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P

&

M E T A M O R F O S A . adalah sebuah proses.


asal kata : META .......UBAH. dan MORF ......... BENTUK
PROSES METAMORFOSA ADALAH PROSES P E R U B A H
A N B E N T U K.

T
&
P

P
&
T

T
&
P

BATUAN

M E T A M O R F

MIGMATITES: metamorphic or igneous rocks?

PROSES METAMORFOSA BERLANGSUNG DALAM KEADAAN


PADAT PERUBAHAN SISTIM KRISTAL (KARENA ITU DISEBUT
SEBAGAI PROSES REKRISTALISASI ) DAN DIDALAM PROSES
TERSEBUT TIDAK TERJADI PENAMBAHAN MAUPUN
PENGURANGAN UNSUR , PERISTIWA INI DISEBUT JUGA
PROSES ISOKIMIA.

REKRISTALISASI

METAMORFOSA
ISOKIMIA

AGEN METAMORFOSA.
T dan P
darimana T dan P datang atau berasal ?

HEAT comes primarily from


two sources: Magma.
Magma bakes any rocks that
come in contact with it. Changes
in temperature with increased
depth.
The
change
in
temperature in the upper crust
is 20oC to 30oC per kilometer.
At 8 kilometer, clay minerals
are exposed to 150oC 200oC
which makes the minerals
unstable.

PRESSURE also increases with


depth.
Pressure on rocks (comes from all
directions) causes the spaces
between minerals to close.
Result is a more compact rock
with greater density.
When temperature and pressure
both increase, this causes rock to
flow rather than fracture.
Mineral grains tend to flatten
rather than elongate.

LIMITS OF METAMORPHISM
batas-batas peristiwa metamorfosa

CORREN (1950) menyatakaan bahwa, semua perubahan yang terjadi


(apakah itu proses pembentukan batuan sedimen
ataupun proses
metamorfosa), tidak ada perubahan yang bersifat mendadak; yang ada
adalah suatu sekuen menerus.
Proses DIAGENESA yang berlangsung pada pembentukan batuan sedimen
akan berhenti bila semua rongga (antar kepingan) yang saling berhubungan
sudah tertutup oleh proses kimiawi ataupun fisika, bila perubahan
berkelanjutan maka akan diteruskan dengan proses metamorfosa atau pada
zona ini proses metamorfosa dimulai.

Ada mineral yang dapat ditemui baik pada batuan sedimen maupun pada
batuan metamorf, seperti mineral feldspar, klorit, kuarsa; tetapi ada juga
mineral yang tidak stabil pada proses diagenesa, sehingga hanya dapat
ditemui pada batuan metamorf saja.
Glaucophane, epidote, lauminite, paragonite, lawsonite, pyrophylite,

TEMPERATUR : MERUPAKAN FAKTOR UTAMA DALAM PROSES


METAMORFOSA.

Batas terendah, batas pada proses diagenesa. Batas ini tidak pasti,
metmorfosa berlangsung pada sekitar 100-150o C.
Batas temperatur tinggi diatas kisaran pelelehan dari solid ke likuid.

Peningkatan
temperatur membuka
penghalang (kinetic
barrier)
rekristalisasi; ...... dan
butiran kecil melebur
kedalam butiran lebih
besar.
Mendorong reaksi
yang memakan
mineral tidak stabil
dan
menghasilkan mineral
baru yang lebih stabil

TEKANAN

:
T/P TINGGI DIDAERAH AKTIP
PLUTONIK ATAU DAERAH RIFTING, T/P RENDAH
DI DAERAH SUBDUKSI.

Lithostatic pressure is uniform stress (hydrostatic)


Deviatoric stress = unequal pressure in different directions
Deviatoric stress can be resolved into three mutually
perpendicular stress (s)
components:
s1 is the maximum principal stress
s2 is an intermediate principal stress
s3 is the minimum principal stress
In hydrostatic situations all three are equal.

Stress is an applied force acting on a rock


(over a particular cross-sectional area).
Strain is the response of the rock to an
applied stress (= yielding or deformation)
Deviatoric stress affects the textures and
structures, but not the equilibrium mineral
assemblage.
Strain energy may overcome kinetic
barriers to reactions.
Deviatoric stresses come in three principal
types: Tension, Compression, Shear.

Deviatoric stresses come in three principal types:


Tension, Compression, Shear.
Tension: 3 is negative, and the resulting strain is extension, or
pulling apart

original shape
Compression: 1 is dominant, folding or
more homogenous flattening

strain ellipsoid

Shear motion occurs along planes at an angle to 1

Foliation is a common result, which allows us to


estimate the orientation of 1.

1 > 2 = 3 foliation and no lineation


1 = 2 > 3 lineation and no foliation
1 > 2 > 3 both foliation and lineation

High Strain Rocks

PROSES PEMBENTUKAN MINERAL.


1. DALAM KEADAAN PADAT.
2.DALAM SISTIM TERTUTUP.
3.TIDAK ADA PENAMBAHAN ATAUPUN PENGURANGAN
UNSUR DALAM SISTIM TERSEBUT; YANG TERJADI
HANYALAH PERTUKARAN UNSUR ANTAR MINERAL
YANG BERSENTUHAN.
PERISTIWA YANG BERLANGSUNG :
1.SOLID SOLI REACTION
POLIMORF (kyanite, sillimatnite, andalusite).
2. DEHIDRATION
Al2 Si4 O10 (OH)2 Al2 Si O5 + 3 SiO2 + H2O.
3. DECARBINATION
CaCO3 + SiO2 CaSiO3 + CO2 .
4. OXIDATION AND REDUCTION
6 Fe2O3 4 Fe3O4 + O2

CONTOH PROSES PERUBAHAN MINERAL LAMA KE MINERAL BARU:

DALAM BATUGAMPING HADIR DOLOMIT CaMg(CO3)2 DAN KUARSA SiO2


1. 2CaMg(CO3)2 + 4SiO2 + H2O Mg2 Si4 O10 (OH)2 + 2CaCO3 +4CO2
dolomit
kuarsa
talk
kalsit
2. 5CaMg(CO3)2 + 8SiO2 + H2O Ca2Mg5 (Si4 O11)(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3 +7CO2
dolomit

kuarsa

tremolit

kalsit

3. Ca2Mg5 (Si4 O11)(OH)2 + 3 CaCO3+2SiO2 5CaMg(SiO3)2 +3CO2 H2O


tremolit
diopsid
4. Ca2Mg5 (Si4 O11)(OH)2 + 11CaMg(SiO3)2 Mg2(SiO4) + 13 CaCO3 +9CO2 +H2O
tremolit
5.

dolomit

Kuarsa + kalsit wollastonit

fosterite

TEKSTUR

BATUAN METAMORF

P E N A M A A N

TEKSTUR

TEKSTUR YANG TERBENTUK PADA


PROSES METAMORFOSA HASIL
PROSES REKRISTALISASI PADA
SAAT METAMORFOSA DI
BERI AKHIRAN
- BLAST ATAU BLASTIC .

BLASTO

- BLAST atau
BLASTIC .

TEKSTUR YANG TERSISA DARI BATUAN


ASAL YANG MASIH
NAMPAK ADA PADA BATUAN METAMORF,
SEBAGAI PALIMSEST
ATAU RELICT TEXTURE , ..
DIBERI
AWALAN BLASTO .

TEKSTUR

D AS AR

bentuk , ukuran, dan pengaturan butir

1. KESEMPURNAAN BENTUK KRISTAL ATAU KRISTALOBASTIK


(individual):
IDIOBLASTIC
BENTUK KRISTAL SEMPURNA.
XENOBLASTIC BENTUK KRISTAL TIDAK SEMPURNA.
2. KESERAGAMAN UKURAN KRISTAL:
ISOGRANULAR,
ANEQUIGRANULAR .. PORPHYROBLAST.
2. HUBUNGAN
A.
B.
C.
D.

ANTAR BUTIR . Fabric.


TANPA ORIENTASI.
MENGIKUTI BENTUK MINERAL.
CAMPURAN ANTARA A DAN B.
LAIN LAIN. LENIATION, FOLIATED DAN NON
FOLIATED.

HUBUNGAN ANTAR

BUTIR
A. T A N P A O R I E N T A S I

ISOGRANULAR

POLYGONAL MOZAIC

HETEROGONAL

B. TERGANTUNG DARI BENTUK MINERAL

LEPIDOBLASTIC

NEMATOBLASTIC

PORPHYROBLASTIC

CAMPURAN A DAN B

GRANO- LEPIDOBLASTI
PORPHYROBLASTIC

SHAFE
NODULAR

GRANO- NEMATOBLASTIC

ROSETE

GRANO

C. LAIN LAIN.

CORONATIC

VESICULAR

AUGEN

TEKSTUR UMUM
A. FOLIATED ROCKS :
1. PROTOMYLONITIC
2. AUGEN MYLONITIC.
3. ULTRAMYLON ITIC.
4. BLASTOMYLONITIC

B. TANPA FOLIASI :
1.CATACLASTIC TEXTURE.
2.PROTOCLASTIC TEXTURE.

FOLIATION: AND PLANAR FABRIC ELEMENT.


LINEATION: ANY LINEAR FABRIC ELEMENTS.
they have no genetic connotations
some high-strain rocks may be foliated, but they are treated separately
CLEAVAGE.

Traditionally: the property of a rock to split along a regular set of sub-parallel, closelyspaced planes.
A more general concept adopted by some geologists is to consider cleavage to be any type of
foliation in which the aligned platy phyllosilicates are too fine grained to see individually
with the unaided eye.
SCHISTOSITY

SLATE

PHYLLITE

FOLIATION

LINEATION

a. susunan butir elongated.


b.susunan prismatic grain.
c.susunan platy grains.
d.susunan s-surface.
e.susunan perpotongan bidang

M I N E R AL PAR AG E N E S A
dan
FAS I E S M E TAM O R FI K

M I N E R A L P A R A G E N E S A.
BATUAN
METAMORF

X1
a1,
a2,

BATUAN
METAMORF

BATUAN ASAL
T1,P1

A1
m1
m2

T2,P2

X2
a4,
a5,

a3

a6
m3

Y1

T1,P1

a7,
a8,
a9

A2
m4
m5
m6

T2,P2

Y2
a10,
a11,
a12

KUMPULAN MINERAL DALAM BATUAN METAMORF , YAITU


(a1,a2,a3,....an) DISEBUT SEBAGAI M I N E R A L P A R A G E N
E S A.
adalah sekumpulan mineral pembentuk batuan
metamorfosa yang terbentuk pada kondisi (T & P) metamorfosa
tertentu.

FAS I E S M E TAM O R FO S A
METAMORPHIC FACIES DESIGNATED A GROUP OF ROCKS CHARACTERIZED BY
A DEFINITE SET OF MINERALS UNDER PARTUCALLY
METAMORPHIC
CONDITION.

Every metamorphic facies has some index minerals by which it can be recognized. That does not mean these
minerals will necessarily be visible with the naked eye, or even exist in the rock; when the rock did not have
the right chemical composition they will not grow.
Very typical index minerals are the polymorphs of aluminosilicate (Al2SiO5, all are nesosilicates). Andalusite
is stable at low pressure, kyanite is stable at high pressure but relatively low temperature and sillimanite is
stable at high temperature.

FASIES METAMORFOSA, ESKOLA, 1939


ADA 8 (DELAPAN) FASIES METAMORFOSA
A. EMPAT FASIES UTAMA :
I. TERDIRI DARI :
1. GREENSCHIST FACIES.
2. EPIDOTE AMPHIBOLITE FACIES.
3. AMPHIBOLITE FACIES.
II. 4. GRANULITE FACIES.
FASIES
PROGRESIVE CHANGES
MIYASHIRO).

Greenschist
BARROVIAN ZONE ( progresive
changes)
Amphibolite
TEMPERATUR TINGGI,
Granulite

B. FACIES METAMORPHIC ESKOLA, (1939).


III. GLAUCOPHANE SCHIST FACIES/BLEUSCHIST FACIES.
Glaucophane - Lawsonite Schist or
Blueschist
MENANDAI
P TINGGI
IV. ECLOGITE FACIES.
Eclogite
C. V. PYROXENE HORNFELS FACIES.
FACIES PADA CONTAC METASOMATISM
( P RENDAH).
VI. SANIDINITE FACIES.
D. VII. PREHNITE POKPELLYETE FACIES.
Prehnite - Pumpellyite
FASIES DALAM BURIAL METORPHISM.
VIII. ZEOLITE FACIES.

Mineralogical characteristics of the metamorphic facies


1. Zeolite Facies
1. Zeolites are groups of white to colourless
hydrous alumina silicates, analogous in
composition to feldspars.
2.Laumontite, heulandite and analcine are
common, the assemblage Quartz +
Laumontite + Chlorite is diagnostic.
3. Jadiete (NaAlSi2O6) + Qtz + Aragonite
2. Prehnite - Pumpellyite
1.Prehnite +/- Pumpellyite + Quartz is
typical.
2.Prehnite - Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2 Pumpellyite Ca2MgAl2(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)2H2O
3. Glaucophane - Lawsonite Schist or Blueschist
1.High P Low T
2.Glaucophane (Na2MgAl2Si8O22(OH)2)
(alkali-rich amphibole) + Lawsonite
(CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2H2O) are characteristic also

4. Greenschist
1.Albite + Epidote + Actinolite + Chlorite +
Calcite in mafic rocks
2.pyrophyllite in pelitic rocks
5. Amphibolite
1.Hornblende + Plagioclase (An > 20)
2.Kyanite (Al2SiO5) in pelites
6. Granulite
1.lower crustal lithology
2.cpx + opx + plag + Fe - Mg garnet
7. Eclogite
1.lower crust or upper mantle lithology.
2.Feldspar-free assemblages, with jadiete-rich
cpx + pyrope (Mg-rich garnet).

The assemblages listed above are mainly for mafic (Metabasite)


lithologies. Boundaries between individual facies are not sharp,
marked by reactions which occur over a P-T range depending on
composition.

DASAR KLASIFIKASI:
1. DASAR TEKSTUR.
2. BERDASARKAN KEJADIAN DAN TEMPAT KEJADIAN.
3. DASAR TEMPERATUR DAN TEKANAN.
4. DASAR KOMPOSISI BATUAN ASAL.

DASAR
KLASIFIKASI

1. LOW GRADE METAMORPHIC ROCKS.


2. MEDIUM GARDE METAMORPHIC ROKS.
3. HIGH GRADE METMORPHC ROCKS.

1 .REGIONAL ATAU OROGENIC METAMORPHIC


ROCKS.
2. OCEAN FLOOR METAMORPHIC ROCKS.
3. CONTACT METAMORPHIC ROCKS.
4. CATACLASTIC METAMORPHIC ROKS

- DASAR TEKSTUR DAN MINERAL YANG MUDAH DIKENALI


SECARA MEGAS KOPIK.
- ANALISA MIKROSKOP DIPERLUKAN BILA AKAN DILAKUKAN
PEMBAGIAN LEBIH LANJUT DENGAN DASAR MINERAL DAN
FASIES METAMORF.URE
- MINERALOGICAL DAN TEXTURE CHARACKTERISTIC YANG
- DIPAKAI SEBAGAI DASAR KLASIFIKASI DIPILIH SEDEMIKIAN
RUPA SEHINGGA PENGGOLONGAN DILAKUKAN ATAS
BATUAN INDUK YANG SAMA DAN MENGALAMI KONDISI
METAMORFOSA YANG SAMA PULA.

1. BERASAL
DARI
PELITIC
(ALLUMINOUS ) SEDIMENT :CLAY,
SAHLES, MUDSTONE).
2. BERASAL
DARI
QUARTZOFELDSPATHOID ROCKS (BATUAN
BEKU ASAM).
3. BERASAL
DARI
CALCAREOUS
SEDIMENT,
LIMESTONE
,DOLOMITE..
4. BERASAL DARI BATUAN BEKU BASA
ATAU
SEMIBASIC
ROCKS
(TERMASUK
TUFF)
DENGAN
IMPURITIES Ca, Al, Mg, Fe DALAM
JUMLAH YANG BERARTI.
5. BATUAN MAGNESIAN DAI BATUAN
SERPENTINE
DAN
SEDIMENT
CHLORITIC ATAU BATUAN LAINNYA
YANG KAYA DENGAN Fe DAN Mg.

DASAR TEKSTUR DAN MINERAL YANG MUDAH


DIKENALI SECARA MEGASKOPIK.
- ANALISA MIKROSKOP DIPERLUKAN BILA AKAN DILAKUKAN PEMBAGIAN
LEBIH LANJUT.
- MINERALOGI DAN KARAKTERISTIK YANG DIPAKAI SEBAGAI DASAR
KLASIFIKASI, DIPILIH SEDEMIKIAN RUPA SEHINGGA PENGGOLONGAN
DILAKUKAN ATAS BATUAN INDUK YANG SAMA DAN MENGALAMI KONDISI
METAMORFOSA YANG SAMA PULA.

A. FOLIATED ROCKS

B. TANPA FOLIASI

Classification of Major Metamorphic


Rocks
texture and mineral composition

SHALE is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of silt and
clay-size mineral particles that we commonly call "mud". This composition places shale in a
category of sedimentary rocks known as "mudstones". Shale is distinguished from other
mudstones because it is fissile and laminated. "Laminated" means that the rock is made up of
many thin layers. "Fissile" means that the rock readily splits into thin pieces along the
laminations

Shale:

Shale breaks into thin pieces


with sharp edges. It occurs in a wide
range of colors that include: red,
brown, green, gray, and black. It is the
most common sedimentary rock and is
found in sedimentary basins worldwide.

Shales have fissility that is caused by the


preferred orientation of clay minerals with their
{001} planes orientated parallel to bedding.
Metamorphic petrologists and structural
geologists refer to the original bedding surface
as S0.

SLATE Slates form at low metamorphic grade by the growth of fine grained
chlorite and clay minerals. The preferred orientation of these sheet silicates causes
the rock to easily break planes parallel to the sheet silicates, causing a slatey
cleavage.

SLATY TEXTURE - this texture is caused by the


parallel orientation of microscopic grains. the
name for the rock with t his texture is slate ,
and the rock is characterized by a tendency to
separate along parallel planes. this feature is a
property known as slaty cleavage

the maximum principle stress is


oriented at an angle to the original
bedding planes so that the slatey
cleavage develops at an angle to the
original bedding. The foliation or
surface
produced
by
this
deformation is referred to S1.

PHYLLITE is between slate and schist in


the spectrum of metamorphic rocks.
Phyllite generally is in the pelitic series
rocks that are derived from clay sediments
but sometimes other rock types can take on
the characteristics of phyllite too.
PHYLLITE is a textural rock type, not a
compositional one. The sheen of phyllite is
from microscopic grains of mica, graphite,
chlorite and similar minerals that form
under moderate pressure.

SCHIST - The size of the mineral grains tends to enlarge with


increasing grade of metamorphism. Eventually the rock develops a
near planar foliation caused by the preferred orientation of sheet
silicates (mainly biotite and muscovite). Quartz and feldspar grains,
however show no preferred orientation. The irregular planar
foliation at this stage is called schistosity

SCHISTOSE TEXTURE this is a foliated texture resulting from the suhparallel to


parallel orientation of platy minerals such as chlorite or micas. other common
minerals present are quartz and amphiholes.

GNEISSAs metamorphic grade increases, the sheet silicates become unstable and dark
colored minerals like hornblende and pyroxene start to grow.

These dark colored minerals tend to


become segregated into distinct bands
through the rock (this process is called
metamorphic differentiation), giving the
rock a gneissic banding. Because the dark
colored minerals tend to form elongated
crystals, rather than sheet- like crystals,
they still have a preferred orientation with
their long directions perpendicular to the
maximum differential stress.

GNEISSIC TEXTURE
this is a coarsely
foliated texture in which the minerals have
been segregated into discontinuous hands,
each of which is dominated by one or two
minerals. these bands range in thickness from
1 mm to several centimeters.

HORNFELS :
NON SCHISTOSE ROCKS yang dibentuk oleh suatu mozaik butiran equidimensional
tanpa orientasi tertentu (granoblastic atau hornfels texture), (porhyroblast dapat dibungkus
oleh matrix granoblastic).
QUARTZITE

HORNFELS

GRANULITE - At the highest grades of


metamorphism most of the hydrous minerals
and sheet silicates become unstable and thus
there are few minerals present that would show
a preferred orientation. The resulting rock will
have a granulitic texture that is similar to a
phaneritic texture in igneous rocks.

In general, the grain size of metamorphic rocks tends to increase with increasing
grade of metamorphism, as seen in the progression form fine grained shales to
coarser (but still fine) grained slates, to coarser grained schists and gneisses.

KLASIFIKASI BERDASARKAN
KEJADIAN
DAN
TEMPAT KEJADIAN.

I. BERDASARKAN KEJADIAN DAN TEMPAT KEJADIAN.


1. Regional Metamorphism. .
Tipe ini berkaitan dengan peristiwa orogenesa, temperatur dan tekanan
memegang peran yang penting, baik karena kompresi maupun pembebanan.
Batuan metamorf regional tedapat pada daerah yang sangat luas , 10 100
km lebar dan 100 1000 km panjang.
2. Contact Metamorphism.
Rekritalisasi, pembentukan himpunan mineral2 metamorfik, di daerah
kontak sekitar badan intrusi.
Biasa terjadi pada Tekanan yang konstan dan metamorfosa terjadi karena
peningkatan Temperatur, karena adanya penghantaran panas keluar badan
intrusi.
3. Pyro Metamorphism.
Rekristalisasi pada temperatur tinggi terhadap sebuah xenolith dalam
volkanisma atau intrusi.
Pelelehan xenolith.
4. Cataclastic Metamorphism.
Crushing or grinding of rocks sebagai hasil gerak sesar.

REGIONAL METAMORPHISM

Regional Metamorphism sensu lato


metamorphism that affects a large body of rock, and thus covers a great lateral extent

Three principal types

Orogenic metamorphism

Burial metamorphism

Ocean-floor metamorphism.

OROGENIC METAMORPHISM
Type of metamorphism associated with convergent plate margins
Dynamo-thermal, involving one or more episodes of orogeny with combined elevated
geothermal gradients and deformation (deviatoric stress). Foliated rocks are a characteristic
product. Uplift and erosion
Metamorphism often continues after major deformation ceases
Metamorphic pattern is simpler than the structural one
Pattern of increasing metamorphic grade from both directions toward the core area
Most orogenic belts have several episodes of deformation and metamorphism, creating a more
complex polymetamorphic pattern
Associated with continental collisionBatholiths are usually present in the highest grade areas If
plentiful and closely spaced, may be called regional contact metamorphism

Regional
Metamorp
hism

Contact
Metamorphism

The size and shape of an aureole is controlled by


The nature of the pluton.
The nature of the country rocks.
Most easily recognized where a pluton is introduced into shallow rocks in a
static environment.
The rocks near the pluton are often high-grade rocks with an isotropic
fabric: hornfelses (orgranofelses) in which relict textures and structures
are common
Polymetamorphic rocks are common, usually representing an orogenic event
followed by a contac zone, e.g. spotted phyllite or slate
Overprint may be due to:
Pyrometamorphism
Very high temperatures at very low pressures, generated by a volcanic
or subvolcanic body
Also developed in xenoliths
Not very common and wont be looked at further in this course.

Regional
Metamorphism
Example: Southland Syncline in New Zealand

BURIAL METAMORPHISM : Low grade metamorphism in sedimentary basins due to burial.

A thick pile (> 10 km) of Mesozoic volcaniclastics had accumulated


Mild deformation and no igneous intrusions discovered
Fine-grained, high-temperature phases, glassy ash: very susceptible to metamorphic
alteration
Metamorphic effects attributed to increased pressure and temperature due to burial
Range from diagenesis to the formation of zeolites, prehnite, pumpellyite, laumontite, etc.

Bengal Fan represents a sedimentary pile > 22 km


- Extrapolating implies 250-300oC at the base (P ~ 0.6 GPa).
- Well into the metamorphic range, and the weight of the overlying sediments is
sufficient to impart a foliation at depth
- Passive margins often become active
- Areas of burial metamorphism may thus become areas of orogenic metamorphism.
- Occurs in areas that have not experienced significant deformation or orogeny
- Restricted to large, relatively undisturbed sedimentary piles away from active plate
margins.

Regional Metamorphism

OCEAN-FLOOR METAMORPHISM

Affects the oceanic crust at ocean ridge spreading centres


Wide range of temperatures at relatively low pressure, beginning
in the diagenesis field and increasing to lower greenschist facies
Metamorphic rocks exhibit considerable metasomatic alteration,
notably loss of Ca and Si and gain of Mg and Na
These changes can be correlated with exchange between basalt and
hot seawater
Weve seen this already when we looked at the Cyprus thinsections!.
May be considered another example of hydrothermal metamorphism
Highly altered chlorite-quartz rocks- distinctive high-Mg, low-Ca
composition

DASAR TEMPERATUR DAN TEKANAN.


DERAJAT METAMORFOSA
1. LOW GRADE METAMORPHIC ROCKS.
2. MEDIUM .GARDE METAMORPHIC ROKS.
3. HIGH GRADE METMORPHC ROCKS.

DASAR KOMPOSISI BATUAN ASAL.


1. BERASAL DARI PELITIC (ALLUMINOUS ) SEDIMENT :CLAY, SAHLES,
MUDSTONE).
2. BERASAL DARI QUARTZO-FELDSPATHOID ROCKS (BATUAN BEKU ASAM).
3. BERASAL DARI CALCAREOUS SEDIMENT, LIMESTONE ,DOLOMITE.
4.

BERASAL DARI BATUAN BEKU BASA ATAU SEMIBASIC ROCKS (TERMASUK


TUFF) DENGAN IMPURITIES
BERARTI.

5.

Ca, Al, Mg, Fe

DALAM JUMLAH YANG

BATUAN MAGNESIAN DAI BATUAN SERPENTINE DAN SEDIMENT


CHLORITIC ATAU BATUAN LAINNYA YANG KAYA DENGAN Fe DAN Mg.

ZONASI M E T A M O R F O S A

BARROW'S
ZONES

BARROW'S

ZONES

George Barrow mapped a widespread series of zones of progressive


metamorphism.
Barrow recognized the existence of unmetamorphosed shaley (pelitic)
sediments which subsequently underwent metamorphism.
Each zone recognized is based on the first appearance of a group of
distinctive index minerals as the highest metamorphic grade, along the
thermal axis. Any mineral within the zone may be the index mineral.
Each zone recognized is based on the first appearance of a group of
distinctive index minerals as the highest metamorphic grade, along the
thermal axis, was approached.
Index mineral is one which is characteristic of that zone - any mineral within
the zone may be the index mineral.

In the Barrovian sequence (described by George Barrow in zones of progressive


metamorphism in Scotland), metamorphic grades are also classified by mineral
assemblage based on the appearance of key minerals in rocks of pelitic (shaly,
aluminous) origin:
Low grade ------------------- Intermediate --------------------- High grade
Greenschist ------------- Amphibolite ----------------------- Granulite
Slate --- Phyllite ---- Schist --------- Gneiss -----------------------Migmatite(partial
melting) >>>melt
Chlorite zone Biotite zone Garnet zone Staurolite zone Kyanite zone Sillimanite zone
T dan P naik

Zone of digested clastic mica


1.Now termed chlorite zone - characterized by first appearance of
chlorite.
2.The characteristic assemblage - quartz-chlorite-muscovite-albite.
Biotite Zone
Marked by the first appearance of red-brown biotite produced from reaction
between muscovite and chlorite.
Garnet Zone
The characteristic assemblage recognized by Barrow is quartz-muscovitebiotite-almandine (Fe,Mg)3Al2Si3O12-albite or oligoclase.
Staurolite Zone
The assemblage is quartz-muscovite-biotite-almandine-staurolite-(oligoclase)
Kyanite Zone
Assemblage is quartz-biotite-muscovite-oligoclase-almandine-kyanite
Sillimanite Zone
quartz-biotite-muscovite-oligoclase-almandine-sillimanite

PAIRED METAMORPHIC

Figure) Myoshira was actually mapping the location of ancient subduction zones. High P low T belt marked
the trench where plates were colliding, hence high pressure. Low temperature due to the cooling effect of
seawater. Landward the rising plutons from the zone of partial melting caused the local high temperatures at
relatively shallow depth. Oceanward facies is the blueschist and landward a combination amphibolite and
granulite.

Akiho Miyashiro in 1961, recognized that many metamorphic belts of different ages around
the world exhibited one or other of the following sequences of metamorphic grade in going
from low to high grade:
prehnitepumpellyite blueschist greenschist or amphibolite
greenschist amphibolite granulite
Miyashiro used the term facies series for these characteristic associations of facies and
pointed out that they distinguished contrasting baric (pressure-) types of metamorphism; in
the first instance high pressures were attained at relatively low temperatures, indicative of a
low heat-flow setting, whereas in the second instance temperatures rose rapidly at shallow
levels, indicating high heat flow.
The classical metamorphic zones known from the work of George Barrow are representative
of an intermediate pressure association corresponding approximately to a normal crustal
thermal gradient.
Miyashiro also believed that belts of contrasting facies series and of the same age commonly
occurred together.
He called this association paired metamorphic belts. With the advent of plate-tectonic theory,
Miyashiro was quick to recognize the tectonic significance of the different facies series. The
low heat flow associated with high-pressure metamorphism and the development of
blueschists is indicative of a subduction zone setting; the elevated heat flow and associated
magmatism associated with low-pressure metamorphism is usually indicative of the roots of
a volcanic arc.

Paired Metamorphic Belts of Japan.


Fig. 16-15 suggests that the 600oC isotherm, for example, could be as deep
as 100 km in the trench-subduction zone area, and as shallow as 20 km
beneath the volcanic arc

Paired Metamorphic Belts of Japan.


The Sanbagawa and Ryoke
metamorphic belts of Japan.
The NW belt (inner belt, inward, or away from the trench) is
the Ryoke (or Abukuma)
Abukuma) Belt.
Belt.

Two belts are in contact along their


whole length across a major fault zone
(the Median Line)
Ryoke-Abukuma
lithologies
are
similar to seds derived from a
relatively mature volcanic arc
Sanbagawa lithologies more akin to
the oceanward accretionary wedge
where distal arc-derived sediments
and volcanics mix with oceanic crust
and marine sediment

Low P/T Buchan-type of regional orogenic


metamorphism.
metamorphism.

Dominant meta-pelitic sediments, and isograds up to


the sillimanite zone have been mapped.
mapped.

A high-temperature-low-pressure belt, and granitic


plutons are common.
common.

Outer belt, called the Sanbagawa Belt

It is of a high-pressure-low-temperature nature

Only reaches the garnet zone in the pelitic rocks

Basic rocks are more common than in the Ryoke


belt, however, and in these glaucophane is developed
(giving way to hornblende at higher grades)

Rocks are commonly called blueschists

selesai ???.........

konsep dasar......!!!!!.

selanjutnya kembangkan dengan membaca


dan lapangan.

TEKSTUR UTAMA BATUAN METAMORF. (BEN HARTE)

1.GRANULAR IGNEOUS TEXTURE


(EQUANT ATAU TABULAR).
2.FRAMED PORPHYROBLASTIC.
3.PORPHYROBLASTIC MOSAIC.
4.GRANOBLASTIC MOSAIC.
5. DAN 6. SECONDARY ANNEALING
TEXTURE.
7. MESOCOPIC TEXTURAL
CONTRAST OF A MYLONITE.

TEKSTUR
Foliation is defined as a pervasive planar structure that results from the
nearly parallel alignment of sheet silicate minerals and/or compositional
and mineralogical layering in the rock. Most foliation is caused by the
preferred orientation of phylosilicates, like clay minerals, micas, and
chlorite. Preferred orientation develops as a result of non-hydrostatic or
differential stress acting on the rock (also called deviatoric stress). We
here review the differences between hydrostatic and differential stress.

Thus, if a differential stress is acting on the rock, the direction along


which the maximum principal stress acts is called s1, the minimum
principal stress is called s3, and the intermediate principal stress
direction is called s2. Note that extensional stress would act along
the direction of minimum principal stress.

SCHISTOSE TEXTURE THIS IS A FOLIATED TEXTURE RESULTING FROM THE


SUHPARALLEL TO PARALLEL ORIENTATION OF PLATY MINERALS SUCH AS
CHLORITE OR MICAS. OTHER COMMON MINERALS PRESENT ARE QUARTZ AND
AMPHIHOLES.
A SCHISTOSE TEXTURE LIES BETWEEN THE PARALLEL PLATY APPEARANCE OF
PHYLLITE AND THE DISTINCT BANDING OF GNEISSIC TEXTURE. THE AVERAGE
GRAIN SIZE OF THE MINERALS IS GENERALLY SMALLER THAN IN A GNEISS. A
ROCK WITH SCHISTOSE TEXTURE IS CALLED A SCHIST

PHYLLITIC TEXTURE - THIS TEXTURE IS FORMED


BY THE PARALLEL ARRANGEMENT OF PLATY
MINERALS, USUALLY MICAS, THAT ARE BARELY
MACROSCOPIC (VISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE).
THE PARALLELISM IS OFTEN SILKY, OR
CRENULATED.
THE
PREDOMINANCE
OF
MICACEOUS MINERALS IMPARTS A SHEEN TO THE
HAND SPECIMENS. A ROCK WITH A PHYLLITIC
TEXTURE IS CALLED A PHYLLITE.

TANPA FOLIASI :
1.CATACLASTIC TEXTURE. 2. PROTOCLASTIC TEXTURE.

gneissic texture this is a coarsely


foliated texture in which the
minerals have been segregated
into discontinuous hands, each of
which is dominated by one or two
minerals. these bands range in
thickness from 1 mm to several
centimeters.
the
individual
mineral grains are macroscopic
and impart a striped appearance
to a hand specimen. light-colored
bands commonly contain quartz
and feldspar. and the dark hands
are commonly composed of
hornblende and hiotite. accessory
minerals are common and are
useful in applying specific names
to these rocks. a rockwith a
gneissic texture is called a gneiss.

HORNFELS :
NON SCHISTOSE ROCKS YANG DIBENTUK OLEH SUATU MOZAIK BUTIRAN
EQUIDIMENSIONAL TANPA ORIENTASI TERTENTU (GRANOBLASTIC ATAU
HORNFELS TEXTURE), (PORHYROBLAST DAPAT DIBUNGKUS OLEH MATRIX
GRANOBLASTIC).
HORNFELS

QUARTZITE

Types of Metamorphism
Geologists suggest that metamorphism can occur by way of the following three processes.
Thermal metamorphism involves the heating and structural and chemical alteration of
rocks through processes associated with plate tectonics. This type of metamorphism has
two sub-categories:
Regional metamorphism is the large scale heating and modification of existing rock
through the creation of plutons at tectonic zones of subduction. It involves large areas and
large volumes of rock.
Contact metamorphism is the small scale heating and alteration of rock by way of a
localized igneous intrusion (for example, volcanic dykes or sills).
Dynamic metamorphism causes only the structural alteration of rock through pressure.
The minerals in the altered rocks do not change chemically. The extreme pressures
associated with mountain building can cause this type of metamorphism.
Metasomatic metamorphism involves the chemical replacement of elements in rock
minerals when gases and liquids permeate into bedrock.

Figure 1-9.
Estimated ranges of
oceanic and
continental steadystate geotherms to a
depth of 100 km
using upper and
lower limits based on
heat flows measured
near the surface.
After Sclater et al.
(1980), Earth. Rev.
Geophys. Space Sci.,
18, 269-311.

BATUAN METAMORF/UBAHAN
Metamorphic rock, ........

adalah batuan hasil


ubahan dari batuan yang sudah ada. Protolith, oleh
sebuah proses yang disebut sebagai proses
metamorfosa, yang berarti berubah dalam bentuk.
Protolith adalah objek dari panas dan tekanan (T >
150 - 200 C dan tekanan 1500), dapat berupa batuan
sedimen, batuan beku ataupun batuan metamorf .
Batuan metamorf menyusun sebagain besar dari
kerakbumi dan dikalsifikasikan berdasarkan tekstur,
kimia ataupun himpunan mineral pembentuknya.
Batuan ini secara sederhananya terbentuk karena
berada dikedalaman yang besar dipengaruhi oleh
temperatur dan tekanan yang dibentuk beban
diatasnya.
Dapat terjadi karena tektonik seperti continental
collosion yang menimbulkan tekanan horisontal,
gesekan dan distortion. Juga dapat terbentuk karena
pemanasan dari intrusi magma yang panas.

BATUAN METAMORF ATAU BATUAN


UBAHAN ADALAH
BATUAN HASIL
PERUBAHAN
DARI, BATUAN BEKU,
BATUAN SEDIMEN, ATUAPUN BATUAN
METAMORF LAIN, YG SUDAH ADA
SEBELUMNYA. BATUAN INI DIBENTUK
KARENA ADANYA PENGARUH PANAS,
DAN TEKANAN YANG TINGGI, ATAUPUN
CAMPURAN KEDUANYA.

The IUGS-SCMR has proposed the following definition of metamorphism:


Metamorphism is a subsolidus process leading to changes in mineralogy
and/or texture (for example grain size) and often in chemical
composition in a rock. These changes are due to physical and/or
chemical conditions that differ from those normally occurring at the
surface of planets and in zones of cementation and diagenesis below
this surface. They may coexist with partial melting.
Metmorfosa adalah sebuah proses subsolidus yang mengarah ke
perubahan dalam mineralogi dan/atau tekstur juga, seringkali dalam
komposisi kimia dalam sebuah sebuah batuan.
Perubahan ini dikarenakan kondisi fisik dan/atau kimia yang berbeda
dengan yang umum yang terjadi dipermukaan planet dan dalam zona
sementasi dan diagenesa dibawah permukaan, Mereka mungkin bekerja
sama (koeksis) dengan pertial melting.

Zeolite Facies
1.Zeolites are groups of white to colourless hydrous alumina silicates, analogous in
composition to feldspars.
2.Laumontite, heulandite and analcine are common, the assemblage Quartz + Laumontite +
Chlorite is diagnostic.
Prehnite - Pumpellyite
1.Prehnite +/- Pumpellyite + Quartz is typical.
2.Prehnite - Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2 Pumpellyite - Ca2MgAl2(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)2H2O
Glaucophane - Lawsonite Schist or Blueschist
1.High P Low T
2.Glaucophane (Na2MgAl2Si8O22(OH)2) (alkali-rich amphibole) + Lawsonite .
3.(CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2H2O)
arecharacteristic
also
4.Jadiete (NaAlSi2O6) + Qtz + Aragonite
Greenschist
1.Albite + Epidote + Actinolite + Chlorite + Calcite in mafic rocks
2.pyrophyllite in pelitic rocks
Amphibolite
1.Hornblende + Plagioclase (An > 20)
2.Kyanite (Al2SiO5) in pelites
Granulite
1.lower crustal lithology
2.cpx + opx + plag + Fe - Mg garnet
Eclogite
1.lower crust or upper mantle lithology
2.Feldspar-free assemblages, with jadiete-rich cpx + pyrope (Mg-rich garnet)

Rekristalisasi menghasilkan perubahan ukuran butir; rasio volume butir besar


terhadap butir kecil, menunjukan nilai stabilitas rendah.

Perkiraan berkisar antara geotermal samudra dan geotermal


benua; sampai dengan kedalaman 100 km; menggunakan limit
atas dan bawah, berdasarkan pengukuran heat flows dekat
permukaan. (Schlater, et al; 1980).

PROSES METAMORFOSA DIBEDAKAN MENJADI:


o

o
o
o

Regional Metamorphism
Orogenic Metamorphism
Burial Metamorphism
Ocean Floor Metamorphism
Contact Metamorphism
Pyrometamorphism
Hydrothermal Metamorphism
Fault Zone Metamorphism .
Impact or Shock Metamorphism

M E T A M O R F O S A .proses.
asal kata : META .......UBAH. dan MORF ......... BENTUK
P E R U B A H A N B E N T U K.

Batuan metamorf menyusun sebagain besar dari kerakbumi dan


diklasifikasikan berdasarkan tekstur, kimia ataupun himpunan mineral
pembentuknya.

&

Dapat terjadi karena tektonik seperti continental collosion yang


menimbulkan tekanan horisontal, gesekan dan distortion. Juga dapat
terbentuk karena pemanasan dari intrusi magma yang panas.

T
&
P

P
&
T

T
&
P