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The Normal Distribution &

Standard Normal Distribution


I The Normal Distribution
A
What is it?
B
Why is it everywhere?
Probability Theory is why
C
The Skewed Normal Distribution
D
Kurtosis
II The Standard Normal Distribution
A
Standardizing a Normal Distribution
B
Computing Proportions using Table B.1

Anthony J Greene

A Normal Distribution:
Chest Sizes of Scottish Militia Men

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A Normal Distribution:
Histogram of Human Gestation

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The Normal Distribution: Height

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A Normal Distribution:
Age At Retirement

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Normally Distributed Variables


The most common continuous (interval/ratio) variable type
Occurs predominantly in nature (biology, psychology, etc.)
Determined by the principles of Probability

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Probability and the Normal


Distribution
Probability is the Underlying Cause of the
Normal Distribution

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Possible outcomes
for four coin tosses
HHHH
HTHH
THHH
TTHH

HHHT
HTHT
THHT
TTHT

HHTH
HTTH
THTH
TTTH

HHTT
HTTT
THTT
TTTT

There are 16 possibilities because there are 2


possible outcomes for each toss and 4 tosses: 24
In general the possible outcomes are mn where m is
the number of outcomes per event and n is the
number of events
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Probability distribution of the number


of heads obtained in 4 coin tosses
No. of Heads
x
0

Probability
P(X=x)
0.0625

1/16

0.2500

4/16

0.3750

6/16

0.2500

4/16

0.0625

1/16

1.0000
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1
9

Probability distribution of the


number of heads obtained in 4
coin tosses

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10

Frequencies for the numbers of


heads obtained in 4 tosses for
1000 observations
No. of Heads
x
0

Probability
P(X=x)
0.0625

Observed
Frequency
64

0.2500

248

0.3750

392

0.2500

268

0.0625

28

1.0000

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11

(a) Probability for 4 coin flips vs.


(b) 1000 observations

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12

Interpretation of a Normal
Distribution in terms of Probability
Considerwhatwouldhappeniftherewereonly4genesforheight
(therearemore),eachofwhichhasonly2possiblestates(likeheads
versustailsforacoin),callthestatesTfortallandSforshort.The
distributionswouldbeidenticaltothatforthecointosses(seeleft
below)withthepossibilityof0,1,2,3,and4Ts.Inrealityheight
iscontrolledbymanygenessothatmorethan5outcomesare
possible(seerightbelow).

And for 6 coins instead of 4?

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14

Another Example
2 Dice
Possible outcomes:
1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4
2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4
3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4
4,1 4,2 4,3 4,4
5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4
6,1 6,2 6,3 6,4

1,5
2,5
3,5
4,5
5,5
6,5

1,6
2,6
3,6
4,6
5,6
6,6

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15

Another Example
x

f (x)

10

11

12

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16

Examples of the Normal


Distribution

Age
Height
Weight
I.Q.
Sick Days per Year
Hours Sleep per Night
Words Read per
Minute

Calories Eaten per Day


Hours of Work Done
per Day
Eyeblinks per Hour
Insulting Remarks per
Week
Number of Pairs of
Socks Owned

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17

The Skewed Normal Distribution

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18

Examples of Skewed Normal


Distributions
Income
Number of Empty
Soda Cans in Car
Drug Use per Week
Car Accidents per Year
Lifetime
Hospitalizations

Number of Guitars
Owned
Consecutive Days
Unemployed
Hand-Washings per
Day
Number of Languages
Spoken Fluently
Hours of T.V. per Day

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19

Graph of a Normal Distribution


34.13% 34.13%
13.59%

13.59%
2.28%

2.28%

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20

Shapes of the Normal


Distribution
Kurtosis
Leptokurtic
Platokurtic

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21

Frequency and relative-frequency


distributions for heights

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22

What do we do with Normal


Distributions?
1. Determine the position of a given score
relative to all other scores.
2. Compare distributions.

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23

Relative-frequency
histogram for heights

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24

Comparing Two Distributions

Two distributions of exam scores. For both distributions, = 70,


but for one distribution, = 12. The position of X = 76 is very
different for these two distributions.
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25

Data Transformations are


Reversible and Do not Alter the
Relations Among Items
1) Add or Subtract a Constant From Each
Score
2) Multiply Each Score By a Constant

e.g., if you wanted to convert a group of


Fahrenheit temperatures to Centigrade you
would subtract 32 from each score then multiply
by 5/9ths
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26

Transforming a distribution does not change the


shape of the distribution, only its units

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27

0.04

0.02

0.02

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202

0.04

192

0.06

182

0.06

172

0.08

162

0.08

152

0.1

80

0.1

76

0.12

72

0.12

68

0.14

64

0.14

60

0.16

56

0.16

142

Height a) in inches b) in centimeters


inches X 2.54 = centimeters

28

Transformations

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29

Standard Normal Distribution

Anormallydistributedvariablehavingmean0andstandard
deviation1issaidtohavethestandardnormaldistribution.
Itsassociatednormalcurveiscalledthestandardnormal
curve.

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30

Transformation to Standard Units

The idea is to transform (reversibly) any normal distribution


into a STANDARD NORMAL distribution with = 0 and =
1
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31

Standardized Normally Distributed


Variable
A normally distributed variable, x, is converted to a standard
normal distribution, z, with the following formula

x
z

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32

Standardizing normal distributions

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33

Standard Normal Distribution


Foravariablex,thevariable(zscore)
x
z

iscalledthestandardizedversionofxorthe
standardizedvariablecorrespondingtothe
variablex.
Thistransformationisstandardforanyvariable
andpreservestheexactrelationshipsamongthe
scores
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34

Standard Normal Distributions


The z-score transformation is entirely
reversible but allows any distribution to be
compared (e.g., I.Q. and SAT score; does a top
I.Q. score correspond to a top SAT score?)
z-scores all have a mean of zero and a standard
deviation of 1, which gives them the simplest
possible mathematical properties.

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35

Standard Normal Distributions


An example of a z transformation from a
variable (x) with mean 3 and standard
deviation 2

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36

Understanding x and z-scores

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37

Basic Properties of the Standard


Normal Curve

Property1:Thetotalareaunderthestandardnormalcurve
isequalto1.
Property2:Thestandardnormalcurveextendsindefinitely
inbothdirections,approaching,butnevertouching,the
horizontalaxisasitdoesso.
Property3:Thestandardnormalcurveissymmetricabout
0;thatis,theleftsideofthecurveshouldbeamirrorimage
oftherightsideofthecurve.
Property4:Mostoftheareaunderthestandardnormal
curveliesbetween3and3.
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38

Finding percentages for a normally


distributed variable from areas
under the standard normal curve

Because the standard normal distribution is the same for all


variables, it is an easy way to determine what proportion of scores
is less than a, what proportion lies between a and b, and what
proportion is greater than b (for any distribution and any desired
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39
points a and b).

The relationship between z-score values


and locations in a population
distribution.

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40

The X-axis is relabeled in z-score units. The distance that is


equivalent to corresponds to 1 point on the z-score scale.
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41

Table
B.1
p. 687

Table
B.1
A
Closer
Look

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43

The Normal Distribution:


why use a table?

x2

x1

1
2

( X ) 2 / 2 2

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d
dx
44

From x or z to P
To determine a percentage or
Step
1 Sketch the normal
associated with the variable
probability
forcurve
a normally
Step
2 Shade the region
of interest and mark the delimiting xdistributed
variable
values
Step 3 Compute the z-scores for the delimiting x-values found
in Step 2
Step 4 Use Table B.1 to obtain the area under the standard
normal curve delimited by the z-scores found in Step 3
Use Geometry and remember that the total area under
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45
the curve is always
1.00. J Greene

From x or z to P
Finding percentages for a normally
distributed variable from areas under
the standard normal curve

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46

Finding percentages for a normally


distributed variable from areas under the
standard normal curve
1.

, are given.

2. a and b are any two values of the variable x.


3. Compute z-scores for a and b.
4. Consult table B-1
5. Use geometry to find desired area.

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47

Given that a quiz has a mean score of 14


and an s.d. of 3, what proportion of the
class will score between 9 & 16?
1.

= 14 and = 3.

2. a = 9 and b = 16.
3. za = -5/3 = -1.67, zb = 2/3 = 0.67.
4. In table B.1, we see that the area to the left of a is 0.0475
and that the area to the right of b is 0.2514.
5. The area between a and b is therefore
1 (0.0475 + 0.2514) = 0.701 or 70.01%

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48

Finding the area under the standard


normal curve to the left of z = 1.23

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49

What if you start with x


instead of z?

z = 1.50: Use Column C; P = 0.0668


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What is the
probability of
selecting a
random
student who
scored above
650 on the
SAT?

50

Finding the area under the standard


normal curve to the right of z = 0.76

The easiest way would be to use Column C, but lets use


Column B instead
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51

Finding the area under the standard


normal curve that lies between
z = 0.68 and z = 1.82
P = 1 0.0344 0.2483
= 0.7173

One Strategy: Start with the area to the left of 1.82, then
subtract the area to the right of -0.68.
Second Strategy: Start with 1.00 and subtract off the two
tails
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52

Determination of the percentage of


people having IQs between 115 and
140

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53

From x or z to P
Review of Table B.1 thus far
Using Table B.1 to find the area under the standard normal
curve that lies
(a) to the left of a specified z-score,
(b) to the right of a specified z-score,
(c) between two specified z-scores

Then if x is asked for, convert


from Jz Greene
to x
Anthony

54

From P to z or x
Now the other way around
To determine the observations
corresponding to a specified
Step 1 Sketch the normal curve associated the the variable
percentage or probability for a
Step 2 Shade the region of interest (given as a probability or area
normally
distributed
variable
Step 3 Use Table B.1 to obtain the z-scores delimiting the region
in Step 2
Step 4 Obtain the x-values having the z-scores found in Step 3
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55

From P to z or x
Finding z- or x-scores corresponding
x
z
to a the
given
Finding
z-scoreregion.
having area 0.04 to its left

x=z+

x z

If is 242 is 100, then


x = 100 -1.75 + 242
x = 67
Use Column C:
The z corresponding to 0.04
in the left
tail is -1.75
Anthony
J Greene

56

The z
Notation

The symbol z is used to denote the


z-score having area (alpha) to its
right under the standard normal
curve. We read z as z sub or
more simply as z .
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57

The z notation : P(X>x) =


P(X>x)=

This is the z-score that


demarks an area under the
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curve with P(X>x)=

58

The z notation : P(X<x) =


P(X<x)=

This is the z-score that


demarks an area under the
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curve with P(X<x)=

59

The z notation : P(|X|>|x|) =


P(|X|>|x|)=

/2

1-

This is the z-score that


demarks an area under the
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curve with P(|X|>|x|)=

/2

60

Finding z 0.025

Use Column C:
The z corresponding to 0.025
in the Jright
tail is 1.96
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Greene

61

Finding z 0.05

Use Column C:
The z corresponding to 0.05
in the right
tail is 1.64
Anthony
J Greene

62

Finding the two z-scores dividing the


area under the standard normal curve
into a middle 0.95 area and two outside
0.025 areas

Use Column C:
The z corresponding to 0.025
in both
tails is 1.96
Anthony
J Greene

63

Finding the 90th percentile for IQs

z0.10 = 1.28
z = (x-)/
1.28 = (x 100)/16
120.48 = x
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64

What you should be able to do


1. Start with z-or x-scores and compute regions
2. Start with regions and compute z- or x-scores

x
z

x z

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65

DESCRIPTIVES
EXERCISE & REVIEW

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66

Descriptives
1. Non-Parametric Statistics:
a) Frequency & percentile
b) Median, Range, Interquartile Range, SemiInterquartile Range

2. Parametric Statistics:
a) Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation
b) z-score & proportion

Anthony J Greene

NonParametric
Analysis

Weekly Income
540
275
680
8275
425
380
2370
4185
155
0
490
380
265
145
755
125
430
675
125
155
185
505
425
785

NonParametric
Analysis

Weekly Income Sorted Scores


540
0
275
125
680
125
8275
145
425
155
380
155
2370
185
4185
265
155
275
0
380
490
380
380
425
265
425
145
430
755
490
125
505
430
540
675
675
125
680
155
755
185
785
505
2370
425
4185
785
8275

NonParametric
Analysis
Range = H-L+1
= 8276
-or= URL-LRL
= 8275.5-(-0.5)
= 8276

Weekly Income Sorted Scores


540
0
275
125
680
125
8275
145
425
155
380
155
2370
185
4185
265
155
275
0
380
490
380
380
425
265
425
145
430
755
490
125
505
430
540
675
675
125
680
155
755
185
785
505
2370
425
4185
785
8275

NonParametric
Analysis

Q1: 25/4 or 6

Q1: of the distance


between 155 and 185
Q1 = 162.5
Q2 = 425 = median
Q3: 75/4 or 18
Q3: of the distance
between 675 and 680
Q3 = 676.25

Weekly Income Sorted Scores 25%, 50%, 75%


540
0
275
125
680
125
8275
145
425
155
380
155
155
2370
185
185
4185
265
155
275
0
380
490
380
380
425
425
265
425
425
145
430
755
490
125
505
430
540
675
675
675
125
680
680
155
755
185
785
505
2370
425
4185
785
8275

NonParametric
Analysis
Q1 = 162.5
Q2 = 425 = median
Q3 = 676.25
IR = 513.75

Weekly Income Sorted Scores 25%, 50%, 75%


540
0
275
125
680
125
8275
145
425
155
380
155
155
2370
185
185
4185
265
155
275
0
380
490
380
380
425
425
265
425
425
145
430
755
490
125
505
430
540
675
675
675
125
680
680
155
755
185
785
505
2370
425
4185
785
8275

NonParametric
Analysis

Weekly Income Sorted Scores 25%, 50%, 75% Proportion


540
0
0.00
275
125
0.08
680
125
0.08
8275
145
0.13
425
155
0.21
380
155
155
0.21
2370
185
185
0.25
4185
265
0.29
155
275
0.33
0
380
0.42
490
380
0.42
380
425
425
0.50
265
425
425
0.50
145
430
0.54
755
490
0.58
125
505
0.63
430
540
0.67
675
675
675
0.71
125
680
680
0.75
155
755
0.79
185
785
0.83
505
2370
0.88
425
4185
0.92
785
8275
0.96

NonParametric
Analysis

Weekly Income Sorted Scores 25%, 50%, 75% Proportion


540
0
0.00
275
125
0.08
680
125
0.08
8275
145
0.13
425
155
0.21
380
155
155
0.21
2370
185
185
0.25
4185
265
0.29
155
275
0.33
0
380
0.42
490
380
0.42
380
425
425
0.50
265
425
425
0.50
145
430
0.54
755
490
0.58
125
505
0.63
430
540
0.67
675
675
675
0.71
125
680
680
0.75
155
755
0.79
185
785
0.83
505
2370
0.88
425
4185
0.92
785
8275
0.96

Parametric
Analysis
(sample)

Hours Work
48
36
72
4
40
36
30
34
40
42
45
60
61
25
29
41
45
55
31
49

Parametric
Analysis

Hours Work
48
36
72
4
40
36
30
34
40
42
45
60
61
25
29
41
45
55
31
49
823.00

Parametric
Analysis

/n

Hours Work
48
36
72
4
40
36
30
34
40
42
45
60
61
25
29
41
45
55
31
49
823.00
41.15

Parametric
Analysis

/n

Hours Work
48
36
72
4
40
36
30
34
40
42
45
60
61
25
29
41
45
55
31
49
823.00
41.15

Parametric
Analysis

/n

Parametric
Analysis

/n

Parametric
Analysis

/n

/(n-1)

Parametric
Analysis

SS

/n

/(n-1)

Parametric
Analysis

/n

/(n-1)

Parametric
Analysis

Variance

/n

/(n-1)

Parametric
Analysis

/n

/(n-1)
sqrt

Parametric
Analysis

/n

/(n-1)
sqrt

Parametric
Analysis

/n

/(n-1)
sqrt

Parametric
Analysis

0.524

/n

/(n-1)
sqrt

Parametric
Analysis

/n

0.005

/(n-1)
sqrt

Parametric
Analysis

/n

0. 984

/(n-1)
sqrt

Parametric
Analysis
(population)

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

Parametric
Analysis

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00
81.90

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00
81.90

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00
81.90

X-

-5.90
1.10
-0.90
8.10
11.10
6.10
3.10
-29.90
8.10
9.10
6.10
13.10
-20.90
8.10
18.10
11.10
-36.90
-1.90
1.10
-7.90

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00
81.90

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00
81.90

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100
3905.80

Parametric
Analysis

SS

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74
1638.00
81.90

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100
3905.80

Parametric
Analysis

/N

(X-)2

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

1638.00
81.90

3905.80
195.29

X-

Parametric
Analysis

Variance

/N

(X-)2

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

1638.00
81.90

3905.80
195.29

X-

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

3905.80
195.29
13.97

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

3905.80
195.29
13.97

(X-)/

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

3905.80
195.29
13.97

(X-)/

-0.422
0.079
-0.064
0.580
0.794
0.437
0.222
-2.140
0.580
0.651
0.437
0.937
-1.496
0.580
1.295
0.794
-2.641
-0.136
0.079
-0.565

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

3905.80
195.29
13.97

(X-)/

-0.422
0.079
-0.064
0.580
0.794
0.437
0.222
-2.140
0.580
0.651
0.437
0.937
-1.496
0.580
1.295
0.794
-2.641
-0.136
0.079
-0.565

0.476

Parametric
Analysis
What proportion
of scores is
below 45?
0.004
Above?
0.996

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

(X-)/

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

-0.422
0.079
-0.064
0.580
0.794
0.437
0.222
-2.140
0.580
0.651
0.437
0.937
-1.496
0.580
1.295
0.794
-2.641
-0.136
0.079
-0.565

3905.80
195.29
13.97

0.00

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

0.004

Parametric
Analysis

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

(X-)/

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

-0.422
0.079
-0.064
0.580
0.794
0.437
0.222
-2.140
0.580
0.651
0.437
0.937
-1.496
0.580
1.295
0.794
-2.641
-0.136
0.079
-0.565

3905.80
195.29
13.97

0.00

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

0.902

Parametric
Analysis
What proportion
of scores is
between 100 and
45?
0.902 0.004
= 0.898

/N

Exam Score
76
83
81
90
93
88
85
52
90
91
88
95
61
90
100
93
45
80
83
74

X-

(X-)2

(X-)/

-5.90
34.8100
1.10
1.2100
-0.90
0.8100
8.10
65.6100
11.10
123.2100
6.10
37.2100
3.10
9.6100
-29.90
894.0100
8.10
65.6100
9.10
82.8100
6.10
37.2100
13.10
171.6100
-20.90
436.8100
8.10
65.6100
18.10
327.6100
11.10
123.2100
-36.90 1361.6100
-1.90
3.6100
1.10
1.2100
-7.90
62.4100

-0.422
0.079
-0.064
0.580
0.794
0.437
0.222
-2.140
0.580
0.651
0.437
0.937
-1.496
0.580
1.295
0.794
-2.641
-0.136
0.079
-0.565

3905.80
195.29
13.97

0.00

1638.00
81.90

sqrt

0.902
0.004

What z-score corresponds to the Top 10%?


1.28

What z-scores correspond to the Middle 60%?


0.84
Anthony J Greene

108

Given a mean of 58 and a st. dev. Of 10, what is the


likelihood of randomly being between 55 and 65?

Can use column D: 0.1179


+0.2580
= 0.3759
Anthony
J Greene

109

Given a mean of 58 and a st. dev. Of 10, what is the


likelihood of randomly being between 65 and 75?

Can use column C: 0.2420


-0.0446
= 0.1974
Anthony
J Greene

110

Use column C
z = 1.04

What Scores are in the Top 15%?


x = z +
J Greene
x = Anthony
604

111

What Scores are the middle 80%?


Can Use Column D: z = 1.28

x
z

x z
x 1.28 100 500
x 128 500
x 628
x 628, 372

Anthony J Greene

x 128 500

x 372

112

What is the percent of the population that lies below 114?

Use Column
B: z J=Greene
1.40; P = 0.9192
Anthony

113

What is the percentile rank of x = 92?

Use Column
C: z J=Greene
-0.80; P = 0.2119
Anthony

114

What x score corresponds to the bottom 34%?

Use Column B: z = - .41


x=z+
x = -0.41 5 + 60 = 57.95
Anthony J Greene

115