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THOMSON MODEL OF

ATOM

J. J. Thomson proposed that atom


possesses a spherical shape in
which positive charge is uniformly
distributed and. The electrons are
embedded in it in such a manner as
to give most stable electronic
configuration.

RUTHERFORDS MODEL OF ATOM

Rutherford s gold foil experiment.

Observations and conclusions


1.

2.

3.

most of the space in an atom is empty as most


of the -particles passed through the foil
undeflected
A small fraction of -particles were deflected,
the deflection must be due to repulsion
showing positive charge is not spread all over.
A very few -particles were bounced back i.e.
were deflected by 180 degree. This must be
the point of positive charge which Rutherford
named nucleus radius of nucleus is 10 -15m.

Rutherfords Nuclear Model of Atom

The positive charge in an atom is


concentrated in very small portion of
atom called nucleus.
nucleus is surrounded by electrons that
move around it in vey high speed in
circular paths called orbits.
Electrons and nucleus are held together
by strong electrostatic force.

Drawbacks of Rutherfords model

Rutherfords model cannot explain stability of


atom. Because when charged particles move in
an orbit they must emit radiation and thus the
orbits will spiral up into nucleus which does not
happen.
Rutherfords model does not say anything about
the electronic configuration of elements.

Atomic number and Mass


number

The number of protons in an atom gives


atomic number(Z). Hydrogen has one
proton hence atomic no 1.

Mass number of an atom is determined


by the number of nucleons present in an
atom(A).

Isotopes and Isobars

Isobars are atoms with same mass no.


but different atomic no. Such as 146C and
14
7N, Both have same mass 14.

Isotopes are atoms of same element


with same atomic no and different mass
no. such as 11H(protium), 21H(deuterium)
, 31H(tritium).

WAVE NATURE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC


RADIATION

James Maxwell suggested that when charged


particles move under acceleration alternating
electric and magnetic fields are produced and
are transmitted in form of waves called
Electromagnetic Radiations.

Plancks quantum theory

Black body radiations- the ideal body which


emits and absorbs energy of all frequencies, is
called a black body. Radiations emitted by such
a body are called black body radiations.
Photoelectric effect- when certain metals like
cesium, potassium were exposed to a beam of
light they eject electrons. This phenomena is
called photoelectric effect.

i.

Atomic spectra

When white light is passed through a prism it


splits into a series of color bands. There are two
types of atomic spectraEmission spectra- it is observed when the
radiations emitted from a substance that have
absorbed energy are analyzed with a
spectroscope.

ii Absorption spectra- when a continuous


electromagnetic radiation is allowed to passed
through a gas or solution of some salts and
transmitted light.

Orbitals and Quantum numbers

1.

To describe an electron in an atom we need


three set of numbers, and an additional no.
which specifies the spin of an electron.
Principal quantum no.- it determines the main
energy shell in which the electron is present. It
is denoted by n.

n
shell

j.

o.

ii Azimuthal quantum no.- this quantum no.


determines the angular momentum of the
electron. It is denoted by l and gives subshell
in principal energy shell.
l = 0,1,2,3,4(n-1).
ex:- if n=4 ,then l= 0,1,2,3
l

`
shell

s
(sharp)

p
(principal)

d
(diffuse)

f
(fundamental)

iii magnetic quantum no.- this quantum no.


describes behavior of electron in a magnetic field
it is denoted by lm. It can have value l to l.
there are 2l+1 values of m for each value of l.
ex:- if l=2 then ml = -2,-1,0,1,2.

Value of l

Subshell
notations

Number of
orbitals

11

iv spin quantum no.- this quantum no. describes


the spin orientation of the electron. Electron can
have two spin clockwise or anticlockwise so it
can have only two values +1 or -1 .
2
2

Aufbaus principal

In ground state of an atom electron enters the


orbital of lowest energy subshell first and
subsequent electrons are filled in order of
increasing energy.
The order in which shells are filled is given as:1s >2s >2p >3s >3p >4s >3d >4p >5s >4d >5p
>6s >4f >5d >6p >7s >5f >6d >7p.

Pauli Exclusion
Principal

Only two electrons may have the same orbital


and these electrons must have opposite spin.
No two electrons In an atom can have same set
of quantum no.
The maximum no of electrons in a shell is 2n2

Hunds rule of maximum


multiplicity

Pairing of electrons in Orbitals belonging to


same subshell will not take place until each
orbital belonging to that subshell has got one
electron each.

Electronic configuration of
atoms

The distribution of electrons in an atom is


called its electronic configuration.

SOME IMPORTANT formulae


Speed of light in vacuum is 3.00 108 m/s. and

is given by symbol c. The frequency(),


wavelength() and (c) are related as
c =
Wave no. is another important term in
spectroscopy and is given by reciprocal of
wavelength.

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