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Diffusion

Engr. Rolie A. Castro

Mass Transfer
The net movement of a component in

a mixture from one location to


another
location
where
the
component exists at a different
concentration.

Mass Transfer
Mechanism
Molecular Diffusion Transfer or movement of

the individual molecules through a fluid by


means of the random, individual movements
of molecules.
Driving force: Concentration gradient, pressure

gradient, thermal gradient, external force fields.

Eddy Diffusion (Turbulent) Takes place in


fluid phases by physical mixing and by the
eddies of turbulent flow.

Ficks Law of Diffusion


Gives the rate of mass transfer by molecular

diffusion perpendicular to and relative to a


stationary surface which is a fixed distance
from the interface.
The Ficks First Law of molecular diffusion is
proportionate between a flux and a gradient.

Ficks Law Observations


Mass transfer by ordinary molecular
diffusion occurs because of concentration
difference or gradient. That is, the species
diffuses in the direction of decreasing
concentration.
2. The mass transfer rate is proportional to the
ae normal to the direction of mass transfer
and not to the volume of the mixture. Thus,
the rate can be expressed as a flux.
3. Mass transfer stops when the concentration
is uniform.
1.

Diffusivity

Diffusivity

Evaluation of Diffusivity

Problem 1
Ethyl alcohol is diffusing into an alcohol

water solution at 18 deg C. The concentration


of the alcohol in the bulk of the solution is
negligible, while at the surface of the solution
is 0.12 g/cc. The film thickness is 0.15 cm and
the diffusivity is 1 x 10-5 cm2/s. The mass of
alcohol diffusing through 100 ft2 of interface
per hour is?

Problem 2
Benzene at 22oC is contained in an open

circular tank with D=6.5 m. The benzene is


exposed to the atmosphere such that the
liquid surface is covered with stagnant air film
of atmosphere 5 mm thick. Assume that the
benzene above the stagnant film is negligible.
If benzene is worth P4/L, what is the value of
benzene lost per day?
From ChE HB.
Dab = 0.0886 cm2/s @ 22oC and 1 atm
PC6H6 @ 22oC = 82.68 mm Hg ; Density = 0.879

Problem
A 4mm diameter tube, 40cm long, closed at one end

and standing vertically on its closed end, is partially


filled with a liquid up to18 mm from the open top. A
gentle stream of air is flowing across the top of the
tube. The temperature of the liquid remains constant
at 17oC. Diffusion takes place through the still air in
the tube above the liquid. After 4 hrs and 10 mins,
the liquid level in the tube goes down by 9.5 mm.
The vapor pressure of the liquid is 165 mm Hg and
atmospheric pressure is 1 atm. Density of the liquid
is 790 kg/m3 & MW is 58 g/mol. The mass diffusivity
of the liquid vapor in air is?

Problem
The unicomponent mass transfer coeeficient

is 3.25 x 10-5 kg-mole/s-m2-mole at 300 K and


2 atm. If ya1 = 0.26 and ya2 = 0.01, the
equimolar MTC is?

Problem
A sphere of Naphthalene having a radius of 2

mm is suspended in a large volume of still air


at 318K and 1 atm. The surface temperature
of the naphthalene can be assumed 318K. The
diffusivity at 318K and 1 atm is 6.92 x 10-6
m2/s and its vapor pressure at 318K is 0.555
mm Hg. The rate of evaporation of
naphthalene in g-mole/s is?