Anda di halaman 1dari 31

SOIL POLLUTION

Control measures
Control of soil erosion
Proper dumping of unwanted waste
Production of natural fertilizer
Proper hygienic condition
Public awareness
Recycling & Reuse of waste
Ban on Toxic chemicals

THERMAL POLLUTION

NOISE POLLUTION
Defined as unwanted sounds that unreasonably

(a kind of harsh, loud and confused sound),


intruding into our daily activities
The most significant attributes of noise are:
i)
Its loudness
ii)
Duration
)
The unit of noise is decibel.
)
Human ear can tolerate noise up to
120 decibels.

Sources of NOISE POLLUTION


(i) Road Traffic:

Most prevalent and most damaging source


Impact of road traffic noise depends on factors
like: road location & design, and land use planning
measures, building design, vehicle standards &
driving behavior
(ii)

Air Traffic
Noise from supersonic crafts are dangerous
because of its intensity

(iii)

Railways:
The level of noise associated with rail traffic is
related to type of engine or rolling stock
used, speed of the train, track type & condition,
warning signals at crossings, whistles &
horns, freight classification yards, & railroad
construction & maintenance.

Measurement of Noise
Noise intensity is measured in decibel

(Db) units
Decibel scale is logarithmic,
Each 10 Db increase represents a 10 fold
increase in noise intensity
distance diminishes the effective decibel
level reaching the ear.
e.g. Moderate auto traffic at a distance
of 30 m rates about 50 decibels, but for
the same, for a driver with a car window
open or a pedestrian on the sidewalk,
same traffic rates about 70 decibels.

Effects of Noise

At 45 decibels of noise, average person


cannot sleep,
At 85 decibels hearing damage, & at
120 decibels ear experiences pain.
Lack of sleep, irritability, heartburn,
indigestion,
ulcers,
high
blood
pressure, & possibly heart disease
Hearing loss
Non-auditory physiological effects
Annoyance
Communication interference

Noise Pollution Control


Source path receiver concept: Can be controlled either
by reducing the noise at the source or by preventing
its transmission or by protecting the receiver

At the source: lubrication of machines, tightening


the loose units, reducing the eccentricity

In the path: keeping the noisy machine covered,


construction of noise barriers, sound-proofing of the
building

Receiver: No use of horns other than in emergency,


vehicle engines and appliances in good Condition,
purchase the least noisy air conditioner or vacuum
cleaner/quieter appliances, rest areas away from
noise, turn down volume of Stereos.