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OSI Model

Joan Baez Dimatira, RECE


06/18/14

How OSI was created and how

An attempt for a framework for developing


networking technologies
OSI became a tool for explaining the
Networking in general
Before OSI was created people created
their Software/Hardware as they wanted it
to be. There was not any compatibility.
Now OSI is used as a rule set for all
vendors to create their Software/Hardware
by using the standards.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) is a set


of internationally recognized, non-proprietary
standards for networking and for operating
system involved in networking functions.

7 Layers
All
People
Seem
To
Need
Data
Processing

Each layer support the layers above it


and offers services to the layers below
Each layer performs unique and
specific task
A layer only has knowledge of its
neighbour layers only
A layer service is independent of the
implementation

LAYER 7 The APPLICATION Layer


The top layer of the OSI model
Provides a set of interfaces for sending and
receiving applications to gain access to and use
network services, such as: networked file
transfer, message handling and database query
processing
Examples of such applications are
spreadsheet programs, word processing
programs, and bank terminal programs.

Application layer(Layer 7)
Applications and Services run on it
Enables human network to interface the underlying data
network
Applications on that layer (E-mail clients, web browsers, Chats,
etc.) top-stack applications (As people are on the top of the
stack)
Applications provide people with a way to create message
Application layer services establish an interface to the
network
Protocols provide the rules and formats that govern how data
is treated
Protocols on the destination and the host must match

The application layer is responsible for


providing services to the user.

LAYER 6 The PRESENTATION Layer


Coding and conversion of Application layer data to
ensure that data from the source device can be
interpreted by the appropriate application on the
destination device.
Compression of the data in a manner that can be
decompressed by the destination device.
Encryption of the data for transmission and the
decryption of data upon receipt by the destination.
This is the layer at which application programmers
consider data structure and presentation
Examples: GIF, JPEG, TIFF, etc.

The presentation layer is responsible for


translation, compression, and encryption.

LAYER 5 The SESSION Layer


Enables two networked resources to hold ongoing
communications (called a session) across a network
Applications on either end of the session are able to
ex change data for the duration of the session
This layer is: Responsible for initiating, maintaining
and terminating sessions
Responsible for security and access control to session
information (via session participant identification)
Responsible for synchronization
checkpoint services

services, and

Examples :- SQL, ASP(AppleTalk Session Protocol)

for

The session layer is responsible for dialog


control, authentication, permission and
synchronization.

LAYER 4 The TRANSPORT Layer


Manages the transmission of data across a network
Manages the flow of data between parties by segmenting long data
streams into smaller data chunks (based on allowed packet size
for a given transmission medium)
Reassembles chunks into their original sequence at the receiving end
Provides acknowledgements of successful transmissions and requests
resends for packets which arrive with errors- retransmission
Layer 4 protocols include TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram
Protocol).

The transport layer is responsible for the delivery


of a message from one process to another.

LAYER 3 The NETWORK Layer


Handles addressing messages for delivery, as
well as translating logical network addresses and
names into their physical counterparts
Responsible for deciding how
transmissions between computers

to

route

This layer also handles the decisions needed to


get data from one point to the next point along a
network path
This layer also handles packet switching and
network congestion control
Examples :- IP, IPX, AppleTalk.

The network layer is responsible for the


delivery of individual packets from
the source host to the destination host.

LAYER 2 The DATA LINK Layer


Handles special data frames (packets) between the
Network layer and the Physical layer
At the receiving end, this layer packages raw data
from the physical layer into data frames for
delivery to the Network layer
At the sending end this layer handles conversion of
data into raw formats that can be handled by the
Physical Layer
Examples :- Ethernet, Frame Relay,
FDDI.

2.1.

Logical Link Control (LLC )

Establishment and control of logical links between local


devices on a network.

2.2. Media Access Control (MAC)


The procedures used by devices to control access to the
network medium.
Frame sequencing
Frame acknowledgment
Addressing
Frame delimiting
Frame error checking
PDU: frame

The data link layer is responsible for moving


frames from one hop (node) to the next.

LAYER 1 The PHYSICAL Layer

Converts bits into electronic signals for outgoing messages

Converts electronic signals into bits for incoming messages

This layer manages the interface between the the computer


and the network medium (coax, twisted pair, etc.)

This layer tells the driver software for the MAU (media
attachment unit, ex. network interface cards (NICs, modems,
etc.)) what needs to be sent across the medium

The bottom layer of the OSI model

Examples :- EIA/TIA-232, RJ45, NRZ.

The physical layer is responsible for movements


of
individual bits from one hop (node) to the next.

Remember
A convenient aid for remembering the OSI
layer names is to use the first letter of each
word in the phrase:

All People Seem To Need Data Processing