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Generating Stations

Steam Power Station.


Hydro-Electric Power Station.
Diesel Power Station.
Gas Turbine Power Plant.

Introduction
Necessity to provide bulk electric power economically.
Bulk electric power can be achieved by the help of suitable power producing units
called Power Plants / Electric Power Generating Stations.
The design of power plant should in corporate two important aspects.
I. Selection and placing of necessary power generating equipment, such that
a maximum of return will result from a minimum of expenditure over the
working life of the plant.
II. The operation of the plant should provide cheep, reliable and continuous
services.

Generating Station
A generating station essentially employs a prime mover coupled to an alternator
for producing of electric power.
The prime mover (Steam turbine, water turbine and etc) converts some form of
energy to mechanical energy.
Then alternator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.
The electrical energy produced by generating station is transmitted and distributed
with the help of transmission line to various consumers.
Auxiliary equipment and instruments are also employed to ensure cheap, reliable
and continuous service.

Generating Station (Cont.)


Depending upon the various types of energy converted in to electrical energy, the
generating station are classified as under.
Steam Power Stations / Thermal Power Station.
Hydro Electric Power Stations.
Diesel Power Stations.
Nuclear Power Stations.

Steam Power Station


A generating station which converts heat energy of coal combustion in to electrical
energy is known as Steam Power Station.
Steam is produced in the boiler by utilizing the heat of coal combustion.
Steam is expanded in the prime mover (Steam turbine) and is condensed in a
condenser to be fed in to the boiler again.
The steam turbine derives the alternator, which converts mechanical energy of
turbine in to electrical energy.
The type of power plant suitable where coal and water are available in abundance.

Steam Power Station (Cont.)


Advantages

Disadvantages

The fuel (i.e. coal) used is quiet cheep.

Less initial cost as compared to other generating stations.

It can be installed at any place irrespective of the existence of coal*.

It requires less space as compared to the hydro-electric power stations.

It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes.

Cost of power generation is lesser than that of diesel power station.

Its running cost is very high as compared to hydro-electric power station.

Schematic Diagram of Steam


Power Station

Steam Power Station (Cont.)


Choice of Site for Steam Power Station:
In order to achieve overall economy, the following points should be considered
while selecting a site for a steam power station.
i. Supply of fuel
ii. Availability of water
iii. Transportation facility
iv. Cost and type of land
v. Nearness of load center
vi. Distance from populated

Steam Power Station (Cont.)


Efficiency

of Steam Power Plant:


The over all efficiency of steam power is quiet low (about 29%). It is just because
of following two reasons.
A huge amount of heat is lost in the condenser*.
Heat loses occur at the various stages of plant.
Thermal Efficiency:
Over All Efficiency:

Steam Power Station (Cont.)


Efficiency

of Steam Power Plant (Cont.):


The thermal efficiency of steam power station is about 30%*.
More than 50% of heat is loss at condenser.
Rest of heat losses occur in flue gases, radiation, ash and etc.
Over all efficiency of steam power station is about 29%.
About 1% heat losses occur at alternator.
The relation among various efficiencies is given by.

Problem 2.1: A steam power generating station has an overall efficiency of 20%
and 0.6 kg of coal is burnt per kWh of electrical energy generated. Calculate
calorific value of fuel.
Solution:

Problem 2.2: A thermal power station has the following data:


Max. demand = 20,000 kW;
Load factor = 40%;
Boiler Efficiency = 85%;
Turbine Efficiency = 90%;
Cost of 1 ton of coal = Rs 300; coal consumption = 0.9 kg/kWh;
Determine (i) thermal efficiency. (ii) Coal bill per annum
Solution:

(i) * = 0.85*0.9
(ii)
=
Coal Consumption/annum =
Annual Coal bill

= Rs 300* 63072 = 1,89,21,600

Hydro Electric Power Station


A generating station which utilizes the potential energy of water at a high level for
the generation of electrical energy.
In hydro electric power station, the turbine converts hydraulic energy (product of
head and flow of water) in to the mechanical energy.
Turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy to electrical
energy.

Hydro Electric Power Station (Cont.)


Advantages

It requires no fuel, as water is used for the generation of electrical energy.

No hazardous effects*.

Simple in construction and requires less maintenance.

It does not require long starting time like steam power station.

It is robust and has longer life.

Such plants can be put in to service instantly

Low man power

Disadvantages

It require high capital cost due to construction of dam.

There is uncertainty about the availability of huge amount of water.

High cost of transmission lines as plant is located at the hilly areas which are quiet away
from the consumers.

Skilled and experienced manpower required.

Schematic Arrangement of Hydro-Electric Power Station


Hydraulic Structure:
Dam
Spillways
Headworks
Surge Tanks
Penstocks
Water Turbines:
Impulse Turbines
Reaction Turbines
Electrical Equipment:

Problem 2.6: A hydro electric generating station is supplied from a reservoir of


capacity cubic meters at the head of 200 m. Find the total energy available in kWh
if the overall efficiency is 75%.
Solution:

Weight of water available is:


= * =
W=
Electrical energy available
=
=

Problem 2.9: Calculate the average power in kW that can be generated in the
hydroelectric project from the following data:
;
If the load factor is 40%. What is the rating of generator installed?
Solution:

Vol. of water which can be utilized per annum:


=
=
Weight of water available per annum:
Electrical energy available
=
=


Solution:

= 81620 kW
The maximum capacity of generators to be installed is 81620 kW

Problem 2.12: The weekly discharge of hydroelectric plant is as under.


Day
Discharge

Sun
500

Mon
520

Tue
850

Wed
800

Thurs
875

Fri
900

Sat
546

The plant has an effective head of 15m and an overall efficiency of 85%. If the plant
operates on 40% load factor, estimate (i) average daily discharge. (ii)Pondage
required. (iii) Installed Capacity of proposed plant.


Solution:
(i)
(ii)It is clear from the graph that on three days (viz. Sun, Mon and Sat) the
discharge is less than the average discharge.

(iii)Wt. of water available per sec =


Average power produced =
=
=
Installed capacity of plant =

Diesel Power Station


A generating station in which diesel engine is used as a prime mover for
generation of electrical energy.
The diesel burns inside the engine and the product of this combustion act as the
working fluid to produced the mechanical energy.
The diesel engine drives the alternator which converts electrical energy to
mechanical energy.
The generation cost is high due to the high price of diesel.
Diesel power station is feasible where demand of power is low and sufficient
amount of coal and water is not available and transportation facilities are
inadequate

Diesel Power Station


Disadvantages

Advantages

The design and layout of plant are very simple.

It occupies less space*.

The plant has high running charges as the fuel is costly.

It can be installed at any place.

The plant does not operate satisfactorily under overload condition for a longer period.

It can be started quickly and can pick up the load in a very short time.

The plant can only generate small power.

There are no standby losses.

The cost of lubrication is generally high.

Thermal efficiency is higher than other power plants.

The maintenance charges are generally high.

It requires less operating staff.

Schematic diagram of Diesel Power Plant

Schematic diagram of Diesel Power Plant


Fuel Supply System:
Air Intake System:
Exhaust System:
Cooling System:
Lubricating System:
Engine Starting System:

Problem 2.14: A diesel power station has fuel consumption of 0.28 kg/kWh, the
calorific value of fuel being 10,000 kcal/kg. Determined (i) The overall efficiency
and (ii) Efficiency of the engine if alternator efficiency is 95%.
Solution:

(i)

Problem 2.15: A diesel power station has following data:


Fuel consumption/day = 1000kg;
Units generated/day = 4000kWh Calorific
value of fuel = 10,000 kcal/kg; Alternator efficiency = 96%;
Engine Mech.
Efficiency = 95%
Estimate (i)Specific fuel consumption.
(ii)Overall efficiency.
(iii)Thermal efficiency of engine.
Solution:


Solution:

Gas Turbine Power Plant


The generating station which employs gas turbine as the prime mover as the
generation of electrical energy is known as a gas turbine power plant.
Air is used as a working fluid*.
Fuel pumped in and ignited to work with compressed air.
Hot and high pressure gases from the combustion chamber passes through the gas
turbine where it expands and do some mechanical work.
The gas turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy to
electrical energy.
Gas turbine power plant are being used as a standby plants for hydro electric
stations, as a starting plant for driving auxiliaries in power plants.

Gas Turbine Power Plant (Cont.)


Disadvantages

Advantages

It is simple in design as compared to steam power station*.

There is a problem for starting the unit***.

It is much smaller in size as compared to the steam power station of the same capacity.

The initial and operating costs are much lower than the equivalent steam power station.

Net output is low. Since greater part of power developed by the turbine is used in driving
the compressor.

It requires less water as no condenser is used.

The overall efficiency of such a plant is low (about 20%). Because the exhaust gases from
the turbine contain sufficient heat.

Low maintenance charges.

Started quickly in cold conditions**.

The temperature of combustion chamber is quiet high (3000F). So that its life is
comparatively reduced.

No standby losses**.

Schematic arrangement of Gas Turbine Power Plant


Compressor
Regenerator
Combustion Chamber
Gas Turbine
Alternator
Starting Motor