Scanning

Considers major

Emerging issues generated by

r Analysis

Monitoring

independent groups and

other organizations may not be

individuals

considered

Ensures major needs and

Does not consider the broader

wants of outside

issues of general environment

organizations are taken

into account

Scenario

Forecasting

Portrays alternative

Requires generous assumptions

Writing

Assessing

futures

Always a question as to what to

Environmental Trend/Issue Plot High 10 Critical issues to the right of the line should be addressed
Environmental Trend/Issue Plot
High
10
Critical issues to the
right of the line should
be addressed in the
strategic plan
5
0
5
10
Low
High
Impact on the Organization

Probability of Trend Continuing

Environmental Trend/Issue Plot

     

Impact on

 

Trend/ Issue

Opportuni

ty/ Threat

Evidence

our

Organizat

ion

(1 – 10)

Probability

of Trend

Continuing

(1 – 10)

Populasi

Opportunit

1 dari 5 orang

 
  • 9 9

manula

y

Indonesia akan

berumur 65 pada

tahun 2025

Jaminan

Opportunit

Universal coverage

 
  • 9 9

Kesehatan

y

pada tahun 2020

Nasional

Akreditasi

Threat

Wajib (Permenkes

  • 9 9

Puskesmas

No.46, 2015)

Akreditasi

Threat

Wajib (UU No.44, 2009

 
  • 9 9

Rumah Sakit

& PP No.12, PP No.111,

2013)

Types of Approach

High

Adaptive

Scenario

Management

Planning

Uncertainty

   

Optimal

Control

Hedging

Low

Controllable

Controllability

Uncontrollable

Scenario planning is appropriate for systems in which there is

a lot of uncertainty that is not controllable. In other cases

optimal control, hedging, or adaptive management may be

appropriate responses

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

INTERNAL ANALYSIS

The Value Chain (Michael E. Porter)

PRE-SERVICE POINT-OF-SERVICE AFTER-SERVICE Market Research Clinical Operation Follow-up Target Market Quality Clinical Services Offered Process Innovation
PRE-SERVICE POINT-OF-SERVICE AFTER-SERVICE
Market Research
Clinical Operation
Follow-up
Target Market
Quality
Clinical
Services Offered Process Innovation
Marketing
Pricing
Marketing
Billing
Promotion
Patient Satisfaction
Follow-on
Distribution
Clinical
Marketing
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Shared Assumption
Shared Values
Behavioral Norms
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Function
Division
Matrix
STRATEGIC RESOURCES
Financial
Human
Information
Technology
Support activities
yr
eS vr eci
D e evil
Add value
ddA
av eul

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

INTERNAL ANALYSIS

Strategic Thinking Map for Discovering Competitive Advantages and Disadvantages

Step 1

Identify Strength

and Weakness

Step 2

Evaluate Competitive

Relevance for Strength

and Weakness

Step 3

Focus on Competitive

Strength and Competitive

Weakness

STRATEGIC PLANNING SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS INTERNAL ANALYSIS Strategic Thinking Map for Discovering Competitive Advantages and Disadvantages Step
STRATEGIC PLANNING SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS INTERNAL ANALYSIS Strategic Thinking Map for Discovering Competitive Advantages and Disadvantages Step
STRATEGIC PLANNING SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS INTERNAL ANALYSIS Strategic Thinking Map for Discovering Competitive Advantages and Disadvantages Step
Point Pre- After of Servi Servic Servic ce e e Culture Structure Strategic Resources
Point
Pre-
After
of
Servi
Servic
Servic
ce
e
e
Culture
Structure
Strategic Resources
Service Delivery Value Strength & Weakness Rare Culture Strength & Weakness Structure Imitable
Service Delivery
Value
Strength & Weakness
Rare
Culture
Strength & Weakness
Structure
Imitable

Strength & Weakness

Strategic Resources

Strength & Weakness

Sustainable

Competitively Relevant Competitive Strengths Advantages or or Competitively Competitive Relevant Disadvantages Weaknesses
Competitively
Relevant
Competitive
Strengths
Advantages
or
or
Competitively
Competitive
Relevant
Disadvantages
Weaknesses

Trend/Issue Identification and Evaluation

       

Probability of

Trend/Issue

Opportunity/T

hreat

Evidence

Impact on Our

Organization

(1-10)

Trend

Continuing (1-

10)

General

environment

Service area

Health Care

Environment

Pre-service

Point of service

After service

Organization

culture

Organization

structure

INTERNAL

EXTERNAL

SWOT ANALYSIS

ADVANTAGE

DISADVANTAGE

Value Chain:

Value Chain:

Pre-service

Pre-service

Point S of Service

After Service

Culture,

Structure,

Resources

Point W of Service

After Service

Culture,

Structure,

Resources

General Environment General Environment

O

Service Area

T

Service Area

Health Care Environment

Health Care Environment

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

DIRECTIONAL STRATEGIES

MISSION

MENGGAMBARKAN MAKSUD KHUSUS ATAU ALASAN ORGANISI DIDIRIKAN

VISION

MEMBENTUK MIMPI PARA MANAJER, KARYAWAN, DAN PIHAK

BERKEPENTINGAN AKAN MASA DEPAN ORGANISASI. VISI ADALAH

HARAPAN MASA DEPAN ORGANISASI

VALUES

ADALAH PRINSIP-PRINSIP YANG DIANUT OLEH ORANG-ORANG YANG ADA

DI ORGANISASI. VALUES ADALAH PANDUAN YANG HARUS DIPATUHI OLEH

PARA MANAJER DAN KARYAWAN SELAMA PROSES PELAKSANAAN MISI DAN

PENCAPAIAN VISI DAN TUJUAN STRATEGIS (STRATEGIC GOALS)

STRATEGIC GOALS

MENCAKUP SELURUH HASIL AKHIR YANG DIINGINKAN ORGANISASI DALAM

MELAKSANAKAN MISI DAN MENCAPAI VISI

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

DIRECTIONAL STRATEGIES

COMPONENTS OF A MISSION STATEMENT

  • 1. TARGET CUSTOMERS AND CLIENTS:

“The individuals and groups we attempt to serve are…” Do not be limited to

only the obvious

  • 2. PRINCIPAL SERVICES DELIVERED: “The specific services or range of services we will provide to our customers are…”

  • 3. GEOGRAPHICAL DOMAIN OF THE SERVICES DELIVERED:

“The geographical boundaries within which we will deliver our services to our customers are…”

  • 4. SPECIFIC VALUES: “Specific values that constitute our distinctiveness in the delivery of our services to customers are…”

  • 5. EXPLICIT PHILOSOPHY:

“The explicit philosophy that makes us distinctive in our industry is…”

  • 6. OTHER IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF DISTINCTIVENESS:

“Any other factors that make us unique among competitors are…”

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

DIRECTIONAL STRATEGIES

COMPONENTS OF A VISION STATEMENT

  • 1. CLEAR HOPE FOR THE FUTURE:

“If everything went as we would like it to go, what would our organization look like five years from now? How would we be different/ better than today?”

  • 2. CHALLENGING AND ABOUT EXCELENCE:

“When stakeholders (patients, employees, owners) describe our organization, what terms would we like for them to use?”

  • 3. INSPIRATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL: “When we think about the kind of organization we could be if we all contribute our best, what terms would describe our collective contributions?”

  • 4. EMPOWER EMPLOYEE FIRST:

“How can we ensure that employees understand and are committed to the vision? What needs to be done to get everyone’s buy in?”

  • 5. MEMORABLE AND PROVIDES GUIDANCE: “What types of words should be included to ensure all organizational members remember and behave in accordance with the vision?”

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

DIRECTIONAL STRATEGIES

COMPONENTS OF A VALUE STATEMENT

VALUE STATEMENTS DEFINE THE ORGANIZATION’S BASIC PHILOSOPHY, PRINCIPLES AND IDEALS. THEY ALSO SET THE ETHICAL TONE FOR THE INSTITUTION. AN ORGANIZATION’S VALUES ARE EVIDENT IN THE STATEMENTS THAT DEFINE THE ORGANIZATION AND THE PROCESSES USED

TO ACHIEVE ITS MISSION AND VISION CHALLENGING AND ABOUT EXCELENCE:

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

DIRECTIONAL STRATEGIES

CRITERIA FOR STRATEGIC GOALS

  • 1. HARMONIZE WITH THE ORGANIZATION’S VISION, MISSION, AND PHILOSOPHY AS

WELL AS OTHER GOALS.

  • 2. ARE WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION’S AUTHORITY.

  • 3. CHART A CLEAR COURSE FOR THE ORGANIZATION BUT DO NOT DETERMINE SPECIFIC WAYS TO GET THERE.

  • 4. REFLECT THE PRIMARY CONCERNS AND STRATEGIC DIRECTION FOR THE ORGANIZATION—NOT A COMPREHENSIVE LISTING OF EVERYTHING AN ORGANIZATION DOES.

  • 5. REFLECT THE RESULTS OF AN INTERNAL/ EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT AND ARE DEVELOPED IN RESPONSE TO STRATEGIC OR CRITICAL ISSUES.

  • 6. ENCOMPASS A RELATIVELY LONG PERIOD.

  • 7. TEND TO REMAIN ESSENTIALLY UNCHANGED UNTIL A SHIFT IN THE ENVIRONMENT

UNDER WHICH THEY WERE CREATED OCCURS.

  • 8. ARE CHALLENGING BUT REALISTIC AND ACHIEVABLE.

STRATEGIC PLANNING

SITUASIONAL ANALYSIS

DIRECTIONAL STRATEGIES

OBJECTIVES, A SPECIFIC AND MEASURABLE TARGET FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT

  • 1. OBJECTIVES DESCRIBE SPECIFIC RESULTS THAT A PROGRAM SEEKS TO ACHIEVE AND SET TARGETS FOR PERFORMANCE.

  • 2. OBJECTIVES ARE MEASURABLE, TIME-BASED STATEMENTS OF INTENT.

  • 3. OBJECTIVES REPRESENT MILESTONES, INTERIM STEPS, OR INTERMEDIATE ACHIEVEMENTS TOWARD REALIZING VISION, MISSION, AND GOALS.

  • 4. OBJECTIVES RELATE TO ACHIEVEMENT, NOT MEANS.

  • 5. WELL WRITTEN OBJECTIVES ARE Specific, Measureable, Attainable (+Aggressive), Result oriented, and Time-bound

STRATEGIC PLANNING

STRATEGY FORMULATION

Directional

STRATEGIC PLANNING STRATEGY FORMULATION Directional Adaptive Strategies Strategies Market Entry Strategies Competitive Implementation Strategies Strategies 

Adaptive

Strategies

Strategies

STRATEGIC PLANNING STRATEGY FORMULATION Directional Adaptive Strategies Strategies Market Entry Strategies Competitive Implementation Strategies Strategies 

Market Entry

Strategies

STRATEGIC PLANNING STRATEGY FORMULATION Directional Adaptive Strategies Strategies Market Entry Strategies Competitive Implementation Strategies Strategies 

Competitive

STRATEGIC PLANNING STRATEGY FORMULATION Directional Adaptive Strategies Strategies Market Entry Strategies Competitive Implementation Strategies Strategies 

Implementation

Strategies

Strategies

 Mission Expansion of Scope  Diversification  Vision  Vertical Integration  Market Development 
 Mission
Expansion of Scope
 Diversification
 Vision
 Vertical Integration
 Market Development
 Values
 Product Development
 Penetration
 Goals
Contraction of Scope

Divestiture

Liquidation

Harvesting

Retrenchment

Purchase

Acquisition

Licensing

Venture

Capital

Investment

Cooperation

Merger

Alliance

Joint Venture

Developmen

Maintenance of Scope t

Enhancement

Status Quo

Internal

Developmen

t

Internal

Strategic

Posture

Defender

Prospector

Analyzer

Positioning

Marketwide

Cost

Leadership

Differentiati

on

Market

Segment

Focus/

Cost

Leadership

Service

Delivery

Pre-service

Point of

Service

After Service

Support

Culture

Structure

Strategic

Resources

Developmen

t

Objectives

Actions

Ti

li

TOWS Matrix

List Internal Strength

(competitive advantages)

  • 1. …………………… ..

  • 2. …………………… ..

  • 3. …………………… ..

List Internal Weaknesses

(competitive disadvantages)

  • 1. …………………… ..

  • 2. …………………… ..

  • 3. …………………… ..

Future Quadrant Internal Fix-It Quadrant • Related Diversification Retrenchment • • Vertical SO Integration • Enhancement
Future Quadrant Internal Fix-It Quadrant
• Related Diversification Retrenchment
• Vertical SO Integration
• Enhancement WO
• Market Development • Market Development
• Product Development • Product Development
• Penetration
• Vertical Integration
• Related Diversification

List External Opportunities

  • 1. ……………………….

  • 2. ……………………….

  • 3. ……………………….

External Fix-It Quadrant Survival Quadrant • Related ST Diversification • Unrelated WT Diversification • Unrelated Diversification
External Fix-It Quadrant Survival Quadrant
• Related ST Diversification
• Unrelated WT Diversification
• Unrelated Diversification • Divestiture
• Market Development
• Liquidation
• Product Development
• Harvesting
• Enhancement
• Retrenchment
• Status Quo

List External Threats

  • 1. …………………… ..

  • 2. …………………… ..

  • 3. …………………… ..

MANAGING STRATEGIC MOMENTUM (MOMENTUM STRATEGIS) YOSRI AZWAR

MANAGING STRATEGIC MOMENTUM

(MOMENTUM STRATEGIS)

YOSRI AZWAR

STRATEGI DAN PENGGUNAANNYA

Strategi pada sektor Swasta (Private Sector)

Types of Environment

High

   

Market

disturbed

turbulent

Volatility

   

Low

placid

clustered placid

Defensive

Offensive

(passive)

(aggressive)

Orientation of Competitor

STRATEGI DAN PENGGUNAANNYA

Strategi pada sektor Swasta (Private Sector)

Types of Strategy

High dreamer (-) prospector (-) developer (+) entrepreneur (+) Market analyzer (+) Volatility custodian (+) stabilizer
High
dreamer (-)
prospector (-)
developer (+)
entrepreneur (+)
Market
analyzer (+)
Volatility
custodian (+)
stabilizer (+)
Low
reactor (-)
defender (-)
Defensive
Offensive
(passive)
(aggressive)

Orientation of Competitor

STRATEGI DAN PENGGUNAANNYA

Strategi pada sektor Publik (Public Sector)

Types of Environment

High

   

Pressure

disturbed

turbulent

for Action

   

Low

placid

clustered placid

Low

High

(avoidance)

(collaboration

Responsiveness

STRATEGI DAN PENGGUNAANNYA

Strategi pada sektor Publik (Public Sector)

Types of Strategy

High dominator (-) mutualistic (-) (+) director compromiser (+) Pressure for Action (+) bureaucrats accommodator (+)
High
dominator (-)
mutualistic (-)
(+) director compromiser (+)
Pressure
for Action
(+) bureaucrats
accommodator (+)
Low
drifter (-)
posturer (-)
Low
High
(avoidance)
(collaboration

Responsiveness

APLIKASI PENDEKATAN STRATEGIS

Portfolio Sektor Publik & Swasta (Public & Private Sector Portfolios)

Product/Service Portfolio

High

   

Growth

stars

wildcats

Potential

   

Low

cash cows

dogs

High

Low

Relative Market Share

APLIKASI PENDEKATAN STRATEGIS

Portfolio Sektor Publik & Swasta (Public & Private Sector Portfolios)

Issue Portfolio

High

sitting ducks

dark horses

Tractability

   

Low

angry tigers

sleeping dogs

High

Low

Relative Stakeholder Support

APLIKASI PENDEKATAN STRATEGIS

Sektor Publik & Swasta

Types of Organizations

High Political Proactive External Control Buffered Professional Low Low High
High
Political
Proactive
External
Control
Buffered
Professional
Low
Low
High

Internal Capacity

MEMAHAMI ISU-ISU STRATEGIS

Sektor Publik & Swasta

Types of Developments Facing Organizations

Open

and

flexible

Scan

Approach

Regulatory

and

controlled

Human resource needs

Innovation and change

(equity)

(transition)

Maintenance of tradition

Rationale process

(preservation)

(productivity)

Internal

External

Direction of Attention