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PERSYARATAN

TEKNIS
SUMBER DAYA
LISTRIK
di RUMAH

Pemanfaatan Energi Listrik di Rumah Sakit.


SUMBER
LISTRIK

Amper
meter

BEBAN

DISTRIBUSI

PLN
Generator
UPS

Volt
meter

Kabel/Penghantar

Frekuensi
meter

kW
meter

Lampu-Lampu
Peralata-Peralatan

kWh
meter

Cos phi
meter

Persyaratan Teknis
Persyaratan sistem kelistrikan harus memenuhi :
(1)SNI 04-0227-1994 atau edisi terbaru; Tegangan
standard.
(2)SNI 04-0225-2011 atau edisi terbaru; Persyaratan
Umum Instalasi Listrik (PUIL edisi terakhir).
(3)SNI 04-7018-2004 atau edisi terbaru; Sistem pasokan
daya listrik darurat dan siaga.
(4)SNI 04-7019-2004 atau edisi terbaru; Sistem pasokan
daya listrik darurat menggunakan energi tersimpan.
(5)Untuk persyaratan lainnya atau yang belum memiliki
SNI, dapat digunakan standar baku atau pedoman teknis
yang diberlakukan oleh instansi yang berwenang

Daerah Pelayanan di Rumah Sakit


a) Daerah pelayanan pasien.
Setiap bagian dari fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan yang mana pasien
diperiksa dan diobati (Poliklinik).

b) Daerah pelayanan umum.


Kamar tidur pasien, kamar periksa, kamar tindakan, klinik, dan
daerah serupa yang mana pasien akan bersentuhan dengan
peralatan umum seperti sistem panggil perawat, tempat tidur listrik,
lampu periksa, telepon dan alat hiburan. (Ruang rawat inap).

c) Daerah pelayanan kritis.


Unit rawat khusus, unit rawat intensif, unit rawat jantung,
laboratorium angiography, laboratorium kateter jantung, ruang
bersalin, ruang operasi,ruang pemulihan pasca anestesi, unit gawat
darurat, dan daerah serupa yang mana pasien dimaksudkan untuk
dikenai prosedur invasive dan disambungkan ke peralatan medik
listrik yang berhubungan dengan perawatan pasien.
4

Jumlah Stop Kontak untuk Layanan Pasien


Kotak kontak untuk lokasi tempat tidur pasien di daerah

pelayanan umum.
Setiap lokasi tempat tidur pasien harus disediakan minimal empat
kotak kontak.

Kotak kontak untuk lokasi tempat tidur pasien di daerah

pelayanan kritis (ICU).


Setiap lokasi tempat tidur pasien harus disediakan minimal enam
kotak kontak.

Kotal kontak untuk kamar mandi atau toilet.

Kotak kontak tidak wajib di kamar mandi atau toilet.


Kotak kontak untuk daerah khusus.
Kotak kontak tidak disyaratkan dalam daerah-daerah secara medik

tidak diperbolehkan (seperti psychiatry, pediatry, atau daerah


hydrotherapy).

Kotak Kontak sebaiknya diberi warna; hijau = normal, kuning =

normal+genset; merah; normal, genset, UPS

Sistem Kelistrikan Esensial RS

Sumber Daya Listrik


Sumber daya listrik pada Rumah
Sakit umumnya dibagi menjadi 3,
antara lain sebagai berikut.
(A) Sumber Daya Listrik Normal
Sumber daya listrik normal adalah
sumber daya listrik utama gedung
yang harus diusahakan
menggunakan tenaga listrik dari PLN.

(B) Sumber Daya Listrik Siaga


Sumber daya listrik siaga adalah
berupa diesel generator (Genset) dan
harus disediakan 2 (dua) unit dengan
kapasitas minimal 40% dari jumlah
daya terpasang pada masing-masing
unit. Genset dilengkapi dengan
sistem AMF dan ATS.

Sumber Daya Listrik Darurat


Sistem instalasi pada rumah sakit harus memiliki sumber daya
listrik darurat yang mampu melayani kelangsungan pelayanan
seluruh atau sebagian beban pada bangunan rumah sakit apabila
terjadi gangguan pada sumber listrik utama. Sumber daya listrik
darurat tersebut harus mampu melayani semua beban penting
termasuk untuk perlengkapan pengendali kebakaran, secara
otomatis.
Sumber listrik darurat yang umum digunakan adalah genset diesel
dengan sistem ATS dan AMF (sama dengan sumber listrik siaga).
Adapun pengelompokkan beban antara beban normal dan beban
darurat dirancang pada panel utama tegangan rendah (LVMDP).
Pada saat kebakaran, sistem ATS dan AMF secara otomatis akan :
(1)memutuskan sumber listrik dari PLN;
(2)memutuskan listrik untuk beban-beban normal; dan
(3)menggantikan sumber listrik dari PLN menjadi Genset.

Adapun untuk ruangan-ruangan


dengan fungsi tertentu, pasokan
daya listrik darurat berasal dari UPS
(Uninterruptable Power Supply).
Ruangan-ruangan yang harus
dipasangi UPS antara lain : ruang
operasi, ruang perawatan intensif
(ICU, NICU, PICU), dan ruang
perawatan intensif khusus jantung
(ICCU).

Persyaratan untuk pengadaan UPS antara


lain sebagai berikut.
(1)Harus tersedia ruang UPS minimal 2 x
3 m2 (sesuai kebutuhan), terletak di
ruang operasi rumah sakit, ruang
perawatan intensif dan diberi pendingin
ruangan.
(2)Kapasitas UPS minimal 5 (lima) kVA
atau sesuai kebutuhan menurut
perhitungan dan perancangan.

Instalasi beban darurat seperti pompa


kebakaran, lift kebakaran, peralatan
pengendali asap, sistem deteksi dan alarm
kebakaran, sistem komunikasi darurat, dan
beban darurat lainnya harus terpisah dari
instalasi beban normal; dan harus dilindungi
dari resiko terbakar saat terjadi kebakaran.
Jenis perlindungan yang bisa dijadikan
alternatif pilihan adalah dengan
menggunakan kabel instalasi tahan api
sesuai dengan ketentuan yang berlaku.

Prasyarat Sumber
dayalistrik RS

Kapasitas
Kualitas
Kontinyuitas

Panel Utama Listrik (Main switchgear)

14

Generators

UPSs and a generator in a network design


15

A
GANSET

B
GANSET

BACK UP GANSET

ATS

C
GANSET

D
GANSET

Jenis gangguan Listrik

POWER DISTURBANCES

CAUSES
TYPES
DURATION
RESULTING PROBLEMS
COMMENTS
WHAT THE POWER UTILITY CAN DO
WHAT THE ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER
(OEM) CAN DO
WHAT YOU CAN DO
PROTECTIVE DEVICES

18

Disturbance Sources:
Electric Utility
Accidents

Operational
Vehicles
Normal Systems
Contractors
Operation
Explosion & Fire
Load Switching
Natural Causes
Fault Clearing
Weather
Load Management
Wear and Tear
19

Power Disturbances

50/80 Hertz
Pure Sinewave

With Ringing
Transient

With Noise

With SAG/DIG

Interuption in
Service

With HighSpeed Spike

With
Surge/Swell

With Frequency
20
Change

The Problem Categories

W
nt av
ef
Va
ro
ns ri
a
Noistio
e

Surges cy
en s
u
e q ti o n
r
F ria
Va

Spike

Sags

O
ut

ag

21

Where Errors Accumulate


Number 1 Reason for Loss of Power on the Critical
Bus Is Due to
HUMAN ERROR
Battery
13%
Human Error
60%

Site
Infrastructure
12%
Distribution
15%
22

The Effects of Power Disturbances


A typical mains supply is quite polluted.

Electrical Noise
& Transients
62.6/Month
48.79%

Mains
Failures
0.6/Month
0.47%

Sags, Surges
& Brownouts
14.4/Month
11.22%

Spikes
Transients
50.7/Month
39.52%

23

Disturbance Sources: Facility


Inadequate
Supply
Steady State
Dynamic
Emergencies

Inadequate
Distribution

Normal Facility
Operation
Load Switching
Fault Clearing
Operator Error

Capacity
Coordination
24

CAUSES OF POWER DISTURBANCES

STORM ACTIVITY LIGHTNING, WIND


OBJECTS COMING IN CONTACT WITH POWER LINE AND
TRIPPING BREAKER TREE BRANCHES, ANIMALS, OTHER
UTILITY FAULT CLEARING
CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY
ACCIDENTS MOTOR VEHICLE, OTHER
EQUIPMENT FAILURE
OVERLOADING
LOAD SWITCHING
NON-LINEAR LOADS
POOR GROUNDING

25

TYPES OF POWER DISTURBANCES

INTERRUPTION
SAG, UNDER VOLTAGE
SURGE, OVER VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION
FREQUENCY VARIATION
SPIKES / TRANSIENTS
IMPULSIVE
OSCILLATORY

WAVEFORM DISTORTION

DC OFFSET
HARMONICS
NOTCHING
NOISE

VOLTAGE IMBALANCE

26

DURATION OF POWER DISTURBANCES

INSTANTANEOUS MOMENTARY
TEMPORARY
SUSTAINED
-

CYCLE (8 1/3 ms) OR LESS


CYCLE TO 3 SEC
3 SEC TO 1 MIN
GREATER THAN 1 MINUTE

27

CLASSIFICATION OF PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM


POWER DISTURBANCES

DISRUPTIVE
EQUIPMENT DOES NOT OPERATE AS INTENDED

DISSIPATIVE
EQUIPMENT EXPERIENCES REPEATED STRESSES THAT LEAD TO FAILURE
LATER FOR NO APPARENT REASON

DESTRUCTIVE
EQUIPMENT FAILS AT THE INSTANT THE DISTURBANCE OCCURS

28

WHAT THE POWER UTILITY CAN DO TO MINIMIZE


THE EFFECT OF POWER DISTURBANCES

INSTALL STORM RESISTANT WIRING


USE INFRA RED SCANNING TO DETECT WEAK SPOTS IN
POWER LINES
INSTALL REMOTE CONTROLLED RADIO SWITCHES TO
RESTORE POWER QUICKLY
CLEAR TREE LIMBS AWAY FROM POWER LINES

29

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF


POWER DISTURBANCES

BUY EQUIPMENT THAT HAS INTERNAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES


FOR EXAMPLE, BATTERY BACK UP FOR ANY APPLIANCE THAT
CONTAINS A CLOCK

USE ONE OR MORE EXTERNAL PROTECTIVE DEVICES

SURGE PROTECTORS
LINE FILTERS
ISOLATION TRANSFORMER
VOLTAGE REGULATING LINE CONDITIONER
UPS

30

PROTECTIVE DEVICES OTHER THAN UPS


SURGE PROTECTIVE DEVICES SPDS
PROTECTS AGAINST SPIKES OF LIMITED ENERGY
METAL OXIDE VARISTORS MOV
DIODES
GAS TUBES
LCR FILTERS
HYBRIDS

LINE FILTERS
FILTERS OUT HARMONICS, TRANSIENTS AND NOISE

ISOLATION TRANSFORMER
ELIMINATES DC OFFSET AND NOISE

VOLTAGE REGULATING LINE CONDITIONER


AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTS FOR UNDER AND OVER VOLTAGES
CONSTANT VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER - CVT
MOTORIZED VARIAC

31

Power Solutions
Power
Problem

Standby
Power
System
Generator

Power
Conditioner
CVT

TVSS

Automatic
Voltage
Stabiliser
(AVS)

UPS
(online) Dual
Conversion

Mains Failures

Sags /
Brownouts

Surges

Spikes /
Transients

High Frequency Noise

Frequency Variation

WHY USE A UPS?

PROTECTS AGAINST MULTIPLE TYPES OF POWER


DISTURBANCES
ONLY DEVICE THAT PROTECTS AGAINST AN OUTAGE
OFFERS PROTECTION AGAINST
EQUIPMENT NOT OPERATING PROPERLY
COMPUTER AND EQUIPMENT DAMAGE
DATA LOSS
TIME AND EXPENSE TO RECOVER BACK TO WHERE
YOU WERE, IF EVEN POSSIBLE

33

UPS Technologies
Power Problem

Off-Line

Line Interactive

On-Line
Double Conversion

Mains Failures

Sags / Brownouts
Surges
Spikes / Transients
High Frequency Noise
Harmonic Distortion
Frequency Variation
No Break Change-over

POWER DISTURBANCES
AND
PROTECTIVE DEVICES

35

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)


Protects against sags, brownouts, and blackouts.
What devices should be supported by UPS?
Factors to consider: cost, importance of service,
quality of ac line power.
Every network file server should have power backup.
Any critical devices (hubs, bridges, switches, routers)
should be backed up.
UPS is for outages of short duration (on average, < 15 min).
For extended periods of time, a generator is needed.

36

UPS Components
Batteries - storage of electrical
energy (DC).
Larger batteries (greater storage
capacity) mean UPS can supply backup
power longer.

Battery Charger - keeps batteries


fully charged when ac line power is
available.
Power Inverter - converts DC voltage
from batteries into AC line voltage.
37

UPS Operation
Basic UPS (also called line-interactive UPS or
switched UPS):
Monitors power line.
When line power is interrupted, UPS switches to
inverter powered by batteries.
Transfer time - time UPS takes to switch over to
inverter power - typically a few milli-secs.

More expensive on-line UPS:


Operates continuously on-line, supplying AC power
from inverter.
Batteries are charged from AC line voltage.
Transfer time is zero.
38

Basic UPS Block Diagram


S1 & S2 normally closed, S3 & S4
normally open. When AC voltage is
lost, the inverter switches on, S1 &
S2 open, and S3 & S4 close.

39

Uninterruptible power
supply
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS)-is a
device that contains surge protection
circuits and one or more batteries that can
provide power during a temporary or
permanent loss of power
A UPS connects between your computer and a
power source
UPS software can shut down computers cleanly
if power is out for a pre-specified number of
minutes

40

On-line UPS Block Diagram


Operates continuously on-line.
Transfer time is zero.

41

Two types of UPS


Two types of UPS devices are standby and
online

Standby UPS-sometimes called an offline UPS,


switches to battery power when a problem
occurs in the power line. The amount of time a
standby UPS allows a user to continue working
depends on the electrical requirements of the
computer and the size of the batteries in the
UPS
UPS for a PC should be 10 to 30 minutes
Time to save current work and shut down the
computer properly

Online UPS-always runs off the battery, which


provides continuous protection
More expensive than a standby UPS

42

Uninterruptible Power
Supply
UPS: device with a built-in battery, power
conditioning, and surge protection

A standby UPS normally supplies power to pluggedin devices by passing the AC power directly from
the wall outlet to the device receptacle
An online UPS supplies power continuously to
plugged-in devices through the UPS battery, which
is recharged by the wall outlet power
Power conditioning cleans the power, removing
noise caused by other devices on the same circuit
Surge protection keeps the computer from being
affected by sags or spikes in power flow

43

UPSs (Uninterruptible Power


Supplies)

Battery-operated power source directly


attached to one or more devices and to
power supply

Prevents undesired features of outlets A/C power


from harming device or interrupting services
Standby UPS: provides continuous voltage to
device
Switch to battery when power loss detected

Online UPS: uses power from wall outlet to


continuously charge battery, while providing
power to network device through battery

44

Uninterruptible Power Supplies


(UPSs)
A standby or offline UPS is an offline battery

backup that detects the interruption of power to


the power equipment
A ferroresonant standby UPS is still an offline UPS
the ferroresonant transformer reduces power problems

The line-interactive UPS is always connected to


the output, so has a much faster response time
and incorporates power conditioning and line
filtering
The true online UPS works in the opposite fashion
to a standby UPS since the primary power source
is the battery, with the power feed from the
utility constantly recharging the batteries
this model allows constant feed to the system, while
completely eliminating power quality problems
45

UPS - Line interactive (Off


Line)
Voltage
Stabiliser

MAINS
INPUT

OUTPUT
LOAD

Battery
Charge
r

Inverter

UPS

46

UPS - Line interactive (Off


Line)
Voltage
Stabiliser

MAINS
INPUT

OUTPUT
LOAD

Battery
Charger

Inverter

Normal Operation

47

UPS - Line interactive (Off


Line)
2-20mSecs
break in supply ()

Voltage
Stabiliser

MAINS
INPUT

OUTPUT
LOAD

Battery
Charge
r

Inverter

Mains Failure

= Square
wave

= Stepped or
Quasi sinewave

= Sinewave

48

On-Line Dual Conversion


VFI = Voltage and Frequency Independent
(VFI)
MAINS
INPUT

Converter

Inverter

Battery

OUTPUT
LOAD

Static/Maintenance Bypass
On line UPS

49

On-Line Dual Conversion


VFI = Voltage and Frequency Independent
(VFI)
MAINS
INPUT
V +/- 20%
45-65Hz

Vac

Converter

Vdc

Inverter

Vac

Battery
Static/Maintenance Bypass

OUTPUT
LOAD
V +/- 1%
+
/-1%Hz

NORMAL OPERATION

50

On-Line Dual Conversion


VFI = Voltage and Frequency Independent
(VFI)
MAINS
INPUT

Converter

Vdc

Inverter

Vac

Battery
Static/Maintenance Bypass

OUTPUT
LOAD
V +/- 1%
+
/-0.05%Hz

MAINS FAIL

51

On-Line Dual Conversion


VFI = Voltage and Frequency Independent
(VFI)
MAINS
INPUT

Converter

Inverter

Battery

OUTPUT
LOAD

Vac

Static/Maintenance Bypass
OVERLOAD/FAULT

52

Standards
BS EN 62040: UPS Industry standard

BS EN 62040-1-1:2003 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS). General


and safety requirements for UPS used in operator access areas

BS EN 62040-1-2:2003 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS). General


and safety requirements for UPS used in restricted access locations

BS EN 62040-3:2001 Uninterruptible power systems (UPS). Method of


specifying the performance and test requirements

53

Off-Line UPS

Good

Source

Off-Line Uninterruptible Power


Supply: Elements
TVSS
&
Filters

Load

Control

Charger

Battery

Off - Line
Inverter *
* Intermittent - Duty Rated

Line-Interactive UPS

Better

Source

Line - Interactive UPS:


Elements
TVSS
&
Filters

Voltage
Boost

Load

Bi - Directional
Inverter
&
Control
Battery

On-Line UPS

Best

On - Line UPS:
Elements

Input

PFC Rectifier

Inverter

TVSS
&
Filters

Bypass

Charger

DC - To - DC
Converter

Battery

Load

Kamar Bedah yang membutuhkan Elektrikal Esensial

Ruang ICU/ICCU

Kamar Operasi

Ruang NICU

Sistem Pembumian IT (Isolated Neutral)

ISOLATING TRANSFORMER DI KAMAR BEDAH (SEDERHANA)

ES710 = Isolating Transformer


107TD47 = A-Isometer, Insulation,
load and temperature monitor device.
MK2007 = Remote Alarm Indicator
and Test Combination

ISOLATING TRANSFORMER DI RUANG ICU

PGH474 = Test Device


EDS461 = Insulation Fault Location
System.

ISOLATING TRANSFORMAR DI KAMAR BEDAH


SUE487 = Change Over Switch
PRC 487 = Test Device
107TD47 = A-Isometer, Insulation, Load,
and Temperature Monitoring Device
MK2430 = Remote Alarm Indicator and
Test Combination

SUMBER DAYA DAN ISOLATING TRANSFORMER

Kubikal dan Travo Tegangan Menengah

Transformator dan Panel TM

Travo berpendingin minya

Pemeriksaan Panel Tegangan Menengah

TERIMA KASIH