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Power Quality Issues with a

Solar EV Charging Station

Laura Novoa
September 24th, 2015

Agenda
Motivation
Overview of Car-Shade System
Power Quality Analysis

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Motivation

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

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Car Shade System Overview


UCI
Microgrid

Car Shade
Switchgear
480 V

12 kV

Inverter
100
kW

20 EV
Level 2 - 7.2 KVA
Chargers

208 V (Dual-Phase)

Battery

PV Array

100 kW/100kWh 48 kW

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Car Shade System Pictures

Rooftop
Solar PV

Charging Stations
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Battery
Enclosure

Battery and Controls


5/25

Harmonics
AC to DC conversion in a
Rectifier
Rectifier
AC Charger

AC

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Rectified
DC

DC Battery

Harmoni
cs
6/25

Car Shade Power Quality Survey

Car Shade Nanogrid

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Objectives of Power Quality Survey


1. Characterize Power Quality at the Car
Shade nanogrid
PQ Events
IEEE 519-1992 THD limits

2. Validate ETAP harmonic flow model


Defined characteristic harmonic spectrum for different
EV models
Harmonic sources are modelled as current sources
Voltage Harmonics will vary according to the system
impedance

3. Harmonic Cancellation
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Power Quality at the Car Shade


Nanogrid

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PQ Events at the Car Shade


Impulsive transients (microseconds - 1s rise)
150
100

Precisely at 6:07
Nissan Leaf connects to
EVSE 1 (CB)

Volts

50
0
-50
-100
-150
AV
06:07:51.235
05/21/2015
Thursday

BV

CV

DV

06:07:51.240

06:07:51.245

Station Name
Start Date
End Date
SCE-UCI / STATION
5/21/2015
5/21/2015
1
6:07
10:04

Event #453 at 05/21/2015 06:07:51.233


BV Mult Z Cr Impulse

Oscillatory
Ev ent De tails/Wave
transients
forms
150

Precisely at 7:20
Spark connects to EVSE 10
(AB)

100
Volts

50
0
-50

Station Name
Start Date
End Date
SCE-UCI / STATION
5/21/2015
5/21/2015
10
7:20
11:00

-100
-150
AV
07:19:59.85
05/21/2015
Thursday

BV

07:19:59.86

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

CV
07:19:59.87

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Current Harmonics (Amps) at T1


secondary
Week Current Harmonics (3rd to 50th
order)
4

Amps

3
2
1
0
A ITHDRss (avg)
A I HG11 (avg)
A I HG21 (avg)
A I HG31 (avg)
A I HG41 (avg)
05/19/2015
Tues day

05/20/2015
Wednes day

A I HG03 (avg)
A I HG13 (avg)
A I HG23 (avg)
A I HG33 (avg)
A I HG43 (avg)
05/21/2015
Thursday

A I HG05 (avg)
A I HG15 (avg)
A I HG25 (avg)
A I HG35 (avg)
A I HG45 (avg)
05/22/2015
Friday

A I HG07 (avg)
A I HG17 (avg)
A I HG27 (avg)
A I HG37 (avg)
A I HG47 (avg)

05/23/2015
Saturday

05/24/2015
Sunday

A I HG09 (avg)
A I HG19 (avg)
A I HG29 (avg)
A I HG39 (avg)
A I HG49 (avg)
05/25/2015
Monday

05/26/2015
Tuesday

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Current TDD (% IL) at T1 secondary


95% Current Total Demand Distortion (TDDi) (%IL) and Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHDi) (%FUND)
6.00

IEEE 519 -1992


Limits
TDD < 5%
3rd - 11th < 4%
11th -17th < 2%

5.00
4.00
2.84
% IL 3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00

1.81

1.53

1.00

0.89

0.52

0.50

0.30

TDD AI HG03 AI HG05 AI HG07 AI HG09 AI HG11 AI HG13 AI HG15


Harmonic Order

No individual harmonic orders registered or magnitudes above


the recommended by IEEE 519-1992
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Voltage THD (%FUND) at T1


3.25

3.00
2.75
2.50
2.25
A VThd (avg)

B VThd (avg)

C VThd (avg)

Amps

4
3

2
1

A ITHDRss (avg)
05/19/2015

05/20/2015

05/21/2015

Advanced Power
and EnergyWednesday
Program 2015 Thursday
Tuesday

B ITHDRss (avg)

05/22/2015
Friday

05/23/2015
Saturday

Recall:
IEEE Std 519-1992
THDv <5%
C ITHDRss (avg)
(<69kV)
05/24/2015
Sunday

05/25/2015
Monday

05/26/2015
13/25
Tuesday

Voltage THD (%FUND) at T1


Voltage Total Harmoinc Distortion (THDv) and Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHDv) (%FUND)
5.00

IEEE 519 -1992

4.00
3.00

3.12

Limits
< 5%
< 3%
1.98

THDv and IHDv (%FUND) 2.00

2.24
1.03

1.00

0.20
0.00

0.10

0.52

0.07

Harmonic Order

No individual harmonic orders registered or magnitudes above


the recommended by IEEE 519-1992
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Model a characteristic Harmonic input


profile for different EV models

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Nissan Leaf - Charging Current


Harmonics
Time plot

Ev ent De tails/Waveforms

50

30

Amps

15

REGION 1
THDi =
(14.37%)
0.9 A Charging harmonic

10
5
0

1.25

Amps

1.00

(3.1%)
09:30
05/19/2015
Tuesday

10:00

Time
A Irmplot
s (avg)

10:30

11:00

11:30

25
Amps

REGION 2
THDi =
1.26 A

20

REGION 3
THDi = 0.7
A
(20.97%)

0
-25
-50

Event De tails/Wave forms


AI
BI
15
currents arent
constant,
10:19:59.87
10:19:59.88
10
05/19/2015
thus:
Tuesday

10:19:59.89

10:19:59.90

12:00

12:30

Amps

25

Event #181 at 05/19/2015 10:19:59.800


Timed

Maximum (worst case) harmonics


currents
-5
are considered for modelling
each EV type
-10
Event #177 at 05/19/2015 09:39:59.800
Timed

-15

0.75

AI

BI

Ev ent De tails/Wave forms

0.50

11:19:59.87

1.5 05/19/2015

11:19:59.88

11:19:59.89

11:19:59.90

Tuesday
1.0

0.25

Event #187 at 05/19/2015 11:19:59.800


Timed

0.5

A ITHDRss (avg)
A I HG07 (avg)
A I HG13 (avg)
09:30
05/19/2015
Tuesday

10:00

A I HG03 (avg)
A I HG09 (avg)
A I HG15 (avg)
10:30

11:00

Amps

0.00
A I HG05 (avg)
A I HG11 (avg)

0.0
-0.5
-1.0

11:30

12:00

12:30

AI
11:59:59.84
05/19/2015

Event #177 at 05/19/2015 09:39:59.800


Timed

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

11:59:59.85

BI

11:59:59.86

11:59:59.87

Event #191 at 05/19/2015 11:59:59.800


Timed

16/25

11:59:59.88

Tesla - Charging Current Harmonics


Time plot
30
25

THD =
1.7A
(5.8%)

Amps

20
15
10

Event De tails/Wave forms


50

5
0

25

C Irms (avg)
16:00

17:00

18:00

Timeplot

19:00

20:00

Amps

15:00
05/20/2015
Wednesday

Event #369 at 05/20/2015 16:19:59.800


Timed

-25

1.0

-50

Amps

1.5

CI
17:39:59.88
05/20/2015

0.5

17:39:59.89

DI
17:39:59.90

Event #377 at 05/20/2015 17:39:59.800


Timed

0.0
C ITHDRss (avg)
C I HG11 (avg)
15:00
05/20/2015
Wednesday

16:00

C I HG03 (avg)
C I HG13 (avg)

C I HG05 (avg)
C I HG15 (avg)

17:00

18:00

C I HG07 (avg)
19:00

C I HG09 (avg)
20:00

Event #369 at 05/20/2015 16:19:59.800


Timed

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

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17:39:59.91

Current Harmonics Input Different EVs


Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD) (%FUND)
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
4.0
% FUND
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0

Recall:
IEEE Std 519-1992
Individual Harmonic Order:
(Isc/IL
< 20)
At the Car
Shade,
T1 and T2 (Delta Wye) trap
<4%
for < 11th
the
excessive
3rd harmonic
<2% for 11th 17th
To determine the impacts of a group of EVs
charging together, Harmonic Cancellation
needs to be accounted for

11

13

Volt
Leaf
Tesla
Soul
BMW
Mercedes
Prius
Spark

15

Harmonic Order

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

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Current Harmonics Cancellation


Cancellation is related to the phase angles of each individual
harmonic order
In a real power system, each harmonic order has individual
To calculate/determine harmonic cancellation

different phase angles.

Model EV charging harmonic phase angles

Loads such as Electric Vehicles, may have similar


harmonic inputs,
but when diversified across the phases, harmonics
cancelling might happen.
Total cancellation occurs when there is a 180 phase shift.
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Current Harmonics Cancellation


4.5
4

Amps

Phase A at T1 Secondary

3.5

AI HG03Max[Amps]

AI HG05Max[Amps]

2.5

AI HG01Max[Amps]

120

3rd
80%

100

3rd
17%
5th
70%

5th
10%

1.5
1

Amps
60
40
20

0.5
0
6000

80

EVSE 10
LEAF

T5/22/15
: EVSE 03
7:12
(W)
5/22/15 9:36
5/22/15 12:00
5/22/15 14:24
5/22/15 16:48
5/22/15 6:00T: EVSE 08 (W)5/22/15 8:24
5/22/15 10:48
5/22/15 13:12
5/22/15Leaf
15:36connected
3 @10:40
EVSE Nissan
5000
EVSE 10 (AB)
T: EVSE 02 (W)
@14:30 Nissan Leaf
No other EVSE disconnected
T: EVSE 07 (W)
4
4000
connected EVSE 3 (AB)
T: EVSE 10 (W)

EVSE

Power (W)

3000
2000

At this time, EVSEs 2, 3, and 7 were


being
A) time, EVSEs 2, and 7
EVSE
3 used (phase
At this
were being used (phase A)
LEAF

1000
0

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Current Harmonic Phasors Nissan Leaf


1 - EVSE 6

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Comparing: EVSE 8 (Leaf 1) and EVSE 6


(Leaf 2)

Harmonic Current Phase angles depend


on the local Voltage Phase angles
For different EVSEs a give harmonic order
will have different phase angles
Good for cancellation!
Bad for modelling: No characteristic phase
angles
Strategy: Compare PQ measurements with
results from ETAP model and calibrate ETAP
model for cancellation
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ETAP Model PQ results

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Summary
PQ at the Car Shade
Transient events were the only PQ issue
Occurred when EVs are connected
Most were propagated until T1.

and limits are not exceeded

Phase angle diversity at the Car Shade


allows for harmonic cancellation
Mostly on 3rd and 5th orders
ETAP model calibrated
Calculated THD distortion upstream the system
Expansion effects (Future work)

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Questions?

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Backup Slides

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Chevy Volt - Charging Current


Time plot
30
25

15

Ev ent De tails/Wave forms

THD = 1.0
A
(6.8%)

10
5
0

30
20
10

C Irm s (avg)
09:00
05/21/2015
Thursday

10:00

11:00

12:00

13:00

14:00

Timeplot

-20
-30

0.75
Amps

0
-10

Event #389 at 05/20/2015 19:39:59.800


Timed

1.00

Amps

Amps

20

CI
12:09:59.88
05/21/2015

0.50

12:09:59.89

DI

12:09:59.90

12:09:59.91

Event #501 at 05/21/2015 12:09:59.800


Timed

0.25

0.00
C ITHDRss (avg)
C I HG11 (avg)
09:30
10:00
05/21/2015
Thursday

C I HG03 (avg)
C I HG13 (avg)

C I HG05 (avg)
C I HG15 (avg)

10:30

11:30

11:00

12:00

C I HG07 (avg)
12:30

13:00

C I HG09 (avg)
13:30

14:00

Event #389 at 05/20/2015 19:39:59.800


Timed

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

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12:09:59.92

BMW i3 Charging Current Harmonics


Time plot
35

Ev ent De tails/Waveforms

30
50

THD = 1.3
A
(6.8%)

20
15
10

25
0

Amps

Amps

25

-25

0
-5

-50

C Irm s (avg)
10:20
10:40
05/22/2015
Friday

11:00

11:20

11:40

12:00

12:20

CI

12:40

Timeplot

11:29:59.84
05/22/2015
Friday

Event #1 at 05/18/2015 15:01:20.516


Waveforms

11:29:59.86

11:29:59.87

Ev ent
Deattails/Wave
forms
Event #651
05/22/2015 11:29:59.800
Timed

1.25

30

1.00

20

0.75

10
Amps

Amps

11:29:59.85

DI

0.50

0
-10

0.25

-20

0.00

-30

C ITHDRss (avg)
C I HG07 (avg)
C I HG13 (avg)

C I HG03 (avg)
C I HG09 (avg)
C I HG15 (avg)

10:20 10:40 11:00 11:20 11:40


05/22/2015
Friday
Advanced Power and Energy Program
2015 15:01:20.516
Event #1 at 05/18/2015

CI

C I HG05 (avg)
C I HG11 (avg)
12:00

12:20

11:59:59.88
05/22/2015
Friday

12:40

DI

11:59:59.89

11:59:59.90

Event #654 at 05/22/2015 11:59:59.800


Timed

28/25

11:59:59.91

Kia Soul Charging Current Harmonics


Time plot
40

Amps

30

Ev ent De tails/Wave forms

THD = 2.0
A
(6.7%)

20
10

50
25
Amps

0
-10
A Irm s (avg)
10:00 10:30
05/20/2015
Wednes day

11:00

11:30

12:00

12:30

0
-25

13:00

13:30

14:00

14:30

-50

Time plot

Event #654 at 05/22/2015 11:59:59.800


Timed

AI

2.0

12:09:59.90
05/20/2015
Wednesday

Amps

1.5

12:09:59.91

BI
12:09:59.92

12:09:59.93

Event #344 at 05/20/2015 12:09:59.800


Timed

1.0
0.5
0.0
A ITHDRs s (avg)
A I HG07 (avg)
A I HG13 (avg)
10:00 10:30
05/20/2015
Wednes day

11:00

A I HG03 (avg)
A I HG09 (avg)
A I HG15 (avg)
11:30

12:00

A I HG05 (avg)
A I HG11 (avg)
12:30

13:00

13:30

14:00

14:30

Event #654 at 05/22/2015 11:59:59.800


Timed

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

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Mercedes EV Charging Current


Harmonics
Time plot
30
25

Amps

20

Ev ent De tails/Wave forms

THD = 2.0
A
(6.7%)

15
10
5

50

25

12:00
12:30
05/21/2015
Thursday

13:00

13:30

14:00

14:30

15:00

15:30

Amps

A Irm s (avg)
16:00

-25

Time plot

Event #343 at 05/20/2015 11:59:59.800


Timed

2.0

-50
AI

Amps

1.5

12:59:59.87
05/21/2015
Thursday

1.0

12:59:59.88

BI

12:59:59.89

12:59:59.90

Event #506 at 05/21/2015 12:59:59.800


Timed

0.5

0.0
A ITHDRs s (avg)
A I HG09 (avg)
12:00
12:30
05/21/2015
Thursday

A I HG03 (avg)
A I HG11 (avg)
13:00

13:30

A I HG05 (avg)
A I HG13 (avg)
14:00

14:30

A I HG07 (avg)
A I HG15 (avg)
15:00

15:30

16:00

Event #343 at 05/20/2015 11:59:59.800


Timed

Advanced Power and Energy Program 2015

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Toyota Prius Charging Current


Harmonics
Time plot

10.0

Ev ent De tails/Wave forms


20

THD = 0.4
A

5.0

10
Amps

Amps

7.5

(12.3%)

2.5

-10

-20
CI

0.0

07:39:59.88
05/28/2015
Thursday

C Irms (avg)
06:45 07:00
05/28/2015
Thursday

07:15

07:30

07:45

08:00

08:15

08:30

08:45

07:39:59.91

Ev
ent De tails/Wave forms
Event #271 at 05/28/2015 07:39:59.800

5.0

Amps

2.5

0.3
Amps

07:39:59.90

Timed

Time plot
Event #1 at 05/26/2015 12:04:45.966
Waveforms

0.4

DI

07:39:59.89

0.0
-2.5

0.2

-5.0
CI

0.1

08:09:59.85
05/28/2015
Thursday

-0.0

08:09:59.86

08:09:59.87

DI
08:09:59.88

08:09:59.89

Event #274 at 05/28/2015 08:09:59.800


Timed

C ITHDRss (avg)
C I HG07 (avg)
C I HG13 (avg)

C I HG03 (avg)
C I HG09 (avg)

C I HG05 (avg)
C I HG11 (avg)

06:45 07:00 07:15 07:30 07:45 08:00 08:15 08:30 08:45


05/28/2015
Thursday
Event #1 at 05/26/2015
Advanced Power and Energy Program
201512:04:45.966
Waveforms

31/25