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Chapter 16

Wireless WANs:
Cellular Telephone
and Satellite Networks
16.1

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

161CELLULARTELEPHONY
Cellular
telephony
is
designed
to
provide
communications between two moving units, called
mobile stations (MSs), or between one mobile unit and
one stationary unit, often called a land unit.
Topics discussed in this section:
Frequency-Reuse Principle
Transmitting
Receiving
Roaming
First Generation
Second Generation
Third Generation
16.2

Wireless Communications

When?

Mobile communications is needed


Terrain makes wired communication
difficult
Communications must be set up quickly
Communications must be installed at low
cost
Same information broadcast to many
locations

Wireless Disadvantages

More susceptible to interference,


noise, signal loss, and eavesdropping
Generally lower data rate than wired
Frequencies interfere in close
proximity
Less connection stability

Cellular Network
Organization

Multiple low power transmitters

100w or less

Area divided into cells

Each with own antenna


Each with own range of frequencies
Served by base station

Transmitter, receiver, control unit

Adjacent cells on different frequencies to


avoid crosstalk

Shape of Cells

Square

Width d cell has four neighbors at distance d and four at


distance 2 d
Better if all adjacent antennas equidistant

Simplifies choosing and switching to new antenna

Hexagon

Provides equidistant antennas


Radius defined as radius of circum-circle

Distance from center to vertex equals length of side

3 is
Distance between centers of cells radius R
Not always precise hexagons

Topographical limitations
Local signal propagation conditions
Location of antennas

Cellular Geometries

Frequency Reuse

Power of base transceiver controlled

Allow communications within cell on given frequency


Limit escaping power to adjacent cells
Allow re-use of frequencies in nearby cells
Use same frequency for multiple conversations
10 50 frequencies per cell

E.g.

The pattern consists of N cells


K total number of frequencies used in systems
Each cell has K/N frequencies
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) K=395, N=7
giving 57 frequencies per cell on average

Characterizing Frequency
Reuse
D = minimum distance between centers of cells that use

the same band of frequencies (called cochannels)


R = radius of a cell
d = distance between centers of adjacent cells (d = R)
N = number of cells in repetitious pattern

Hexagonal cell pattern, following values of N possible

Reuse factor
Each cell in pattern uses unique band of frequencies
N = I2 + J2 + (I x J),

I, J = 0, 1, 2, 3,

Possible values of N are 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 21,


D/R= 3N
D/d = N

Frequency
Reuse
Patterns

Figure 16.2 Frequency reuse patterns

16.11

N=7, 32 cells, R=1.6km, in total 336


channels

Operation of Cellular
Base station (BS) at center of each cell
Systems

Controller handles call process

One MTSO serves multiple BS


MTSO to BS link by wire or wireless

MTSO:

Number of mobile units may in use at a time

BS connected to mobile telecommunications switching office


(MTSO)

Antenna, controller, transceivers

Connects calls between mobile units and from mobile to fixed


telecommunications network
Assigns voice channel
Performs handoffs
Monitors calls (billing)

Fully automated

Overview of Cellular System

Call Stages

Three Generations

1st Generation

2nd Generation

based on analog voice using frequency


modulation
digital techniques and time-division (TDMA) or
code-division multiple access (CDMA)

3rd Generation

broadband access for personal


communications services (PCS)

Note

AMPS is an analog cellular phone


system using FDMA.

16.25

Figure 16.5 Second-generation cellular phone systems

16.26

Advanced Mobile Phone


Service

1st Generation
most common
mobile phone
service since
early 80s
developed by
AT&T

AMPS Spectral Allocation

Two 25-MHz bands

Each split in two to allow competition

base to mobile (869-894 MHz)


mobile to base (824-849 MHz)
each operator allocated 12.5 MHz bands

416 channels per operator

395 for calls, 21 for control data

Figure 16.3 Cellular bands for AMPS

16.29

Figure 16.4 AMPS reverse communication band

16.30

AMPS Spatial Allocation

Limited channels dictate frequency reuse in


nearby cells
Generally 10 to 50 frequencies assigned to cell
Pattern of 7 cells smallest allowing sufficient
isolation
57 frequencies per cell
6.5 to 13 km per cell
May be split with lower power

Note

D-AMPS, or IS-136, is a digital cellular


phone system using TDMA and FDMA.

16.32

Figure 16.6 D-AMPS

16.33

AMPS Components

Mobile Units

Base Transceiver

contains a modem that can switch


between many frequencies
3 identification numbers: electronic serial
number, system ID number, mobile ID
number
full-duplex communication with the mobile

Mobile Switching Center

AMPS Mobile Units

Modem that can switch between


frequencies
Power output of unit controlled to match
size of cell
Three identification numbers

electronic serial number - 32 bits


system operator identification number - 15 bits
mobile identification number - 34 bits - phone
#

AMPS Logon

When mobile becomes operational, it


senses control channels to determine
channel and base station received best
Exchanges information via base station
Announces its system id # to identify its
home carrier
Home carrier contacted for authorization
and to locate mobile for incoming calls

AMPS Handoffs

Roaming operator must move


between cells

Different cells have different frequencies


and power levels

Choice of handoff depends on


received power from base stations
and controlled by mobile switching
center

Global System for Mobile


Comm.

2nd Generation
First appeared in 1991 in Europe
Similar to working of AMPS
Designed to support phone, data,
and image
Rates up to 9.6 kbps
GSM transmission is encrypted using
secret keys

Global System
for Mobile Communication

Developed to provide common 2ndgeneration technology for Europe


200 million customers worldwide,
almost 5 million in the North America
GSM transmission is encrypted
Spectral allocation: 25 MHz for base
transmission (935960 MHz), 25 MHz
for mobile transmission (890915 MHz)

GSM SIM

Subscriber Identity Module


Smart card or plug-in module to activate
unit
stores

subscribers identification number


networks subscriber is authorized to use
encryption keys

Can use any unit anywhere with your SIM

Multiple Access

Four ways to divide the spectrum


among active users

frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)


time-division multiplexing (TDM)
code-division multiplexing (CDM)
space-division multiplexing (SDM)

GSM Access Methods

FDM too wasteful


TDMA - time-division multiple access

early lead - more successful experience

CDMA - code-division multiple access

theoretical advantages
increased range
choice for 3rd generation

Figure 16.7 GSM bands

16.45

Figure 16.8 GSM

16.46

Figure 16.9 Multiframe components

16.47

Note

GSM is a digital cellular phone system


using TDMA and FDMA.

16.48

Figure 16.10 IS-95 forward transmission

16.49

Figure 16.11 IS-95 reverse transmission

16.50

Note

IS-95 is a digital cellular phone system


using CDMA/DSSS and FDMA.

16.51

Choice of Access Methods

FDM, used in 1st generation systems, wastes


spectrum
Debate over TDMA vs CDMA for 2nd generation

TDMA advocates argue there is more successful


experience with TDMA.
CDMA proponents argue that CDMA offers additional
features as well, such as increased range.
TDMA systems have achieved an early lead in actual
implementations
CDMA seems to be the access method of choice for
third-generation systems

3rd Generation Wireless

Provide high speed wireless for voice, data,


video and multimedia
ITUs view

voice quality of wired


144 kbps high-speed roaming / 384 kbps low-speed
adaptive interface to internet for asymmetric speed
more efficient use of spectrum
support wide variety of equipment, services, etc

PCS & PCN

Personal Communications Services


(PCS)

find person easily


use communication system anywhere with
single account

Personal Communications Network


(PCN)

use terminal in wide variety of environments


to connect to information services

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol

universal, open standard - WAP forum


provide mobile users access to information
services, including internet and web

Works with wireless network technologies


Based on existing internet standards such
as TCP, IP, HTTP, HTML, XML
Support limited resources in and variety of
mobile devices

WAP Specs

Include

programming model
Wireless Markup Language (adhering to
XML)
Microbrowser
Lightweight protocol stack
Framework for wireless telephony
applications

Note

The main goal of third-generation


cellular telephony is to provide
universal personal communication.

16.57

Figure 16.12 IMT-2000 radio interfaces

16.58