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EDUCATION FOR

DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP

FITRIANI YUNIAR, M.Pd

KAJIAN
MATERI

1. Konsep Dasar Demokrasi


2. Aspek Multidimensional Demokrasi
3. Aspek Demokrasi dalam Tradisi
Pemikiran Politik
4. Perkembangan Prasis Demokrasi
1. Unsur Esensial EDC
2. Model Democratic Citizenship di Berbagai
Negara
3. Komponen Inti Kurikulum EDC
4. Trend Global EDC

DEMOKRASI menurut The Advanced Learners


Dictionary of Current English (Hornby, dkk:261)
1.

2.

3.

country with principles of government in which


all adult citizens share through their ellected
representatives;
country with government which encourages and
allows rights of citizenship such as freedom of
speech, religion, opinion, and association, the
assertion of rule of law, majority rule,
accompanied by respect for the rights of
minorities.
society in which there is treatment of each other
by citizens as equals

KONSEP DASAR DEMOKRASI


(Abraham Lincoln)

FOR

THE PEOPLE
FROM
BY

MULTIDIMENSIONALITAS DEMOKRASI
FILOSOFIS:
IDE,NORMA,
PRINSIP

DEMOKRASI
SOSIOLOGIS:
SISTEM
SOSIAL,
POLITIK

PSIKOLOGIS:
WAWASAN,
SIKAP,
PRILAKU

PILAR DEMOKRASI

(United State Information Agency : 1991)

KEDAULATAN RAKYAT
PEMERINTAHAN BERDASARKAN PERSETUJUAN YANG
DIPERINTAH
KEKUASAAN MAYORITAS
HAK-HAK MINORITAS
JAMINAN HAK AZASI MANUSIA
PEMILIHAN YANG BEBAS DAN JUJUR
PERSAMAAN DI DEPAN HUKUM
PROSES HUKUM YANG WAJAR
PEMBATASAN PEMERINTAHAN SECARA KONSTITUSIONAL
PLURALISME SOSIAL, EKONOMI, DAN POLITIK
NILAI-NILAI TOLERANSI, PRAGMATISME,KERJASAMA DAN
MUFAKAT

PILAR DEMOKRASI KONSTITUSIONAL


INDONESIA
( Achmad Sanusi : 1998, 2008)

DEMOKRASI YANG BER-KETUHANAN YANG MAHA ESA


DEMOKRASI DENGAN KECERDASAN
DEMOKRASI YANG BERKEDAULATAN RAKYAT
DEMOKRASI DENGAN RULE OF LAW
DEMOKRASI DENGAN PEMBAGIAN KEKUASAAN NEGARA
DEMOKRASI DENGAN HAK AZASI MANUSIA
DEMOKRASI DENGAN PERADILAN YANG MERDEKA
DEMOKRASI DENGAN OTONOMI DAERAH
DEMOKRASI DENGAN KEMAKMURAN
DEMOKRASI YANG BERKEADILAN SOSIAL

PERKEMBANGAN
PRAKSIS DEMOKRASI

IDEALS,VALUES,NORMS

DEMOCRATIC GAP
(Torres:1998)

INSTRUMENTS,
INSTITUTIONS

PRAXIS,FACTS,
CONTEXT

KONTINUM
DEMOKRASI

Demokrasi Liberal
ala Amerika Serikat

Demokrasi Fasistis
ala Komunis

the degree of economic


develompent

Element of
civic culture

PERKEMBANGAN
DEMOKRASI
(Bahmuller: 1996)

a sense of national
identity
historical experience

DEMOCRACY IS NOT INHERRITED,


(DEMOKRASI TIDAKLAH DIWARISKAN
DENGAN SENDIRINYA)

DEMOKRASI

PENDIDIKAN
DEMOKRASI

BUT IT IS LEARNED
(TETAPI DITANGKAP DAN DICERNA
MELALUI PROSES BELAJAR)

BAGAIMANA PENERAPAN PENDIDIKAN DEMOKRASI


DALAM PENDIDIKAN MASYARAKAT?
(Udin S. Winataputra, 2005)

DOING DEMOCRACY
KNOWING DEMOCRACY (MELAKUKAN DEMOKRASI)
(TAHU DEMOKRASI)

BUILDING DEMOCRACY
(MEMBANGUN
DEMOKRASI)

Model Pemecahan Masalah Sosial


terkait ide, nilai, konsep, prinsip,instrumentasi,
dan praksis demokrasi

WARGANEGARA
YANG CERDAS, PARTISIPATIF,
DAN BERTANGGUNG JAWAB

PURPOSE OF EDUCATIONAL FOR


DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP (EDC, 2000:4)
(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)

to identify the skills, attitudes and values which


both young people and adults need in order to
become active citizens in a rapidly changing
Europe;
to develop strategies, innovations, and struktures
which facilitate the practice of democratic
citizenship;
to identify the multipliers of education for democratic
citizenship and examined how they are trained;
to set down guidelines of good practice of EDC.

EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP


A PROCESS OF LIFE-LONG LEARNING

FORMAL
SITUATION

INFORMAL
SITUATION

TO DEVELOP :
PARTICIPATION, PARTNERSHIP, SOCIAL
COHESION, ACCESS, EQUALITY
ACCOUNTABILITY, SOLIDARITY
FINAL GOALS :
THE MANAGEMENT OF DEMOCRATIC LIFE

SCHOOL

COMMUNITIES

WORKPLACE

NEIGHBOURHOOD

CITIES

TEN ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF EDUCATION


FOR DEMOCRACY IN SCHOOL :
(John J. Patrick, 2003)
1)

2)

3)

4)
5)

a systematic and continual emphasis on teaching and


learning knowledge of democracy, democratic government,
and democratic society
teaching and learning knowledge of the Constitution and
institutions of the democratic government and civil society
in which the students live.
development of the students propensity and capacity to
apply or use knowledge to think and participate
competently in a democracy.
involves the development of civic virtue and the behavioral
dispositions of the good citizen in a democracy.
the systematic connection and integration of basic
knowledge, skills, and dispositions in the curriculum and
instruction presented to students.

LANJUTAN .
6)
7)

8)

9)
10)

to teach knowledge, skills, and dispositions of


democracy throughout the curriculum of the school.
involvement of students in extracurricular activities
that can be connected to the formal teaching and
learning experiences required by the curriculum and
conducted by teachers in the classrooms of schools.
the teacher-led discussion of current events and
issues in an open classroom in which the environment
is conducive to and supportive of a free exchange of
information and ideas, and where there is mutual
tolerance for diverse opinions.
to teach about democracy and democratic citizenship
comparatively and internationally.
the effective preparation of teachers in terms of the
knowledge, skills, and virtues of democratic
citizenship.

Organisation of citizenship education in the primary phase


Sumber: Kerr (1999:18)
Country

Terminology

Approach

Hour per week

England

Education for Citizenship

Non-statutory, cross curricular

Schools to decide

Canada

Social Studies

Non-statutory Integrated

Not specified

France

Civics as part of Discovering the


World

Statutory core Separate and


Integrated

4 hours out of 26

Germany

Sachunterricht

Non-statutory Integrated

Not specified

Hungary

People and Society

Statutory core Integrated

4 to 7% of curriculum time

Italy

Social sciences

Statutory core Integrated

Not specified

The Netherlands

Social structure and life skills

Statutory core Integrated

80 to 100 hours per year

Spain

Knowledge of natural, social,


and cultural environment

Non-statutory Integrated

170 hours per year

Sweden

Social sciences

Non-core Integrated

885 hours over 9 years of


compulsory education

Switzerland

Social studies

Non-statutory Integrated

Not specified

USA: Kentucky

Social studies

Statutory core Integrated

Time specified per week varies


among states

Organisation of citizenship education in lower and upper secondary phase


(CE pada sekolah lanjutan SMP-SMA)
Sumber: Kerr (1999:18)
Country

Terminology

Approach

Hours per week

England

Education for Citizenship

Non-statutory Crosscurricular

Schools to decide

Canada

Social studies and also history, law, political


sciences, and economics

Non-statutory Integrated

Not specified

France

Civics linked to history and geography

Statutory core Separate


and Integrated

3 to 4 hours out of 26

Germany

Social studies linked to history, geography


and economics

Non-statutory Integrated

Not specified

Hungary

People and society with specific social


studies, civics and economic courses

Statutory core Integrated


and specific

10 to 14 % of curriculum time

Italy

Civics linked to history and geography

Statutory core Separate


and integrated

4 hours

The
Netherlands

Civics and Citizenship and social studies

Statutory core Integrated

180 hours over 3 years (age 12 to 15); 2 to 4


hours per week (age 16 to 18)

Spain

Civics linked to history, geography and social


sciences

Non-statutory Separate
and integrated

3 hours per week

Sweden

Social sciences including history, geography,


and social studies

Non-core Integrated

885 hours over 9 years of compulsory schooling

Switzerland

Social studies

Non-statutory Integrated

Not specified

USA:
Kentucky

Social studies including civics and


government

Statutory core Separate


and integrated

Time specified per week varies among states

CORE OF EDC IN THE CURRICULUM IN SCHOOLS


(Bahmueller, Buchanan Jr & Quigley, 1991)
1)

Civic virtues consists of the traits of character, disposition, and


commitments necessary for the preservation and improvement
of democratic governance and citizenship. Examples of civic
virtues are individual responsibility, self-discipline, integrity,
patriotism, toleration of diversity, patience and consistency, and
compassion for others. Commitments include, a dedication to
human rights, equality, the common good, and a rule of law.

2)

Civic knowledge covers fundamental ideas and information that


learners must know and use to become effective and
responsible citizens of a democracy. Civic knowledge normally
includes types and systems of government, politics, political
institutions and processes and the role of citizens in relation to
the governance.

LANJUTAN .
3)

Civic skills include the intellectual skills required to


understand, compare, explain and evaluate various
principles and practices of government and
citizenship. They also include the participatory skills
that enable citizens to monitor and influence public
policies

9 TREND GLOBAL EDUCATIONAL FOR


DEMOCRATIC (PATRICK, 1997) :
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Conceptualising of citizenship education in terms of


the three interrelated components of civic
knowledge, civic skills and civic virtue.
Systematic teaching of core concepts about
democratic governance and citizenship.
Analysis of case studies by students to apply core
concepts or principles.
Development of decision-making skills.
Comparative and international analysis of
government and citizenship.
Development of participatory skills and civic virtues
through cooperative learning activities.
The use of literature to teach civic virtues.
Active learning of civic knowledge, skills and virtues.
The connection of content and process in teaching
and learning of civic knowledge, skills and virtues.

GLOBAL TREND IN CIVIC EDUCATION


FOR DEMOCRACY

Democracy
Democratic
Educational System
Human Rights

Rule of Law

The Ten Pilars of Democracy


Civic Education For
Democratic Citizen
Curriculum

Civic Knowledge
Civic Skills, Civic Virtues
Democratic, Intellegence
and Religions Citizen
(Multidimensional Citizens)
Civic Society, New Indonesia
Society (Masyarakat Madani)

A.Azis Wahab, 2008

Internal Change & External Challenges,


State Ideologi, 1945 Consitutions,
Religious & Cultures

Teaching Strategies