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CHAPTER 5

SLOPE STABILITY

Dam

Highway

Canals

Introduction
Slopes in soils and rocks are exist in
nature and in man-made structures.
Man-made structure: Highways, dams,
canals

Natural slope

Question related to slope


stability
1. What types of slope failure are
common in soils?
2. What factors provoke slope failures?
3. What methods of analysis are used
to estimate the factor of safety of a
slope
4. What are the assumptions of the
various methods of analysis
Natural slope

Some types of slope


failure

Natural slope

Factor of safety
Factor of safety with respect to strength, FSs =

f
d

f = average shear strength of the soil


d = average shear stress develop along the potential failure surface

FS s

c' ' tan '


cd' ' tan d'

c'
Factor of safety with respect to cohesion, FSc = '
cd
tan '
Factor of safety with respect to friction, FSc =
tan d'
The usual range
of factor
Natural
slopeof safety is1.15 to 1.5

Common slope,
FS 1.3
Dam, FS 1.4

Stability of Infinite slope


without seepage

c'
tan '

Factor of safety, FS =
H cos 2 tan tan

Stability of Infinite slope


with seepage

c'
' tan '

Factor of safety, FS =
H cos 2 tan sat tan

with plane failure


surface- Culmanns
method

Assumption: Plane failure surface

with plane failure


surface- Culmanns
method
H 1 cos
c
'
d

'
d

4 sin cos d'

Factor of safety with respect to cohesion, FSc =

c'
c 'd

To calculate the maximum height of the slope, cd=c and d =

H cr

4c' sin cos '


1 cos '

Analysis of finite slope with


circularly cylindrical failure
surface- General

Analysis of finite slope with


circularly cylindrical failure
surface- General
Method of analysis can be divided into two major classes:
1. Mass procedure consider the mass above the surface of sliding
- suitable for homogenous soil
2. Method of slices the soil above the surface of sliding is divided into
a number of vertical parallel slices.
- can be used for nonhomogenous soil
- pore water pressure can be take into consideration

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis
Slopes in Homogeneous clay soil with = 0 (undrained condition)
- Valid for saturated clay and undrained condition only

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis

Moment of driving force about O, Md = W1l1 - W2l2


Moment of resisting force about O, MR = cdr2
For equilibrium, MR = Md, so
cdr2 = W1l1 - W2l2

W1l1 W2l2
cd
r 2

f cu
FS s

cd c d

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis
A number of trials should be made to find the minimum value of F.O.S.
Fellenius (1927) and Taylor (1937) introduce the equation to calculate
the critical circles corresponding to lowest value of F.O.S.:

cd Hm

or

cd
m
H

Where, cd is developed cohesion


is soil unit weight
H is height of the slope
m is the stability number

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis
cd Hm

or

cd
m
H

cu
FS s
cd
D DH / H

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis

How to determine of the location of the critical toe circle

a) Slope angle, > 53

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis

How to determine of the location of the critical toe circle

a) Slope angle, < 53

Mass Procedure of Stability


Analysis

How to determine of the location of the critical midpoint circle

a) Slope angle, < 53

Example
A cut slope in saturated clay makes an angle of 60o with the horizontal:

a) Determine the maximum depth up to which the cut could be made.


Assume that the critical surface for sliding is circularly cylindrical.
What will be the nature of the critical circle?
b) Refering to part a, determine the distance of the point of intersection
of the critical failure circle from the top of the edge of the slope.
c) How deep should the cut be made if a factor of safety of 2 against
sliding is required?

Method of slices
- AC is an arc of a circle of trial failure surface.
- The soil above is divided into several vertical slices

1
Tr d Ln
c' ' tan ' Ln
FS

N r wn cos n

Method of slices
For equilibrium, the moment of the driving force about O equals to moment of
the resisting force about O.

Wn cos n
1
Wn r sin n FS c' L tan ' Ln r
n

c' L W cos

FS
W sin
n

tan '

Dry slope

c ' Ln (Wn cos n un Ln ) tan '


FS
Wn sin n

Considering
Water level

Bishops Simplified Method of


slices
- More accurate solution than ordinary method of slices.
- In this method the effect of forces on the sides of each slice is considered.

Equilibriu
m force

T Tn Tn 1

tan ' c' Ln


Tr N r

FS
FS
P Pn Pn 1

Bishops Simplified Method of


slices
FS

c' bn Wn tan ' T tan '


W

1
m ( n )

sin n

where m ( n ) cos n tan ' sin n

FS

If T =0

FS

c' bn Wn tan '


W

sin n

1
m ( n )

Bishops Simplified Method of


slices
FS

c' bn Wn tan '

m ( n )

FS

sin n

c' bn (Wn unbn ) tan '

m ( n )

sin n

Dry slope

Slope with ground water


level

Bishops Simplified Method of


slices
Simplified figure in determination of m(n)

Spencers solution

Exampl
e1

Exampl
e1