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JOSE RIZAL

Life, Works and Writings

WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT OUR


NATIONAL HERO?

THE SOCIO-POLITICAL SITUATION


AT THE TIME OF RIZAL'S BIRTH
Pax Hispanica reigned over the entire
archipelago.
Despite being a colony, Filipinos enjoy the
simple, serene and Christian way of life.
Governor-General then was Jose Lemery
recognized for being a great militarist
established a government in Visayas and
Mindanao

THE SOCIO-POLITICAL SITUATION


AT THE TIME OF RIZAL'S BIRTH
Outside the Philippines
World is in the midst of political strifes, social
upheaval and international intrigues
China was being invaded by the West
German states were being forged into one nation
notwithstanding Austria's opposition
England trying to occupy Burma
Spain ill-governed by Queen Isabela II
Civil war exploded in the United States

A HERO WAS BORN


Jose was born, a few days before full moon, near
midnight of 19 June 1861 in their family home in
Calamba, Laguna.
The delivery was difficult and Doa Teodora, his
mother almost died.
He was named and baptized as "Jose" in honor
of St. Joseph whose feast day is every 19th of
March.
Fr. Rufino Collantes administered the sacrament in
the Catholic Church of Calamba on 22 June 1861
His godfather was Fr. Pedro Casanas.

WHAT'S IN THE NAME?


His actual full name is JOSE PROTACIO RIZAL MERCADO
y ALONSO REALONDA
JOSE, his first name, derived from St. Joseph
PROTACIO, his second name, derived from St. Protasius,
who together with St. Gervasius, are patron saints of
Milan, Italy and whose feast day falls every 19 June
RIZAL, the family name chosen by his father, came from
the Spanish word ricial which means 'green field'
MERCADO, original paternal family name, which in
Spanish means 'market'
ALONSO, family name of his mother
REALONDA, also a family name of his mother

RIZAL'S ANCESTRY
(PATERNAL)
Domingo Lamco
(married to Ines de la Rosa)
Francisco Mercado
(married to Cirila Bernacha)
Juan Mercado
(married to Cirila Alejandro)
Francisco Mercado
(married to Teodora Alonso)

RIZAL'S ANCESTRY
(MATERNAL)
LAKANDULA
EUGENIO URSUA
(married to a certain Benigna)
REGINA
(married to Manuel de Quintos)
One of their daughters married
LORENZO ALBERTO ALONSO

TEODORA ALONSO

PARENTS
FRANCISCO
MERCADO RIZAL
Born in Binan,
Laguna on 11 May
1818
Died in Manila on 05
January 1898 at the
age of 80

TEODORA ALONSO
REALONDA
Born in Manila on 08
November 1826
Died in Manila on 16
August 1911 at the
age of 85

THE CHILDREN
(Francisco & Teodora were married last
28 June 1848 and begot 11 children)

1.SATURNINA
2.PACIANO
3.NARCISA
4.OLYMPIA
5.LUCIA
6.MARIA

7.JOSE
8.CONCEPCION
9.JOSEFA
10.TRINIDAD
11.SOLEDAD

RIZAL'S CHILDHOOD
INFLUENCES
HEREDITARY INFLUENCE
It can be said that a person inherits traits from his ancestors and
parents
From his Malayan ancestors, his passionate love for freedom
and serenity of life's outlook
From his Chinese ancestors, he derived his serious nature,
frugality, patience and love for children
From his Spanish ancestors, he got his elegance of bearing,
sensitivity to insult and gallantry to ladies
From his father, a profound sense of self-respect, love for work
and the habit of independent thinking
From his mother, he inherited his religious nature, the spirit of
self-sacrifice and passion for arts and literature

RIZAL'S CHILDHOOD
INFLUENCES
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
PLACES
The scenic beauty of Calamba and the family garden
stimulated the inborn artistic and literary talents of Rizal

ASSOCIATES
His brother, Paciano, instilled in his mind the value of
brotherly love
From his sisters, he learned to be courteous and kind to
women
His Uncle Gregorio, taught him to love books
His Uncle Jose inspired him to develop his artistic ability
His Uncle Manuel, he learned the importance of good health
and sports

RIZAL'S CHILDHOOD
INFLUENCES
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
ASSOCIATES
From Father Leoncio Lopez, parish priest of
Calamba, he acquired the value of intellectual
honesty and the love for scholarship

EVENTS
The death of his sister Concha and the
imprisonment of his mother
Spanish abuses and cruelties
Execution of GOMBURZA

RIZAL'S CHILDHOOD
INFLUENCES
AID OF DIVINE PROVIDENCE
God has endowed Jose with versatile talents
of a rare genius, the unsurpassed spirit of
nationalism and the valiant heart to sacrifice
himself for a noble cause
He was providentially destined to be the pride
and glory of our people

RIZAL AS A STUDENT
His first teacher was his mother, Dona Teodora
who taught him the Latin alphabet and Catholic
prayers
He was also given further instruction by Maestro
Celestino and Maesto Lucas Padua
His father, Don Francisco hired an old man and
also his classmate, Leon Monroy to teach him
Latin

His first formal schooling was in Binan,


Laguna in a private school under Maestro
Justiniano Aquino Cruz
It was the first time that he would be
leaving their home as he will be staying at
his aunt's house in Binan
He was the best student in school and
surpassed all the Binan boys in all their
subjects

Despite of his achievements in school,


Jose had its share of being involved in
brawls
His classmates were always jealous of his
intellectual superiority
in spite of the reputation I had of being a good
boy, the day was unusual when I was not laid
out on a bench and given 5 or 6 blows

RIZAL ENTERED ATENEO


Ateneo Municipal is a college under the
supervision of the Spanish Jesuits
Rizal accompanied by his brother Paciano
went to Manila and took the entrance
exam at College of San Juan de Letran
His father changed his mind and decided
to send him to Ateneo instead

He was first refused admission because of


3 things: (1) he was late for registration (2)
he was sickly and undersized for his age
Through the intercession of Manuel Xerez
Burgos, nephew of Fr. Burgos, he was
reluctantly admitted to the Ateneo
He boarded in a house outside Intramuros
owned by a spinster named Titay

Jesuit system of education is advanced


among its contemporaries during that time
Students were divided into 2 groups:
Internos (boarders) Roman empire
Externos (non-boarders) Carthaginian
empire
(1) Emperor
(2) Tribune
(3) Decurion

(4) Centurion
(5) Standard Bearer

Rizals first professor in Ateneo was Fr.


Jose Bech
He had difficulty in Spanish and was
placed at the bottom of the class
Eventually, he rose from the bottom and a
month thereafter, he became emperor of
his class

First Year
1872-1877

Second Year
1873-1874

Third Year
1874-1875

Fourth Year
1875-1876

Fifth Year
1876-1877

EXCELLENT

EXCELLENT

EXCELLENT

EXCELLENT

EXCELLENT

FIRST ROMANCE
Rizals first infatuation was with a pretty 14year old Batanguena from Lipa
Rizal described him as rather short, with
eyes that were eloquent and ardent at
times and languid at others, rosy-cheeked
with an enchanting and provocative smile
that revealed very beautiful teeth and the
air of a sylph; her entire self diffused a
mysterious charm

Segunda Katigbak is the sister of his


friend Mariano
He drew a pencil sketch of Segunda
Their romance however was short-lived
Segunda later on returned to Lipa and
married Manuel Luz.

AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF STO. TOMAS

Dominicans, are the rival educators of the


Jesuits
Rizal received a Bachelor of Arts degree in
Ateneo which is equivalent to a high
school diploma
Don Francisco and Paciano wanted Rizal
to pursue higher learning while his mother
discouraged it.

Rizal took the course Philosophy and


Letters for two reasons:
His father liked it
He was still uncertain as to what career to
follow

The next school year, he took up


Medicine, simultaneously taking pre-med
and medicine proper subjects

His decision to take up medicine is


because:
He wanted to be a physician to cure his
mothers eyesight
The Father Rector of the Ateneo recommend
medicine.

ROMANCES WITH
OTHER GIRLS
While in UST, Rizal met a young woman of
Calamba whom he referred to as, Ms. L.
Then again, she did not vigorously pursue
Ms. L for two reasons:
He is still in love with Segunda
His father objected to the match

During his 2nd year, he boarded in


Intramuros and met the daughter of his
neighbor named Leonor Valenzuela
He courted her and sent love letters
written in invisible ink, which can only be
read by heating it over a candle or lamp

Rizals next romance was with another


Leonor, Leonor Rivera
Leonor is Rizals cousin
It was a fierce love that they got engaged
They hid their relationship from their
friends and relatives; Leonors letters to
Rizal were signed as Taimis

UNHAPPY DAYS AT UST


Rizal found the atmosphere in UST
suffocating
He was unhappy in the Dominican
institution because:
The Dominican Professors were hostile to him
Filipinos were racially discriminated
Method of instruction is obsolete and
repressive

COMPANERISMO
A secret student organization, of which
Rizal was the chief
The members call themselves, The
Companions of Jehu

DECISION TO STUDY
ABROAD
In stark contrast to his academic
performance in Ateneo, Rizal failed to garner
scholastic honors in UST
After finishing 4 years of medical school in
UST, Rizal decided to study abroad
It was only Rizals uncle, Antonio, his elder
siblings, Saturnina and Paciano, knew about
Rizals intention to study abroad
Leonor knew nothing about his departure