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FLUID FLOW IN POROUS

MEDIA
Christian Paolo S. Asequia
November 12, 2015

Flow of Discussion
Definitions
Flow

Regime
Darcys Law and Kozeny-Carman
Equations
Carman and Ergun Correlations
Concentrations by mass and volume
Summary

A porous
mediumor
is a
material
Definitions
Voidage
Bed
containing pores (voids) typically
Interstitial
Velocity,
U, is
porosity
is
the
void
filled with a fluid.
the
velocity
obtained
by
Pressure
drop
is
defined
as
the
fraction
expressed
as
Porous
Medium
Fluid
flow
through
a
Superficial
velocity,
U
,
difference
in
pressure
between
flow
through
the
column
o
Fluid
Flow through
a porous
medium
volume
of
solids
in
bed
two
points
in
a
fluid
carrying
medium
describes
the
the
between
particles.
It
is
Superficial
Velocity
is
the
velocity
in
which
divided
by
the
total
bed
network.
The
resistance
of
fluid
Interstitial
manner
in
which
the
Velocity
related
to
the
Superficial
the
medium
is
assumed
flow
gives
rise
to
the
PRESSURE
volume.
Porosity/Voidage
fluid
that
flows
in
a
Velocity
through
the
void
DROP
(P)
in
the
fluid.
empty.
Pressure Drop
/ Pressure Difference
fraction.
media
behaves.

Definitions

Flow Regimes
Reynolds

Modified

Number

Reynolds Number

Flow Regimes
Modified

Reynolds Number
Used to determine the flow regime of
the fluid within the porous medium.
Interstitial velocity is considered. Hence
velocity is U which can be related to
superficial through the void fraction.
Characteristic linear dimension was
deduced by Kozeny and is the volume
open to the fluid flow divided by the
surface area over which it must flow.

Flow Regimes
Modified

Reynolds Number
Conventionally applied threshold to
indicate significant turbulence is 2.
Density term is the fluid density
Sv = 6/x (for a single spherical
particle)
specific surface area per unit
volume

Darcys Law and


the Kozeny-Carman Equation
Darcys

Law
Darcys Law states that the flow is
The basic law governing the flow
proportional to the pressure drop and
of fluids through porous media.
inversely proportional to viscosity.
Formulated by Henry Darcy on
the basis of his experiments on
vertical water filtration through
sand beds.

Darcys Law and


the Kozeny-Carman Equation
Kozeny-Carman

Equation:

In terms of particle size:

Equation is derived from the hagenpoiseuille equation for a laminar flow of a fluid in

xSv is the Sauter mean


awhere
circular channel.
Only applies
laminar
flows for
porous medium
diameter
for to
the
particle
distribution.
(<2)

where K, is Kozeny constant, has a value


close to 5 however, it is not universally true.

Friction Factor
Friction

Factor, f

Defined as the drag force per wetted


surface unit area divided by the product of
density and velocity head.

Analogy of friction factor to cover


flow regions in porous media was
deduced by Carman.

Friction Factor

Friction Factor
Force

Balance

at

the

particle

surface:
Let R = shear stress or drag force per unit area
DragForce = R*particle surface area
surface area of particle = Sv *(1-)*L*A
Pressure Drop on fluid = P
Force by fluid = P*A*
Combining:

Friction Factor
Rearranging

Expanding

The

the previous equation;

into friction factor

pressure drop per unit length is:

Carman and Ergun


Correlations
Carman

Correlation is generally
used for solid objects forming a bed:

Ergun

Correlation is used for


hollow objects such as packing rings:

Concentrations by mass and


volume
If

a
sample
resulted
in
a
concentration by mass, Cw and the
total mass is M, then the volumes
can be calculated if the densities of
the solid and fluid are known
through the equation:

Concentrations by mass and


volume
Dividing

the previous equation by


the volume of solids gives rise to the
equation:

SUMMARY
Under

laminar flow (NRe1 < 2)

Where K is the Kozeny constant.

Modified

Reynolds Number:

SUMMARY
For

turbulent flow, (NRe1 > 2)

Carman Correlation ( Solids forming a

bed)

Ergun Correlation (Hollow Solids)

Example Problem