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# Chapter 16

Wireless WANs:
Cellular Telephone
and Satellite Networks
16.1

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

161CELLULARTELEPHONY
Cellular
telephony
is
designed
to
provide
communications between two moving units, called
mobile stations (MSs), or between one mobile unit and
one stationary unit, often called a land unit.
Topics discussed in this section:
Frequency-Reuse Principle
Transmitting
Receiving
Roaming
First Generation
Second Generation
Third Generation
16.2

Wireless Communications

When?

## Mobile communications is needed

Terrain makes wired communication
difficult
Communications must be set up quickly
Communications must be installed at low
cost
locations

## More susceptible to interference,

noise, signal loss, and eavesdropping
Generally lower data rate than wired
Frequencies interfere in close
proximity
Less connection stability

Cellular Network
Organization

100w or less

## Each with own antenna

Each with own range of frequencies
Served by base station

avoid crosstalk

Shape of Cells

Square

## Width d cell has four neighbors at distance d and four at

distance 2 d
Better if all adjacent antennas equidistant

Hexagon

## Distance from center to vertex equals length of side

3 is
Distance between centers of cells radius R
Not always precise hexagons

Topographical limitations
Local signal propagation conditions
Location of antennas

Cellular Geometries

Frequency Reuse

## Allow communications within cell on given frequency

Limit escaping power to adjacent cells
Allow re-use of frequencies in nearby cells
Use same frequency for multiple conversations
10 50 frequencies per cell

E.g.

## The pattern consists of N cells

K total number of frequencies used in systems
Each cell has K/N frequencies
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) K=395, N=7
giving 57 frequencies per cell on average

Characterizing Frequency
Reuse
D = minimum distance between centers of cells that use

## the same band of frequencies (called cochannels)

R = radius of a cell
d = distance between centers of adjacent cells (d = R)
N = number of cells in repetitious pattern

## Hexagonal cell pattern, following values of N possible

Reuse factor
Each cell in pattern uses unique band of frequencies
N = I2 + J2 + (I x J),

I, J = 0, 1, 2, 3,

D/R= 3N
D/d = N

Frequency
Reuse
Patterns

16.11

## N=7, 32 cells, R=1.6km, in total 336

channels

Operation of Cellular
Base station (BS) at center of each cell
Systems

## One MTSO serves multiple BS

MTSO to BS link by wire or wireless

MTSO:

(MTSO)

## Connects calls between mobile units and from mobile to fixed

telecommunications network
Assigns voice channel
Performs handoffs
Monitors calls (billing)

Fully automated

## Overview of Cellular System

Call Stages

Three Generations

1st Generation

2nd Generation

## based on analog voice using frequency

modulation
digital techniques and time-division (TDMA) or
code-division multiple access (CDMA)

3rd Generation

communications services (PCS)

Note

## AMPS is an analog cellular phone

system using FDMA.

16.25

16.26

Service

1st Generation
most common
mobile phone
service since
early 80s
developed by
AT&T

## base to mobile (869-894 MHz)

mobile to base (824-849 MHz)
each operator allocated 12.5 MHz bands

16.29

16.30

## Limited channels dictate frequency reuse in

nearby cells
Generally 10 to 50 frequencies assigned to cell
Pattern of 7 cells smallest allowing sufficient
isolation
57 frequencies per cell
6.5 to 13 km per cell
May be split with lower power

Note

## D-AMPS, or IS-136, is a digital cellular

phone system using TDMA and FDMA.

16.32

16.33

AMPS Components

Mobile Units

Base Transceiver

## contains a modem that can switch

between many frequencies
3 identification numbers: electronic serial
number, system ID number, mobile ID
number
full-duplex communication with the mobile

## Modem that can switch between

frequencies
Power output of unit controlled to match
size of cell
Three identification numbers

## electronic serial number - 32 bits

system operator identification number - 15 bits
mobile identification number - 34 bits - phone
#

AMPS Logon

## When mobile becomes operational, it

senses control channels to determine
channel and base station received best
Exchanges information via base station
Announces its system id # to identify its
home carrier
Home carrier contacted for authorization
and to locate mobile for incoming calls

AMPS Handoffs

between cells

and power levels

## Choice of handoff depends on

and controlled by mobile switching
center

## Global System for Mobile

Comm.

2nd Generation
First appeared in 1991 in Europe
Similar to working of AMPS
Designed to support phone, data,
and image
Rates up to 9.6 kbps
GSM transmission is encrypted using
secret keys

Global System
for Mobile Communication

## Developed to provide common 2ndgeneration technology for Europe

200 million customers worldwide,
almost 5 million in the North America
GSM transmission is encrypted
Spectral allocation: 25 MHz for base
transmission (935960 MHz), 25 MHz
for mobile transmission (890915 MHz)

GSM SIM

## Subscriber Identity Module

Smart card or plug-in module to activate
unit
stores

## subscribers identification number

networks subscriber is authorized to use
encryption keys

Multiple Access

## Four ways to divide the spectrum

among active users

## frequency-division multiplexing (FDM)

time-division multiplexing (TDM)
code-division multiplexing (CDM)
space-division multiplexing (SDM)

## FDM too wasteful

TDMA - time-division multiple access

## CDMA - code-division multiple access

increased range
choice for 3rd generation

16.45

16.46

16.47

Note

## GSM is a digital cellular phone system

using TDMA and FDMA.

16.48

16.49

16.50

Note

## IS-95 is a digital cellular phone system

using CDMA/DSSS and FDMA.

16.51

## FDM, used in 1st generation systems, wastes

spectrum
Debate over TDMA vs CDMA for 2nd generation

## TDMA advocates argue there is more successful

experience with TDMA.
CDMA proponents argue that CDMA offers additional
features as well, such as increased range.
TDMA systems have achieved an early lead in actual
implementations
CDMA seems to be the access method of choice for
third-generation systems

## Provide high speed wireless for voice, data,

video and multimedia
ITUs view

## voice quality of wired

144 kbps high-speed roaming / 384 kbps low-speed
adaptive interface to internet for asymmetric speed
more efficient use of spectrum
support wide variety of equipment, services, etc

(PCS)

## find person easily

use communication system anywhere with
single account

(PCN)

## use terminal in wide variety of environments

to connect to information services

WAP

## universal, open standard - WAP forum

services, including internet and web

## Works with wireless network technologies

Based on existing internet standards such
as TCP, IP, HTTP, HTML, XML
Support limited resources in and variety of
mobile devices

WAP Specs

Include

programming model
XML)
Microbrowser
Lightweight protocol stack
Framework for wireless telephony
applications

Note

## The main goal of third-generation

cellular telephony is to provide
universal personal communication.

16.57

16.58