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4.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum di
Sekolah
Peembangunan kurikulum terdiri daripada
beberapa peringkat;
1. Perancangan (pemilihan matlamat & objektif,
pemilihan dan penyusunan pengalaman
pembelajaran dan pemilihan kaedah penilaian)
pada tahap ini melibatkan penilaian formatif
2. Pelaksanaan kurikulum
3. Penilaian (melibatkan penilaian sumatif)

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Sifat Semulajadi Pelaksanaan Kurikulum: Satu Proses
Perubahan
Pelaksanaan kurikulum memerlukan penstrukturan semula
dan penggantian (replacement) kepada program sedia ada.
Ia memerlukan pengubahsuaian/adaptasi dalam
tingkahlaku dan personaliti, penekanan program, ruang
pembelajaran, jadual dan pengisian sedia ada. Dalam kata
lain, pelaksanaan kurikulum memerlukan pendidik
berubah dari program sedia ada kepada program yang baru,
pembaharuan yang dapat dicapai hanya dengan melalui
banyak halangan.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Supaya pelaksanaan kurikulum boleh berlaku,
mereka yang terlibat seperti penggubal/perancang
kurikulum, para pentadbir dan guru-guru perlu
boleh melihat gambaran menyeluruh tentang
program/kurikulum yang baru itu. Mereka perlu
jelas tentang matlamat/tujuan program dan
kepentingan/manafaat yang boleh diperolehi
daripada program/kurikulum baru itu. Mereka juga
perlu bersetuju dengan tujuan yang disasarkan.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Fullan & Pomfret ada menyatakan;
Effective implementation of innovations requires
time, personal interaction and contacts, in-service
training, and other forms of people-based support.
Research has shown time and again that there is no
substitute for the primacy of personal contact
among implementers and planners/consultants, if
the difficult process of unlearning old roles and
learning new ones is to occur.

Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Pelaksanaan kurikulum memerlukan masa kerana
perlu mempengaruhi dan memenangi hati manusia
yang terlibat agar mahu mengubah cara mereka
bekerja.
Oleh itu, perlu ada pengiktirafan atau pengukuhan
agar mereka mahu berubah bagi menjayakan
kurikulum yang baru.
Pengukuhan dalaman adalah lebih baik untuk
dibangunkan berbanding pengukuhan/reward
luaran (contoh imbuhan duit kepada mereka yang
mahu berubah).

Kaitan antara Perancangan Kurikulum


dan Pelaksanaan Kurikulum
Pelaksanaan kurikulum yang berjaya
terhasil dari perancangan yang rapi. Proses
perancangan yang mengambilkira keperluan
dan sumber-sumber asas dalam
melaksanakan tingkah laku yang
diharapkan. Ia melibatkan menentukan dan
menghasilkan polisi bagi mengawal tingkah
laku/pelaksanaan yang dirancangkan.

Kaitan antara Perancangan


Kurikulum dan Pelaksanaan
Kurikulum
Matthew dan Karen menyatakan agar
perancangan kurikulum dapat dilaksanakan
seharusnya ada vision
building/pembentukan wawasan/visi.
Pelaksanaan kurikulum perlu difokuskan
kepada 3 faktor: manusia, program
(pembinaan/perancangan program baru) dan
proses.

Komunikasi
Saluran komunikasi harus disediakan agar
program baru tidak datang secara mengejut.
Perbincangan yang kerap berhubung
program yang baru ini dalam kalangan
guru, pengetua dan mereka yang terlibat
dalam penggubalan program/kurikulum ini
menjadi kunci kejayaan pelaksanaannya.

Sokongan
Perancang kurikulum perlu menyediakan sokongan yang
diperlukan agar pelaksanaan dapat dilakukan dengan cepat.
Sokongan diperlukan untuk memberi keyakinan kepada
mereka yang terlibat. Guru-guru biasanya memerlukan
latihan dalaman agar merasa selesa dengan
program/kurikulum yang baru dirancangkan.
Perbincangan secara terbuka berhubung program baru juga
diperlukan ketika kurikulum dilaksanakan.
Latihan dalaman mestilah dilaksanakan bagi mencapai
objektif program yang baru dirancangkan dan
berharmoni/selari dengan falsafah program baru tersebut.

Sokongan
Sokongan dari segi kewaagan juga diperlukan. Wang
diperlukan untuk bahan dan peralatan program yang baru.
Juga diperlukan untuk bayaran perkhidmatan/tenaga manusia
yang tidak disedari ketika di awal perancangan.
Perhubungan yang baik dan percaya mempercayai juga
diperlukan sebagai human support. The principal is a key
guarantor of successful innovation and implementation
those considered to be successful principals are
knowledgeable of and and committed to the curriculum; they
also view their role as providing encouragement for it, on one
continuum, and to serving as the curriculum leader, on the
other end of the continuum.
Implementation is a collaborative and emotional effort. Peer
support is vital if implementation is to be successful.

Strategi Perubahan/Pelaksanaan
Kurikulum
1. Clarifying lines of authority
2. Involving affected parties in goal setting, staff
selection and evaluation
3. Specifying roles and responsibilities for teachers
4. Training personnel in change strategies and
conflict-resolution techniques
5. Furnishing impacted parties with necessary
support

Change Approach/Pendekatan
Perubahan

Implementing change in any organization, and schools are no


exception, requires a multitask approach. Implementing has
essentially three stages; initiation, implementation and maintenance.
Initiation of change refers to setting the stage for the
implementation process, getting the school culture receptive to the
planned innovation. At this stage, planners raise the essential
questions about who will be involved, what the expected level of
support is, and what is the state of readiness of persons for the
innovation. Ideally, these questions relating to the initiation phase
were asked when the parties were involved in the curriculum
development activities.

Change Approach/Pendekatan
Perubahan
The implementation stage involves presenting innovation
and getting people to try it out in their classrooms or other
appropriate educational spaces. It is the doing phase of
implementation. It puts into action the various models or
approaches to implementation.
The third phase is maintenance or institutionalization, which
essentially is the monitoring of the innovation after it has
been introduced. If maintenance is not planned for,
innovations that get introduced often fade or are altered to
such degree that they cease to exist.

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM)
1. All change originates with individuals; individual change, and,
through their changed behaviors, institutions change.
2. Change occurs when individuals concern are made known.
3. All change is personal, and for individual to be involved into
change, they must have ownership of both the concern and the
process.
4. Because change starts with individuals and involves individuals
throughout the change process, it needs time to take shape;
individuals need time to learn new skills, formulate new
attitudes.

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


5. This model focuses on the adoption phase, the
implementation phase instead of the development and
design phases of curricular activity. It assumes that the
teachers have already selected a curriculum for the
school or the school district. The focus here involves
enabling teachers to adopt this curriculum and to view it
as their own. The model is solely an implementation
model. It views the curriculum as a resource ready for
use and the teachers as part of a user system. To get the
users ready to teach the curriculum, those charge with
curriculum implementation must find out and then
address teachers concern. This requires gathering data.

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


F.F. Fullers research work on the pre-service
teachers had showed the Concern Stages Relating
to Implementing an Innovation.
1. Awareness of innovation
2. Awareness of information level
3. Concern for self
4. Concern for teaching
5. Concern for students

Model Pelaksanaan Kurikulum


Awareness of innovation being aware of the
innovation
Awareness of information level possessing
levels of information that trigger in persons in
persons some interest in learning about the
innovation, while not realizing that the innovation
may have a direct impact on them
Concern for self teachers wonder whether they
have the skills and knowledge to actually
implement the innovation