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Religion and Terrorism

Theocracy on the rise


Iran
Saudi Arabia
Pakistan
India BJP
Japan Soka Gokkai
US Religious Right

Public Opinion in Iraq

Steven Kull and Evan Lewis, Iraqi Public Rejects Iranian Model June 14, 2005 Available at:
http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/governance_bt/84.php?
lb=brme&pnt=84&nid=&id

Characteristics of Religion-based
Terrorism

War analogy
Cosmic war
Demonization of the enemy
Conspiracies
Empowering of alienated individuals
Truth vs. lies
Linkage to mainstream issues

Sunni
Vs.
Shiite

Geography of Islam
Non-Middle eastern states
Indonesia
215 m
Pakistan
160 m
India
134 m
Bangladesh
123 m
Turkey
70 m
Nigeria
65 m
Afghanistan
31 m
Sudan
30 m
Total
828 m

Middle Eastern states


Egypt
80 m
Iran
70 m
Algeria
32 m
Morocco
32 m
Iraq
25 m
Saudi Arabia
22 m
Syria
16. m
Jordan
5.0 m
Total
282 m

Ideas and Politics


A spectrum for political Islam
Indonesia
Malaysia
Turkey

Iranian people
Pakistan govt

Islamists
Fundamentalists

Liberal
Egyptian
Govt

Egyptian
people

Taliban
Iran Clergy

Saudi
govt

AQ

Orthodox

Rise of Extremist Islam


Why the Middle East?
Ideology
Lack of Democracy
Rising expectations and frustrations
Inequality
Socialist economics (OIL)

Explaining the Growth of Extremist Ideas


Political Factors
*Technological factors
Authoritarian government
advances in communication
Corrupt government
computers for info storage
Lack of civil rights; no democracy
internet and e-mail
Lack of human rights; no individual freedoms
ease of travel
Liberal and moderate ideas crushed ease of global financial transactions
Radical ideas crushed (Egypt)
advantages of networks
Radical ideas encouraged (Saudi Arabia)
globalization
Prison torture SOP
Controlled press spreads ruling ideology
Anti-West and anti-US Social Factors
Colonialism in past
*Rapid economic change
Strong religious traditions
*Population growth
Growth of
Pan-Islamic ideas
Lack of social and economic mobility
extremist ideas
Pan-Arab ideas
*More university education; lack of jobs
*Failures of secular nationalism (Syria, Iraq)
*Generation with a lack of identity
No outlet for moderate dissent or debate
*Expectations of success; lack of success
Israeli-Palestinian conflict
*Expectations of change; lack of change
Economic Factors
Poverty
Small wealthy elite
*Geopolitical Factors
*Expectations of wealth through oil Rapid wealth creation in Middle East
*Rising population
Iranian revolution
*Massive underemployment
Globalization
Socialist economies
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Closed economies
Collapse of Cold War
*Knowledge of wealth in other societies
Instability of shift to post-cold war world
*Temporal Factors: These variables explain why events happened when they did. Many people ask why radical Islam
developed, but we need to ask why it developed and why it developed when it developed.