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Software Project Planning

+ B ervation on Etimating
+ Etimation of Reource Cot and Schedule
+ actor affecting etimation
+ Project Complexity
+ Project Size
+ Degree of Structural uncertainty

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Software Project Planning

+ Step to Software Planning


+ Define Software Scope
+ Determine Reource
+ Create Project Etimate
+ ake or uy deciion

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Scope

+ ²hat cope mean


+ unction
+ iterally refer to all function performed y a ytem
+ Performance
+ Refer to proceing and repone time requirement
+ Contraint
+ imit placed on the oftware y external hardware
availa le memory or exiting ytem
+ nterface
+ Relia ility

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Scope

+ B taining the information


+ Communication communication communication!!!
+ eet with cutomer a often a needed.
+ Have free form dicuion
+ Try to undertand hiher goalcontraint m  jut what
hehe think they want.
+ ¯overnment procurement often provide detailed written
pecification on what they want.
+ The pro lem i that thoe writing them pro a ly didn¶t
fully undertand and they will change.
+ ¯overnment i trying for a more enlightened approach.
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Scope nformation

+ Some typical quetion


+ Bverall ¯oal
+ ²ho¶ requet; ²hat enefit; ²ho ele ha olution
+ Undertanding The Pro lem
+ ²hat output; ²hat Pro lem; ²hat ue; ²hat Contraint
+ Effectivene of eeting
+ Are anwer official; Are my quetion relevant; Bther
ource of nfo.

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Scoping - Su equent eeting

+ 9egin high level planning


+ Know the capa ilitie of exiting oftware and taff
+ Joint team of cutomer and developeranalyt
+ Checklit of item to cover

+ Brganization of nformation
+ ¯et everything down with diagram
+ Create and ave trancript of eeting
+ Poi ly ue ²e .

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Scoping Example
Conveyor ine otion 9in 1

D No. D No. D No. D No.


9in 2

9in 3
Shunt
9ar Code Sorting 9in 4
Station
Control
connection 9in 5
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Project Decompoition

+ or our example


+ Read ar code input
+ Read pule tachometer
+ Decode part code data
+ Do data ae lookup
+ Determine in location
+ Produce control ignal for hunt
+ aintain record of ox detination

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Reource

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Reource

+ or each type of reource 4 characteritic are examined


+ Decription of reource
+ Availa ility
+ Time reource needed
+ Duration of time for which the reource i needed

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Human Reource

+ Scope and kill required


+ Brganizational poition and pecialty mut oth e conidered
+ A etimate of development effort i eential to determine the
num er of people required for the project.

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Reua le Software Reource

+ Bff-the-helf component
+ Exiting w acquired from 3rd party fully validated
+ ull experience component
+ Exiting pec code or tet data developed for pat
project
+ Partial experience component
+ New validation will have to e performed
+ New Component

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Environmental Reource

+ Software Engineering Environment


+ Compiler
+ Editor
+ Deign tool
+ Configuration management tool
+ anagement tracking tool
+ Pro lem Reporting And Corrective Action (PRACA) tool
+ Documentation tool
+ Hardware reource
+ Network upport

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Software Project Etimation
+ Etimation critical -- oftware cot uually dominate project.
+ Categorie of etimation technique
+ Delay etimation until late in the project
+ 9ae etimate on imilar project already completed
+ Ue imple decompoition (poi ly in com ination with
other method).
+ Ue one or more empirical model i.e.
d = f(vi) where d ± no of etimated value; vi ± BC or P etc.

+ or example
of people = BC ÷(Duration*(BCP))
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Decompoition Technique
+ Software Sizing
+ The degree of the ize of product etimated
+ A ility to tranlate ize etimate into human effort
calendar time dollar
+ The degree to which project plan reflect a ilitie of w
team
+ The ta ility of product req. and the environment that
upport the e effort
+ Uing Direct approach ize can e meaured in BC
+ Uing ndirect approach ize i repreented a P

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Software Sizing
+ 4 approache to Software Sizing pro lem
+ ³uzzy ogic´ Sizing
+ unction Point Sizing
+ Standard Component Sizing
+ Change Sizing
+ Thee method can e com ined tatitically to create a j 
 or 
   etimate
+ Done y developing Bptimitic(low) mot likely and
peimitic(high) value for ize and com ining them in
equation

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Pro lem-9aed Etimation
+ Project hould e grouped y team ize application area
complexity other parameter.
+ ocal domain average hould e computed.
+ ²hen new project i etimated firt allocate it to a domain
and them determine domain average to generate the etimate
+ BC ue decompoition invaria ly function wie.
+ P ue info domain characteritic ± input output data
file inquirie external interface ± a well a the 14
complexity adjutment value

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Software Project Etimation

+ Precie etimation i difficult. So make three etimate


optimitic mot likely and peimitic. Then com ine a
Expected value of ize EV=(Sopt + 4Sm + Spe)

+ An example ± CAD application w for mechanical unit


+ uer interface and control facilitie
+ 2-D geometric analyi 3-D opt = 4
BC
+ 3-D geometirc analyi
3-D m. likely =
BC
+ data ae management
3-D pe. = 8
BC
+ computer graphic diplay
=> (4
+4*
+8
)

+ peripheral control
=
8
+ deign analyi model
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Etimation Ta le

‡ Suppoe
2 BCP and $8 P aed upon
hitorical data. Then
Et. Cot = 332 *$8 
2 = $431 & Et. effort = 54
peron month
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unction Point 9aed Etimation

+ unction Point Complexity ²eighting actor


+ ackup and recovery 4
+ Data communication 2
+ Ditri uted proceing
+ Performance critical 4
+ Exiting operating environment 3
+ Bn-line data entry 4
+ «
+ Application deigned for change 5
+ Total 52
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unction Point 9aed Etimation

+ Complexity factor = .
5  . 1 ¦ i a
= .
5+ . 1×52 = 1.17
+ P etimate = count-total× [ .
5  . 1 ¦ i ]
= 318 × 1.17 = 372
+ Then if
.5 PP cot = 372 × $8 ÷
.5 = $457 and
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Proce 9aed Etimation

+ Decompoe the proce into a et of activitie or tak


+ Etimate effort or cot to perform each tak
+ Etimate cot of each function
+ ay e done uing BC and P etimation Ê eparately
+ f etimated eparately then there are two or three ditinct cot
etimate.
+ Reconcile difference
+ f radically different perhap M m  

m    or M
     or 
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   .

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Proce 9aed Etimation -- Example
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"#m$ % % % % &


'ô % % % % &
'ô % % % % &
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m'$ % % % % &
m$ % % % % &
ô % % % % &

 
% % % % % % %

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‡ f la or rate i $8 P then Et. cot = $3


8

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Empirical Etimation odel
+ 9aed on limited num er of ample project
+ Typical form E = A + 9×(ev)C
+ Some example
+ E = 5.2×(KBC) . 1 ²alton-elix odel
+ E = 5.5 + .73×(KBC)1.1
9ailey-9aili odel
+ E = 3.2×(KBC)1. 5 9oehm imple model
+ E = 5.288×(KBC)1. 47 Doty model for KBC >
+ E = -13.3 + . 545×P Al recht & ¯affney
+ E =
.
2 + 7.728×1 -8P3 Kemerer odel
+ E = 585.7 + 15.12×P Al recht & ¯affney
+ ut cali rate for local condition
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The CBCBB  odel
‡Application Compoition model
--Ued during early tage of deign
‡Early Deign Stage model
--²hen aic w archie. ha een eta lihed
‡Pot-Architecture tage model
--During contruction of w
‡3 izing option ± o ject point function
point & BC
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CBCBB 
+ B ject point i computed uing count of 1. Screen 2. Report & 3.
Component required to uild the application

B ject Type Complexity ²eight


Simple edium Difficult
Screen 1 2 3

Report 2 5 8

3¯ comonent 1

+ NBP = (o ject point) * [(1 - %reue)1 ]; NBP -> new o ject point
+ Productivity rate = NBPperon-month
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CBCBB 
Developer Very ow Nominal High Very
experiencecapa ility low High
Environment Very ow Nominal High Very
maturitycapa ility low High
PRBD 4 7 13 25 5

+ Etimated effort = NBPPRBD

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³The Software Equation´

+ The oftware equation -- E=[BC * 9 .333P]3 * (1t4) where


+ E = effort in peron month
+ t = project duration in month
+ 9 = ³pecial kill factor´ or KBC (5 15) ue .1
 for
KBC > 7  ue 9 = .3
+ P = ³productivity parameter´ reflecting
+ overall proce maturity and management practice
+ extent to which good oftware engineering ued
+ tate of oftware environment
+ kill and experience of team
+ complexity of application

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Software Equation Example

+ Typical productivity value P


+ e.g. 2 for real-time 1  for tele-comm 28 for
uine application.
+ Simplified model uggeted for tmin E
+ tmin = 8.14(BCP) .43 in month for tmin >
month
+ E = 18 9t3 for E >= 2 peron month
+ or P = 12 (typical cientific computation)
+ tmin = 8.14(332 12 ) .43 = 12.
month
+ E = 18 ( .28)(1. 5)3 = 58 peron month
+ Study implication of thee equation.
+ Trying to get done too fat require much more effort.
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Reource - ake-9uy Deciion
+ Acquire or develop? ake uy?
+ Acquiition option
+ Sw may e purchaed off-the-helf
+ ³ull-experience or partial-experience component may e
acquired and then modified an integrated to meet pecific
need
+ Sw can e cutom uilt y an outide contractor to meet
purchaer¶ pecification.
+ or expenive w ome guideline are to e followed

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Reource - ake-9uy Deciion
+ Develop pecification for deired oftware
+ Etimate cot to develop internally and etimate delivery date
+ Select candidate application that come cloet to meeting
pecification.
+ Select reua le component that could ait contructing the
required application
+ Develop comparion matrix that compare key function and
cot. Poi ly conduct enchmark tet
+ Evaluate each w package or component aed on pat
product quality vendor upport. Product direction reputation
and the like
+ Contact other uer of the w and ak for opinion

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Reource - ake-9uy Deciion

+ ake9uy deciion i made aed on following


+ ²ill the delivery date of w product e ooner than that
for internally developed w?
+ ²ill the cot of acquiition plu the cot of cutomization
e le than the cot of developing the w internally
+ ²ill the cot of outide upport (e.g. maintenance contract)
e le than the cot of internal upport?

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Deciion Tree Support
+ EC = ¦(path pro )i * (et. path cot)
imple (.3 ) $38 
difficult (.7 )
9uild $45 
minor change (.4 )
reue
$275
major imple (.2 )
change $31 
(.
) complex (.8 )
Sytem X $4 
uy
minor change (.7 )
$21 
Expected cot
major change (.3 ) $4 
= ™ (path contract
pro a lity) x without change (.
) $35 

(etimated
with change (.4 ) $5 
path cot)
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ake9uy Deciion
1. 9uild ytem X from cratch
2. Reue partial-experience component to contruct the ytem
3. 9uy an availa le w product and modify to meet local need
4. Contract the w development to an outide vendor
+ The ev for cot computed along any ranch i
Expected cot = ¦ (Path pro a ility)i x (etimated path cot) 
where i = deciion tree path. or the ³ uild´ path
EC( uild) = .3 ($38 K) + .7 ($45 K) = $42 K
EC(reue) = .4 ($275K) + .
( .2 ($31 K) + .8 ($4 K)
= $382 K

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ake9uy Deciion
EC( uy) = .7 ($21 K) + .3 ($4 K) = $2
7K
EC(contract) = .
($35 K) + .4 ($5 K) = $41 K

9aed on a ove figure the lowet expected option i ³ uy´ option.

Availa ility experience of developervendorcontractor conformance


to requirement local ³politic´ and likelihood of change are alo
the criteria that may affect the deciion to uild reue uy or
contract.

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Summary

+ Project planner mut etimate three thing


+ how long project will take
+ how much effort will e required
+ how many people will e required
+ ut ue decompoition and empirical modeling
+ ot empirical technique need to e cali rated to
individual ituation.
+ Ue multiple technique to gain confidence in reult

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