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Module 9

Ceramics:
Structure, Properties,
Processing and Application
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bambang Suharno
1. Whats Ceramics?
2. Ceramics structures
3. Type of Ceramics and Application
4. Ceramics Processing
Chapter 12-

Apa Itu Keramik?


Definisi
Secara umum, keramik adalah benda-benda yang
terbuat dari bahan-bahan anorganik yang tidak
mengandung logam, yang dibentuk kemudian dibakar
hingga mendapatkan kekuatan yang diinginkan.

Bahan Dasar Keramik


Bahan keramik adalah bahan dasar penyusun kerak
bumi, misalnya SiO2, Al2O3, FeO,Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, dan
Na2O.
Chapter 12-

CERAMICS APPLICATION
Ceramics:
--Traditional Ceramics (Art) :Pottery, porcelain, etc
-- Engineering Ceramics/ Advanced Ceramics
.

Ceramics can be used in many technological industries

Aerospace
Biomedical
Electronics
Optical
Automotive
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceramic_engineering#Applications

Chapter 12- 4

CONTOH KERAMIK
SEMEN

KERAMIK

TANAH LIAT

PORSELIN
BATU BATA

PASIR

KERAMIK TEKN

Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

Sifat-Sifat Umum Keramik


1. Keras
Tingkat kekerasan s/d 9.5 Mohs (intan:10 Mohs)
sehingga dapat memotong baja. Ideal untuk
komponen anti gesekan pada alat-alat industri.
2. Memiliki bentuk yang stabil
Dapat dibentuk hingga pecahan kecil berukuran
1 mikron. Penting dalam aplikasi struktur di
mana keakuratan sangat diperhatikan.

ceratip cutting tool

3. Tahan Panas
Keramik masih berfungsi efektif pada suhu di
atas 1100 OC (Baja 540 OC). Potensial untuk
mesin-mesin otomotif yang beroperasi pada
temperatur tinggi. Diperkirakan mesin-mesin
otomotif di masa yang akan datang 50%nya
terbuat dari bahan keramik
ceramic automotive
engine component

4. Inert
Keramik tidak bereaksi dengan hampir semua bahan kimia,
sehingga terhindar dari korosi serta aman dari perubahan suhu
yang drastis.
5. Superior electrical properties

Umumnya merupakan isolator yang


sempurna, walaupun V2O3 dan TiO
dapat menghantar listrik seperti logam.

memiliki property of capasitance


yang memungkinkan keramik dapat
menyimpan muatan listrik seperti
baterai.

Piezoelectric phenomenon,
menyebabkan keramik dapat
menghasilkan sinyal listrik kecil ketika
berhubungan dengan gelombang
suara atau getaran mekanik.

ceramic electrical component

Ketiga hal ini membuat keramik memiliki peran penting dalam


miniatur produk elektronik seperti pager, ponsel dan laptop.

TAXONOMY OF CERAMICS
Glasses

Clay Refractories
products

Abrasives Cements

Advanced
ceramics

-optical
-whiteware -bricks for -sandpaper -composites engine
high T
-composite -bricks
-cutting
-structural -rotors
(furnaces) -polishing
reinforce
-valves
-containers/
-bearings
-household
-sensors

Properties:

--Tmelt for glass is moderate, but large for other ceramics.


--Small toughness, ductility; large moduli & creep resist.

Applications:
--High T, wear resistant, novel uses from charge neutrality.

Fabrication
--some glasses can be easily formed
--other ceramics can not be formed or cast.
Adapted from Fig. 13.1 and
discussion in Section 13.2-6, Callister
6e.

Chapter 12- 2

Ceramics

Keramik

distinctive by ionic or
covalent bonding

dapat dibedakan
karena memiliki ikatan
ion dan kovalen
Berkekuatan dan
kekerasan tinggi
Memiliki kestabilan
terhadap temperature
Isolator panas dan
listrik
rapuh

high strength and


hardness
excellent temperature
stability
thermal and electrical
insulator
brittle

Chapter 12-

sangat rapuh

Chapter 12-

kekuatan tinggi
ringan

high strength
light weight
Chapter 12-

temperature resistance

tahan
temperature

Chapter 12-

electrical insulator
isolator listrik

Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

wear resistance
tahan aus
Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

TOUGHNESS
Energy to break a unit volume of material
Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.
Engineering
tensile
stress,

smaller toughness (ceramics)


larg er toughness
(metals, PMCs)
smaller toughnessunreinforced
polymers

Engineering tensile strain,

Chapter 12- 21

Chapter 12-

TAXONOMY OF CERAMICS
Glasses

Clay Refractories
products

Abrasives Cements

Advanced
ceramics

-optical
-whiteware -bricks for -sandpaper -composites engine
high T
-composite -bricks
-cutting
-structural -rotors
(furnaces) -polishing
reinforce
-valves
-containers/
-bearings
-household
-sensors

Properties:

--Tmelt for glass is moderate, but large for other ceramics.


--Small toughness, ductility; large moduli & creep resist.

Applications:
--High T, wear resistant, novel uses from charge neutrality.

Fabrication
--some glasses can be easily formed
--other ceramics can not be formed or cast.
Adapted from Fig. 13.1 and
discussion in Section 13.2-6, Callister
6e.

Chapter 12- 2

Gelas
Gelas adalah zat padat amorf yang terbentuk sewaktu
transformasi dari cair menjadi kristal.
Sifatnya jernih namun getas (mudah patah) pada suhu kamar.
Jika dipanaskan, viskositasnya turun perlahan hingga akhirnya
mencair.
Dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan komposisi kimianya menjadi:
1. Gelas rata
Komponen utamanya SiO2, Na2O dan CaO dengan bahan
tambahan MgO dan SO3. Digunakan sebagai kaca jendela dan
cermin.
2. Gelas Wadah
Mempunyai jenis yang beragam dan komposisi kimianya
berbeda-beda tetap dengan SiO2 sebagai komponen utama.
Chapter 12-

3. Gelas optik
Memperhatikan sisi optis seperti dispersi cahaya dan indeks bias.
Digunakan untuk dan alat-alat optik misalnya lensa.
4. Gelas fisiokimia dan kedokteran
Untuk bidang ini, gelas harus memiliki ketahanan kimia yang tinggi,
tahan panas dan tahan kejut termal. Bahan yang sesuai adalah
kuarsa, silikat tinggi, borosilikat, dan aluminosilikat.
5. Gelas listrik
Penggunaan utamanya untuk penerangan, misalnya bohlam dan
lampu fluoresen. Yang dipakai adalah gelas kapur soda dan gelas
timbal dengan kadar PbO 20-30%.

Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

Clay Products (Tanah Lempung)


What is clay?
We can say :
1. Clay is the basic the basic ingredient used by
potter (bakar tembukar) when they creates
your work of art
2. Clay is the stuff that sticks to the boots of
construction (cement) workers when they
excavate the foundations of new building
3. Clay is one of the most widely used ceramics
raw material.
Chapter 12-

Type of Clay Product :


1. Structural of clay Product
2. White wares (Keramik Putih)

Chapter 12-

The Charateristic Of Clay


1. Clay are alominosilicates , being composed of
alumina(Al2O3) and silica(SiO2),that
containchemically bound water.
2. Crystal structures for the clay are relative
complicated.
3. The most common clay minerals that are of
interest have what is called the kaolinite structure
[Al2(SiO5)(OH)4].

Chapter 12-

Composition of Clay Product (Porcelain)


1. Clay
2. Quartz : the quartz is used primarily as a filter
material, being inexpensive, relatively hard,
and chemically unreactive.
3. Fluxs : a flux forms a glass that has a
relatively low melting point, the feldspar are
some of the more common fluxing agents.
ex: a typical porcelain might contain
approximately ;
50% clay (Al2O3, SiO2)
25% quartz(SiO2)
25% feldspar (KAlSi O NaAlSi O CaAl Si O )
3

Chapter 12-

Keramik Putih
Keramik tertua dalam peradaban manusia.
Terdiri dari 3 komponen utama: lempungfeldspar-flint
Berdasarkan keadaan pembakarannya, dapat
dikelompokkan menjadi:
1. Keramik Tanah :Benda bakar putih, tidak
bersifat seperti kaca, mempunyai daya
serap air 3% atau lebih.
2. Keramik Batu:Benda bakar yang rapat,
kedap udara, tidak tembus cahaya.
3. Porselen :Rapat, kedap udara, jernih
karena adanya fasa gelas dalam jumlah
besar, mempunyai temperatur pembakaran
tertinggi.

Contoh produk: mangkuk, vas bunga, alatalat saniter, tegel, pipa.


Chapter 12-

Contoh produk: mangkuk, vas bunga, alat-alat saniter,


tegel, pipa.

Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

REFRACTORY(BATUTAHAN
API)
Material inorganik natural maupun sintesis, tahan terhadap
temperatur > 15000 Ctanpa perubahan bentuk atau melebur
Syarat :
Pada Temp. tinggi dan berbagai kondisi:
Mampu mempertahankan bentuk
Mampu mempertahankan kekuatan

Tujuan :
Menahan laju perpindahan panas didalam dapur
( furnace ) ke luar
Chapter 12-

REFRACTORY(BATUTAHAN
API)

Chapter 12-

SIFATSIFATREFRAKTORI
Summary
Sifat-sifat yang diperlukan :
High refractoriness
Resistance to chemical reaction with any subtance in
contact during their service
Ability to stand the load of the material under heat
treatment in the furnace at the operating condition
Resistance to abrasion due the flow of chage , flame, flue
dust , flue gases etc. The action of gases , such SO 2, CO,
Cl2, CH4,H2O, and volatile oxides and salt of metals . All
are capable of penetrating and reacting with brick
Resistance to thermal shock caused by alterate heating
and cooling
Porosity ( its volume , size )
Low volume change at the service temperature ( both
permanent or reversible)
Chapter 12-

Refraktori
Tantangan dan peluang
mengenali refraktori dan teknologi
pembuatanya
Bahan galian industri: dolomit , kaolin , bauksit
alumina, silika banyak terdapat di Indonesia
Pembagian refraktori
Menurut ketahanannya terhadap temperatur
Refraktori biasa ( 1580 - 1770 C)
Refraktori tinggi ( 1780 2000 C)
Refraktori Super ( diatas 2000 C)
Chapter 12-

JENISREFRAKTORI
Jenis Refraktori
Acid
-Fire

Basic

brick - Magnesite
-Semi
- Dolomite
silika
Chrome-silika
magnesite
Magnesitechome
- Forsterite

Neutral

Special

- Chromite
- Carbon
- Grafit
- Silicon
carbide

- Pure
alumina
Zirconthori
a
- Spinel
- Boran
nitride
Chapter 12-

APPLICATION: REFRACTORIES
Need a material to use in high temperature furnaces.
Consider Silica (SiO2) - Alumina (Al2O3) system.
Phase diagram shows:
mullite, alumina, and crystobalite (made up of SiO2)
tetrahedra as candidate refractories.
2200
T(C)
2000

3Al2O3-2SiO 2
Liquid
(L)

1800

1400
0

alumina + L
mullite
+L

crystobalite
+L

1600

mullite

mullite
+crystobalite

20

alumina
+
mullite

Adapted from Fig.


12.27, Callister 6e.
(Fig. 12.27 is adapted
from F.J. Klug and R.H.
Doremus, "Alumina
Silica Phase Diagram
in the Mullite Region",
J. American Ceramic
Society 70(10), p.
758, 1987.)

40
60
80
100
Composition (wt% alumina)

Chapter 12- 3

Chapter 12-

Semen
Semen adalah bahan anorganik yang mengeras pada percampuran
dengan air atau larutan garam.
Sifat

: memiliki kekuatan tekan tinggi tetapi kekuatan tarik


rendah. Hal ini dapat diperbaiki dengan menambahkan

serat.
Contoh

semen portland

Proses
:
bahan berkapur dan lempung dibakar sampai
meleleh
sebagian untuk membentuk klinker yang kemudian
dihancurkan, digerus dan ditambah gips dalam jumlah
yang sesuai.
Macam-macam semen portland:
1. Semen penggunaan umum
Merupakan bahan paling populer dalam bidang konstruksi.
2. Semen pengeras pada panas sedang
Mempunyai kalor hidrasi rendah, umumnya digunakan untuk
beton masif yang besar. Contoh: untuk bendungan, jembatan,
dan bangunan-bangunan besar.
Chapter 12-

3.

Semen berkekuatan tinggi awal


Berkadar Ca3SiO5 tinggi, mempunyai waktu set yang pendek. Baik
digunakan untuk pekerjaan yang memerlukan pengesetan cepat atau
pekerjaan di daerah dingin.
4.

Semen panas rendah


Memberikan kalor hidrasi minimum. Penggunaannya sama dengan
semen pengeras panas panas sedang.
5.

Semen tahan sulfat


Dipakai untuk pekerjaan beton dalam tanah yang mengandung banyak
sulfat dan berhubungan dangan air tanah

Chapter 12-

Beton
Bahan dasar beton:
1.

Semen

2.

Agregat
Agregat yaitu bahan campuran pembuatan beton yang meliputi
pasir sungai dan kerikil. Menempati 65-80% volum total beton.
Agregat yang baik adalah yang bersih, keras dan kuat, tahan
lama,
masa jenis tinggi serta butirannya bulat.
3.

Air
Beton menjadi keras karena reaksi air dengan semen. Makin
kecil perbandingan air-semen, makin tinggi kekuatan beton.
Sifat-sifat beton
Beton erat kaitannya dengan kekuatan tekanan, kekuatan lentur, dan
kekuatan tarik. Beton yang memiliki kekuatan tekan tinggi
menunjukkan kekuatan lainnya yang juga tinggi. Jika diukur pada
temperatur rendah, kekuatannya rendah pada awalnya. Tetapi setelah
waktu yang yang lama akan cenderung menjadi lebih tinggi.
Chapter 12-

Contoh: Beton otoklaf ringan


Karakteristiknya ringan, mengandung banyak busa, baik meredam
suara, dan tahan api. Biasanya digunakan untuk bangunan rendah dan
setengah tinggi.
Proses:
Bubur dengan zat pembusa dituangkan ke dalam batang baja tahan
karat yang dipasang terlebih dahulu, dipotong setelah beberapa jam,
kemudian diproses dalam otoklaf.

Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

APPLICATION: DIE BLANKS


Die blanks:
--Need wear resistant properties!

die

Ad

die

Adapted from
Fig. 11.7,
Callister 6e.

Ao

Courtesy Martin Deakins,


GE Superabrasives,
Worthington, OH. Used with
permission.

tensile
force

Die surface:

--4 m polycrystalline diamond


particles that are sintered on to a
cemented tungsten carbide
substrate.
--polycrystalline diamond helps control
fracture and gives uniform hardness
in all directions.

Courtesy Martin Deakins,


GE Superabrasives,
Worthington, OH. Used with
permission.

Chapter 12- 4

APPLICATION: CUTTING TOOLS


Tools:
--for grinding glass, tungsten,
carbide, ceramics
--for cutting Si wafers
--for oil drilling

Solutions:

oil drill bits

--manufactured single crystal


or polycrystalline diamonds
in a metal or resin matrix.
--optional coatings (e.g., Ti to help
diamonds bond to a Co matrix
via alloying)
--polycrystalline diamonds
resharpen by microfracturing
along crystalline planes.

blades
coated single
crystal diamonds
polycrystalline
diamonds in a resin
matrix.

Photos courtesy Martin Deakins,


GE Superabrasives, Worthington,
OH. Used with permission.
Chapter 12- 5

Chapter 12-

Chapter 12-

Aplikasi UntukMembrane

Chapter 12-

Piezo-Ceramics Sensor

Chapter 12-

APPLICATION: SENSORS
Ex: Oxygen sensor: ZrO2
Principle: Make diffusion of ions

Ca2+

fast for rapid response.

Approach:

A Ca2+ impurity
removes aZr4+ and a
O2- ion.

Add Ca impurity to:


--increase O2- vacancies
--increase O2- diffusion

Operation:
--voltage difference
produced when
O2- ions diffuse
between external
and references
gases.

sensor
gas with an
reference
unknown, higher
gas at fixed
oxygen content O2oxygen content
diffus
ion

voltage difference produced!

Chapter 12- 6

Mechanical Properties of Advanced


Ceramics

Chapter 12-

CERAMIC BONDING
Bonding:
--Mostly ionic, some covalent.
--% ionic character increases with difference in
electronegativity.

Large vs small ionic bond character:


H
CaF 2: large
2.1

He
-

C
2.5
Si
1.8

Li
1.0

Be
1.5

Na
0.9
K
0.8
Rb
0.8

Mg
1.2

Ca
1.0
Sr
1.0

I
2.5

Cs
0.7

Ba
0.9

At
2.2

Fr
0.7

Ra
0.9

SiC: small
Ti
1.5

Cr
1.6

Fe
1.8

Ni
1.8

Zn
1.8

F
4.0

As
2.0

Cl
3.0
Br
2.8

Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
-

Table of Electronegativities

Adapted from Fig. 2.7, Callister 6e. (Fig. 2.7 is adapted from Linus Pauling, The Nature of the
Chemical Bond, 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and 1940, 3rd edition. Copyright 1960 by
Chapter 12- 2
Cornell University.

STRUKTUR KRISTAL KERAMIK


Struktur Carbon

Diamond Graphite

Fullerene

Nanotube
Chapter 12-

MEASURING ELEVATED T RESPONSE


Elevated Temperature Tensile Test (T > 0.4 Tmelt).
creep test

x
.

slope =ss = steady-state creep rate

time

Generally,
. ceramics . metals
. polymers
ss
ss
ss
Chapter 12- 11

SUMMARY
Ceramic materials have mostly covalent & some
ionic bonding.
Room T mechanical response is elastic, but fracture
brittle, with negligible ductility.
Elevated T creep properties are generally superior to
those of metals (and polymers).

Chapter 12- 12

CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-I


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

Pressing:
Gob

CEMENTATION
Fiber drawing:

Pressing
operation

Parison
mold

Compressed
air

Blowing:

wind up

suspended
Parison
Finishing
mold

Adapted from Fig. 13.7, Callister, 6e. (Fig. 13.7 is adapted from C.J.
Phillips, Glass: The Miracle Maker, Pittman Publishing Ltd., London.)

Chapter 12- 7

CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS

Chapter 12-

c14f18
Someglassblowingisdone

Glass Blowing

byhand.
Theprocessiscompletely
automatedfortheproduction
ofglassjars,bottlesand
lightbulbs.
Fromarawgobofglass,a
parison(temporaryshape)is
formedbymechanical
pressinginamold.
Thispieceisinsertedintoa
finishingorblowmoldand
forcedtoconformtothe
moldcontoursbythe
pressurecreatedfromablast
ofair.
Drawingisusedtoform
longglassparts(sheets,
rods,tubingandfibers)that
haveaconstantcross
section.
Chapter 12-

Sheet Glass Forming


Sheetformingcontinuouscasting
sheetsareformedbyfloatingthemoltenglassonapoolofmolten
tin

Adapted from Fig. 13.9,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

57

Chapter 12-

GLASS STRUCTURE
Basic Unit:
4Si04 tetrahedron
Si 4+
O2-

Quartz is crystalline
SiO2:

Glass is amorphous
Amorphous structure
occurs by adding impurities
(Na+,Mg2+,Ca2+, Al3+)

Impurities:
interfere with formation of
crystalline structure.
Na+
Si 4+
O2-

(soda glass)
Adapted from Fig.
12.11, Callister, 6e.
Chapter 12- 8

HEAT TREATING GLASS


Annealing:
--removes internal stress caused by uneven cooling.

Tempering:
--puts surface of glass part into compression
--suppresses growth of cracks from surface scratches.
--sequence:
before cooling

hot

surface cooling

cooler
hot
cooler

further cooled
compression
tension
compression

--Result: surface crack growth is suppressed.

Chapter 12- 11

CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-IIA


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

CEMENTATION

Milling and screening: desired particle size


Mixing particles & water: produces a "slip"
Ao
Form a "green" component
container
--Hydroplastic forming:

force

extrude the slip (e.g., into a pipe)

--Slip casting:

pour slip absorb water


into mold into mold
green
ceramic

solid component

pour slip
into mold

die holder

ram

billet

container

drain
mold

die

green
ceramic

hollow component

Dry and Fire the component

extrusion

Ad

Adapted from
Fig. 11.7,
Callister 6e.

Adapted from Fig.


13.10, Callister
6e.
(Fig. 13.10 is from
W.D. Kingery,
Introduction to
Ceramics, John
Wiley and Sons,
Inc., 1960.)
Chapter 12- 12

CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-IIB


PARTICULATE
GLASS
CEMENTATION
FORMING
FORMING
Sintering: useful for both clay and non-clay compositions.
Procedure:
--grind to produce ceramic and/or glass particles
--inject into mold
--press at elevated T to reduce pore size.

Aluminum oxide powder:


--sintered at 1700C
for 6 minutes.

15m

Adapted from Fig. 13.15, Callister


6e.
(Fig. 13.15 is from W.D. Kingery,
H.K. Bowen, and D.R. Uhlmann,
Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd ed.,
John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1976, p.
483.)
Chapter 12- 15

CERAMIC FABRICATION METHODS-III


GLASS
FORMING

PARTICULATE
FORMING

CEMENTATION

Produced in extremely large quantities.


Portland cement:
--mix clay and lime bearing materials
--calcinate (heat to 1400C)
--primary constituents:
tri-calcium silicate
di-calcium silicate

Adding water
--produces a paste which hardens
--hardening occurs due to hydration (chemical reactions
with the water).
Forming: done usually minutes after hydration begins.
Chapter 12- 16

SUMMARY
Basic categories of ceramics:
--glasses
--clay products
--refractories
--cements
--advanced ceramics

Fabrication Techniques:
--glass forming (impurities affect forming temp).
--particulate forming (needed if ductility is limited)
--cementation (large volume, room T process)

Heat treating: Used to


--alleviate residual stress from cooling,
--produce fracture resistant components by putting
surface into compression.
Chapter 12- 17