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INTRODUCTION TO

RESEARCH
Dr Mohd Nasir Ismail
Faculty of Information Management
Unviersiti Teknologi MARA
Cawangan Kelantan
Tel: 09-7962000 / 019-9372059
Email: nasir733@kelantan.uitm.edu.my

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is research?
Definition of research
Characteristics of research
Qualities of good researchers
Characteristics of good researchers
The research process

What is RESEARCH?
RESEARCH is composed of 2 words
RE is a prefix meaning again, anew or
over again.
SEARCH a verb meaning to examine
closely and carefully, to test and try, or
to probe or study thoroughly.

Definition of research
The process of finding solutions to a
problem after a thorough study and
analysis of the situational factors
(Sekaran & Bougie, 2010)
The systematic investigation into
the study of materials, sources etc in
order to establish facts and reach
new conclusions (Oxford
Encyclopedia English Dictionary)
4

Definition of research
a procedure by which we attempt
to find systematically, and with the
support of demonstrable fact, the
answer to a questions or the
resolution of a problem (Leedy,
1989)
the systematic, controlled, empirical
and critical investigation of
hypothethical propositions about
presumed relations among natural

Characteristics of Research
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Empirical
Logical
Cyclical
Analytical
Critical
Methodical
Replicability
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EMPIRICAL
RESEARCH is based on direct
experience or observation by the
researcher.
The collection of data relies on
practical experience without giving
consideration to scientific knowledge
or theory.

LOGICAL
RESEARCH is based on valid principles.
(clear reasoning)
Scientific study is done in orderly manner
so that the investigator has confidence on
the results.
Systematic examination of the procedures
used in the research enables the
investigator to draw valid conclusions.

CYCLICAL
RESEARCH is a cyclical process
because it starts with a problem and
ends with a problem.
An investigator who completes his
study states his findings and draws
up his conclusions and
recommendations.

ANALYTICAL
RESEARCH utilizes proven analytical
procedures in gathering the data, whether,
historical, descriptive, experimental, and
case study.
In historical studies, data gathered focus in
the past while descriptive focuses on the
present situation.
Descriptive research is the most common
among the four research designs.
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CRITICAL
RESEARCH exhibits careful and
precise judgment.
Based on the levels of confidence,
the investigator is precise in his
interpretations on whether the
results are significant or insignificant,
or whether to reject or accept the
null hypothesis.
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METHODICAL
RESEARCH is conducted in a methodical
manner without bias using systematic
methods and procedures.
Methodology includes assumptions and
values that serve as rationale for research
and the standards or criteria the
researcher uses for interpreting data and
research conclusions.
Method simply refers to the research
technique or tool used to gather data.
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REPLICABILITY
RESEARCH design and procedures are
repeated to enable the researcher to arrive
at valid and conclusive results.
Replicability of a study means using the
same instrument, method, and procedure
but to different subjects and venue.
Similarities and differences of replicated
researches can be compared. The more
replications, the more valid and conclusive
results would be.
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Qualities of a Good
researcher
Researchoriented
Efficient
Scientific
Effective
Active

Resourceful
Creative
Honest
Economical
Religious

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TYPES of
RESEARCH
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Types of Research

Basic
Researc
h

Applied
Researc
h

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Basic Research
Also called fundamental research or
pure research
It seeks to discover basic truths or
principles.
Intended to add to the body of scientific
knowledge by exploring the unknown to
extend the boundaries of knowledge as
well as to discover new facts, and learn
more accurately the characteristics of
known without any particular thought as to
immediate practical utility.
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2. Applied Research
This type of research involves seeking new
applications of scientific knowledge to the
solution of a problem, such as the
development of a new system or procedure,
new device, or new method in order to solve
the problem.
The problem is identified and a new system or
new method is applied in order to solve the
problem.
Applied research produces knowledge of
practical use to man.
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Basic vs applied research

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Classification of Research

Laborato
ry
Researc
h
3

Field
Researc
h
2

Library
Researc
h

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Library Research
This is done in the library where
answers to specific questions or
problems of the study are available
Field and laboratory researches also
make use of library research even
some of the answers to some
problems are not available in the
library.
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Field Research
Research is conducted in a natural setting
and no changes in the environment are
made.
Field research is both applicable to
descriptive survey and experimental and
experimental methods.

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Laboratory Research
The research is conducted in artificial or
controlled conditions by isolating the study
in a thoroughly specified and equipped
area.
This research is applicable to
experimental, descriptive and case-control
studies.
The purposes are:

To test the hypothesis derived from theory


To control variance under research
conditions
To discover the relations between the
dependent and independent variables

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The Research Process

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The Research Process


Identify broad area of
research
Select topic

(Adapted from

Gill & Johnson,


1997)

Formulate research
objectives
Decide approach
Formulate plan
Collect data
Analyze data
Present findings
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The Research Process (Quantitative)


4

1
Observation
broad area
of research
interest
identified

Preliminary
data
gathering
interviewing
& literature
review

(Adapted from
Sekaran, 2003)

Problem
definition
research
problem
delineated

Theoretical
framework
variables
clearly
identified
and labeled

Generation
of
hypotheses

8
No

Yes

Report
writing

Scientific
research
design

1
0

Report
Presentatio
n

Data collection &


analysis and
interpretation
Deduction
hypotheses
substantiated,
research questions
answered

1
1

Managerial
decision
making
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The End

The End