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Subtopics:
Ideal Batch Reactor
Steady state mixed flow reactor
(MFR)
Steady state plug flow reactor
Space time and space velocity
Holding time and space time for
flow reactor
Size comparison of single reactors
Reference: Fogler and Levenspiel

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Reactors covered in Topic 4 are:


1.Batch Reactor
2. Steady State MFR - Mixed Flow
Reactor
3. Steady State PFR - Plug Flow
Reactor

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Ideal Batch Reactor


Application
Small scale production/one-off production
Pharmaceutical and fermentation
Advantages
Easy to clean
High conversion per volume
Flexibility of operation-same reactor can
produce one product one time and a different
product the next
Disadvantages:
High operating cost
Product quality more variable than with
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Ideal Batch Reactor


Batch Reactor Design Equation
* the reactants are initially charged into a container, are well
mixed
0 for
0 certain period
and are left to react
Material Balance: In Out + Product =
Accumulation
Recall the batch reactor design equation

dN A
rA V
dt
dX
N Ao
rA V
dt
differential
form

N A N Ao 1 X

t N Ao

X t

dX
rA V

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integral
form

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Ideal Batch Reactor

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Ideal Batch Reactor


Graphical representation of the performance
equations for batch reactors, isothermal and nonisothermal;
General case

Constant-density systems
only

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Steady State Mixed Flow Reactor (MFR)

Application
A production of where agitation is
required
Continuous production
Advantages
Easy to clean
Good temperature control
Low operating cost (labour)
Disadvantages:
Lowest conversion per unit
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volume

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Steady State Mixed Flow Reactor (MFR)


The contents are well stirred and uniform throughout
The exit stream from this reactor has the same
composition as the fluid within the reactor
Recall the CSTR Design Equation:

FAo FA
V
rA

FA FAo 1 X

FAo X
V
rA exit

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SS-MFR
Design equation

FAo FA
V
rA
FAo X
V
rA

In terms of

conversion
Reactor sizing, the

FAo
rA

volume of MFR can


be calculated F
from
X
Ao
vs
rA
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SS-MFR
Reactors in series can also be designed provided there are no
side streams by defining the overall conversion at any point

moles of A reacted up to point i


Xi
moles of A fed to first reactor
Mole balance at reactor 1
FAo FA1 rA1V1 0

V1

FAo X 1
rA1

Mole balance at reactor 2


FA1 FA 2 rA 2V2 0
V2

FAo X 2 X 1
rA 2
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Steady State Plug Flow Reactor

Application
For large scale production
Production with fast reactions/high temperature
Both homogenous and heterogeneous reaction
Continuous production
Advantages
High conversion per volume
Low operating cost
Good heat transfer
Disadvantages:

Undesired thermal gradients may exist

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Steady State Plug Flow Reactor


Design equation
In terms of

conversion

dFA
rA
dV
dX
FAo
rA
dV
X
dX
V FAo
rA
0

The volume of PFR can be represented as

shaded area under the curve


- Area under the curve
can be calculated using
numerical method such
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Simpsons
Rule

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Space Time and Space Velocity

Space time,
is
obtained by dividing
reactor volume by
the volumetric flow
rate entering the
reactor
Time taken for fluid
to enter reactor
based on entrance
condition volume
and volumetric rate

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Space Time and Space Velocity

Space velocity, SV is defined as


o 1
SV

V
o |liquid
LHSV
V
o |STP
GHSV
V
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Holding time and Space Time for Reactor

For Batch reactor


dC A
rA
dt
CA

dC A
d
rA
C Ao

C Ao

CA

dC A
rA

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Holding time and Space Time for Reactor

For CSTR/MFR,
FAo FA
V
rA
V

FAo

FA

o
o
rA

C Ao C A

rA
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Holding time and Space Time for Reactor

For PFR

dFA
dV
rA
dC A
d
rA
X

dX
V FAo
rA
0
X

dX
C Ao
rA
0
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Size Comparison of Single Reactors

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Size Comparison of Single Reactors

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Exam Q # 2 April 2011


The liquid phase of reaction A - B is an elementary
reaction in a flow reactor with 85% conversion of A.
The inlet concentration of A is 3 mol/liter and the
volumetric flowrate is
6 liter/hr.
Additional information: kA = 0.5 hr-1
a) Determine the space time and volume if this
reaction is carried out in a CSTR.
(4 marks)
b) Determine the space time and volume if this
reaction is carried out in a PFR.
(4 marks)
c) Repeat part (a) and (b) if the reaction now obeys
2nd order kinetics.
(8 marks)
d) Choose the best reactor for both order of reaction
and justify your answer
(6 marks)
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END OF
TOPIC 4

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