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INTRODUCTION TO

ENVIROMENTAL CONTROL IN
REFINING INDUSTRY
By
Dr.Amer Abdel Razik Amer

2. Petroleum Industry
2.1 Driving forces, hurdles and potential.
2.2 The Petroleum Refining Industry
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

Definition
Primary Products
Industrial Processes in the Petroleum Refining Industry
Refinery flow diagram

2.3 Environmental discharges.


2.3.1 Refinery air emission sources
2.3.2 Types of wastewater produced in refineries
2.3.3 Refinery Residuals
2.3.4 Environmental discharges by process
2.4 Best available environmental
technologies for specific processes

Volatile crude prices

HURDLES

The petroleum industry has


been dramatically impacted
over the last three decades by
geopolitical disruptions and
volatile world oil prices. Today
refiners must deal with:

Increasing
capital
and
operating
costs
of
environmental compliance.

Crude quality variability

Low marketing and


transport profit
margins

HURDLES
The
environmental
impact
produced by the
petroleum
industry covers
the effects of all
and each step in
the
energetic
cycle,
which
means:
explotation
extraction
refining
transportation
storage
consumption
releases

1. PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY


DEFINITION

Petroleum refining is the


physical, thermal and chemical
separation of crude oil into its
major
distillation
fractions
which
are
then
further
processed through a series of
separation
and conversion
steps into finished petroleum
products.
Petroleum refineries are a
complex system of multiple
operations and the operations
used at a given refinery
depend upon the properties of
the crude oil to be refined and
the desired products.

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY


In order to understand where the environmental discharges come from, we will make a review
of the refining process.
The process of oil refining involves five major processes which are briefly described:

SEPARATION

CONVERSION

TREATING

BLENDING

AUXILIARY

SEPARATION PROCESSES
These
processes
involve
separating
the
different
fractions
of
hydrocarbon
compounds that make up crude
oil base on their boiling point
differences.
Additional
processing of these fractions is
usually needed to produce final
products to be sold within the
market.

ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS
Atmospheric distillation
Vacuum distillation
Light ends recovery (gas processing)

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

SEPARATION

CONVERSION

TREATING

BLENDING

AUXILIARY

ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS

CONVERSION PROCESSES
Include processes used to
bread down large longer chain
molecules into smaller ones by
heating using catalysts.

Cracking (thermal and catalytic)


Reforming
Alkylation
Polymerization
Isomerization
Coking
Visbreaking

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

SEPARATION

CONVERSION

TREATING

TREATING PROCESSES
Petroleum-treating
processes
are used to separate the
undesirable components and
impurities
such
as
sulfur,
nitrogen and heavy metals from
the products.

BLENDING

AUXILIARY

ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS

Hydrodesulfurization
Hydrotreating
Chemical sweetening
Acid gas removal
Deasphalting

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

SEPARATION

CONVERSION

TREATING

BLENDING/COMBINATION
PROCESSES
These are used to create mixtures
with the various problem fractions to
produce a desired final product,
some
examples
of
this
are
lubricating oils, asphalt, or gasoline
with different octane ratings.

BLENDING

AUXILIARY

ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS
Storage
Blending
Loading
Unloading

INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY

SEPARATION

CONVERSION

TREATING

BLENDING

AUXILIARY

AUXILIARY PROCESSES
ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS

Processes that are vital to


operations by providing power,
waste treatment and other utility
services.
Products from these
facilities are usually recycled and
used in other processes within the
refinery and are also important in
regards to minimizing water and
air pollution.

Boilers
Waste water treatment
Hydrogen production
Sulfur recovery plant

LPH and Gas

2.REFINERY FLOW
DIAGRAM

Refinery fuel gas

Gasoline

Sweet Gasoline

Sweetening
Unit

LPG

Stabilizer

Naphta
Gasoline
Middle Distillates
Solvents

Gas

Gasoline

Gas Oil

Lube-Base
Stocks

Vacuum
Distillation

Hydrotreating

Catalytic
Cracking

Light Gas Oil

Lube Oil

Solvent
Extraction and
Dewaxing

Visbreaker

Treating and Blending

Washed Crude

Atmospheric
Distillation

Middle Distillates

Aviation fuels

Diesels

Heating oils

Lube oils

Waxes

Greases

Gasoline, Naphtha and


Middle distillates

Asphalts

Fuel Oil

Industrial fuels

Asphalt
Refinery fuel oil

3. ENVIRONMENTAL DISCHARGES

Now, that we have seen an overview of the Refinery


Process, we can make some questions:
What is this industry discharging?
How is it discharged?
Where does it come from?

In order to answer these questions, this section will


show:
Air emission sources
Wastewater sources
Residuals
Environmental discharges by process

3.1 REFINERY AIR EMISSIONS SOURCES

COMBUSTION EMISSIONS: associated with the burning of fuels


in the refinery, including fuels used in the generation of electricity.

EQUIPMENT LEAK EMISSIONS (fugitive emissions): released


through leaking valves, pumps, or other process devices. They are
primarily composed of volatile compounds such as ammonia,
benzene, toluene, propylene, xylene, and others.

WASTEWATER SYSTEM EMISSIONS from tanks, ponds and sewer


system drains.
PROCESS VENT EMISSIONS: typically include emissions
generated during the refining process itself. Gas streams from all
refinery processes contain varying amounts of refinery fuel gas ,
hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.
STORAGE TAND EMISSIONS released when product is transferred
to and from storage tanks.

3.2 TYPES OF WASTEWATER PRODUCED IN REFINERIES

COOLING WATER which normally does not come into


contact with oil streams and contains less contaminants
than process wastewater. It may contain chemical
additives used to prevent scaling and biological growth in
heat exchanger pipes.
SURFACE
WATER
RUNOFF
is
generated
intermittently and may contain constituents from spills
to the surface, leaks in equipment and materials in
drains.
PROCESS WASTEWATER that has been contaminated by direct
contact with oil accounts for a significant portion of total refinery
wastewater. Many of these are sour water streams and are also
subjected to treatment to remove hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.

3.3 REFINERY RESIDUALS


Most refinery residuals are in the form of sludge, spend caustics, spend process catalysts,
filter clay, and incinerator ash.

These residuals could be classified as follows:


NON-HAZARDOUS RESIDUALS are incinerated, landfilled or regenerated to provide products
that can be sold off-site or returned for re-use at a refinery.
HAZARDOUS WASTES are regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA). Listed hazardous wastes include oily sludge, slop oil emulsion solids, dissolved air
flotation floats, leads tank bottom corrosion solids and waster from the cleaning of heat
exchanger bundles.
TOXIC CHEMICALS are also use in large quantities by refineries. These are monitored through
the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI).

3.4

DISCHARGES
LIQUID EFFLUENTS

AIR EMISSIONS

3.5-5
cubic
meters
of
wastewater per ton of
crude are generated
when cooling water is
recycled.
Approximately

Pollutant
Particulate matter
Sulfur oxides
Nitrogen oxides
Benzene, toluene
and xylene (BTX)
VOC

Average rate
kg/t of crude
0.8
1.3
0.3
0.0025
1

SOLID WASTES

Refineries
generate
solid
wastes and sludges ranging
from 3 to 5 kg per ton of
crude processed, 80% of this
sludges may be considered
hazardous because or the
presence of toxic organics
and heavy metals.

Pollutant
BOD
COD
Phenols
Oil
Benzene
Benzopyrene
Heavy metals
Chrome

Average rate
mg/l
of
wastewater
150-250
300-600
20-200
100-300
1-100
1-100
0.1-100
0.2-10

3.4 ENVIRONMENTAL DISCHARGES BY PROCESS


PART 1

3.4 ENVIRONMENTAL DISCHARGES BY PROCESS


PART 2
Process
Catalytic Cracking

Catalytic
Hydrocracking

Air Emissions
Heater stack gas (CO,
SOx , NOx , hydrocarbons
and particulates), fugitive
emissions
(hydrocarbons) and
catalyst regeneration
(CO, NOx , SOx , and
particulates).
Heater stack gas (CO,

SOx , NOx , hydrocarbons


and particulates), fugitive
emissions
(hydrocarbons) and
catalyst regeneration
(CO, NOx , SOx , and
dust).gas (CO,
Hydrotreating/Hydrop catalyst
Heater stack
rocessing
SOx , NOx , hydrocarbons
and particulates), vents
and fugitive emissions
(hydrocarbons) and
catalyst regeneration
(CO, NOx , SOx , and
catalyst dust).

Process Waste Water


Flow 1.5 Gal/Bbl High
levels of oil, suspended
solids, phenols
cyanides, H2S, NH3,
high pH, BOD, COD.

Residual Wastes
Generated
Spent catalysts (metals
from crude oil and
hydrocarbons), spent
catalyst fines from
electrostatic
precipitators (aluminum
silicate and metals).

Flow = 2.0 Gal/Bbl High Spent catalysts fines


COD, suspended solids, (metals from crude oil,
H2S, relatively low levels and hydrocarbons).
of BOD.

Flow = 1.0 Gal/Bbl H2S. Spent catalyst fines


NH3, High pH, phenols (aluminum silicate and
metals).
suspended solids, BOD,
COD.

Alkylation

Heater stack gas (CO,


SOx , NOx , hydrocarbons
and particulates), vents
and fugitive emissions
(hydrocarbons)

Low pH, suspended


solids, dissolved solids,
COD, H2S, spent
sulfuric acid.

Isomerization

Heater stack gas (CO,


Low pH, chloride salts,
SOx , NOx , hydrocarbons caustic wash, relatively
low H2S and NH3.
and particulates), vents
and fugitive emissions
(hydrocarbons)

Neutralized alkylation
sludge (sulfuric acid or
calcium fluoride,
hydrocarbons).

Calcium chloride sludge


from neutralized HCl
gas.

3.4 ENVIRONMENTAL DISCHARGES BY


PROCESS
PART 3
Process

Air Emissions

Process Waste Water

Residual Wastes
Generated

Polymerization

H2S from caustic


washing.

H2S, NH3, caustic wash, Spent catalyst


containing phosphoric
mercaptans and
acid.
ammonia, high pH.

Catalytic Reforming

Heater stack gas (CO,


SOx, NOx , hydrocarbons
and particulates), HCl
potentially in light ends),
vents and fugitive
emissions
(hydrocarbons)

Flow = 6.0 Gal/Bbl High


levels oil, suspended
solids, COD. Relatively
low H2S.

Spent catalyst fines


from electrostatic
precipitators (alumina
silicate and metals).

Solvent Extraction

Fugitive solvents

Oil solvents

Little or no residual
wastes generated.

Dewaxing

Fugitive solvents, heaters Oil solvents

Little or no residual
wastes generated.

Propane
Deasphalting

Heater stack gas (CO,


Oil solvents
SOx , NOx , hydrocarbons
and particulates), fugitive
propane.

Little or no residual
wastes generated.

Merox treating

Vents and fugitive


Little or no wastewater
emissions (hydrocarbons generated
and disulfides).

Spent Merox caustic


solution, waste oildisulfide mixture.

Wastewater
treatment

Fugitive emissions (H2S, Not Applicable

API separator sludge


(phenols, metals and
oil), chemical
precipitation sludge
(chemical coagulants,
oil), DAF floats,
biological sludges
(metals, oil, suspended
solids), spent lime.

NH3, and hydrocarbons)

3.4 ENVIRONMENTAL DISCHARGES BY PROCESS


PART 4

Process
Gas Treatment and
Sulfur Recovery
Blending

Air Emissions

Process Waste Water

SOx , NOx , and H2S from H2S, NH3, amines,


vent and tail gas
Stretford solution.
emissions.
Fugitive emissions
Little or no wastewater
(hydrocarbons)
generated

Residual Wastes
Generated
Spent catalyst.

Little of no residual
waste generated.

Heat Exchanger
cleaning

Periodic fugitive
emissions
(hydrocarbons)

Oily wastewater
generated

Heat exchanger sludge


(oil, metals, and
suspended solids)

Storage Tanks

Fugitive emissions
(hydrocarbons)

Water drained from


Tank bottom sludge (iron
tanks contaminated with rust, clay, sand, water,
tank product
emulsified oil and wax,
metals)

Blowdown and flare

Combustion products
Little or no wastewater
generated
(CO, SOx , NOx , and
hydrocarbons) from
flares, fugitive emissions

Little or no residual
waste generated.

4 REGULATORY ISSUES
The Petroleum Refining Industry is unique in that the environmental requirements aimed at the
industry are of two basic types:
Requirements mandating specific
product qualities for the purpose of
reducing the environmental impacts
associated with the downstream use
of the product.

Requirements
directed
at
reducing
the
environmental
impacts
of
the
refineries
themselves.

For the purpose of this module, we focus on refineries, which will be used to show some
Process Integration techniques.
Petroleum refineries are complex plants, and the combination and sequence of processes is
usually very specific to the characteristics of the raw material and the products. For this
reason the regulations for this sector become very specific and dispersed because an unit
have regulations for water, air and land discharges, all of these managed by different official
documents.

4.1 U.S. REGULATIONS

In the case of the United States, there are numerous federal regulations affecting the
Refinery Industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contains several
regulatory documents depending on the kind of resource that they pretend to protect,
(e.g. Air, water and soil).
Each one of these documents presents requirements which apply for every industrial
sector. Then, when the requirements for a certain industry are needed, specific parts
of the document should be used. For example,
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has some programs for reducing air
emissions from industry in which refineries are included:
New Source Review,
New Source Performance Standards
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
At the same time, the New Source Performance Standards have some sections for
Refineries:
Subpart J Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries
Subpart KKK Standards of Performance for Volatile Organic Liquid Storage Vessels.
Subpart GG Standard of Performances for Stationary Gas Turbines.
Subpart GGG Standards of Performance for Equipment Leaks of VOC in Petroleum
Refineries

FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS AFFECTING THE REFINERY INDUSTRY


Requirement
Clean air Act of 1970 (CAA) and regulations

Provisions That Affect Petroleum Refining


National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) fix six constituents; new standards under
NAAQS that require control of particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller; lead-free gasoline;
low sulfur fuel; reformulated gasoline; hazardous air pollutants; visi

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) and Oxygenated Fuels Program for nonattainment areas low sulfur highway diesel fuel;
regulations thereunder.
Reformulated fuels Program; Leaded Gasoline Removal Program; Reid Vapor pressure
regulations to reduce VOCs and other ozon precursors; New Source Review for new or
expande
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA)

Standards and regulations for handling and disposing of solid and hazardous wastes.

Clean Water Act (CWA)

Regulates discharges and spills to surface waters; wetlands.

Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

Regulates disposal of wastewater in underground injection wells

Comprehensive Environmental Response,


Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

superfund, liability for CERCLA hazardous substances could apply to wastes generated
during refining, includes past releases, exempts petroleum and crude oil; provides for natural
resource damages.

Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow (EPCRA).

Requires annual reporting on the releases and transfers of listed toxic chemicals; reporting
presence of extremely hazardous substances in excess or threshold planning quantities;
reporting certain releases of CERCL hazardous substances and EPCRA extrem

1990 Oil Pollution act and Spill Prevention Control Liability against facilities that discharge oil to navigable waters of pose a threat of doing so.
and Countermeasure Plans
OSHA Health Standards and Process Safety
Management Rules

Limits benzene and other chemical exposures in the workplace, safety plans required in all
refineries.

Toxic Substances Control Act

Collection of data on chemicals for risk evaluation, mitigation and control; can ban chemicals
that pose unreasonable risks.

Energy Policy Act of 1992

Use of alternative fuels for transportation; efficiency standards for new federal buildings,
buildings with federally backed mortgages, and commercial and industrial equipment; R&D
programs for technologies; will reduce demand for petroleum products.

4.3 GENERAL REGULATIONS

Besides all these complicated regulations, an specialized agency of


the United Nations, the World Bank, has established emission levels
for the design and operation of refineries, although country
legislation should be accomplished. The guidelines given below
present emissions levels normally acceptable to the World Bank Group.
Effluents from the
Emissions from the Petroleum Industry
Petroleum Industry
(milligrams per normal cubic meter)
(milligrams per liter)
Parameter
PM
Nitrogen oxides a
Sulfur oxides

Maximum value
50
460
150 for sulfur recovey
units; 500 for other
units
Nickel and vanadium
2
(combined)
Hydrogen sulfide
152
Solid Wastes

Generation of sludges should be


minimized to 0.3 kg per ton of crude
processed, with a maximum of 0.5
kg per ton of crude processed.

Parameter
pH
BOD
COD
TSS
Oil and grease
Chromium
Hexavalent
Total
Lead
Phenol
Benzene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Sulfide
Nitrogen(total)a
Temperature increase

Maximum value
6--9
30
150
30
10
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.5
0.05
0.05
1
10
<=3 C

World Band Group, 1998. Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook. World Bank Group. Pages 377-381.

5 ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES USED IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY


Primary wastewater treatment
Consists on the
separation of oil, water
and solids in two stages.

1st stage
API separator or
Corrugated plate interceptor.

2nd stage

Chemical and physical


methods are utilized to
separate
emulsified
oils
from
the
wastewater.

More information
about the
www.panamenv.com
equipment

Physical methods may


include the use of series
of settling ponds with a
long retention time, or the
use
of
dissolved
air
flotation (DAF).
Chemicals, such as ferric
hydroxide or aluminum
hydroxide are used to
coagulate impurities.

More information
about the equipment
www.panamenv.com

5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Secondary wastewater treatment


Dissolved oil and other
organic pollutants may
be
consumed
biologically.
Biological treatment may
require oxygen through
different techniques:

Activated sludge units


Trickling filters
Rotating biological contactors.

Polishing
Some refineries employ
it as an additional stage
of
wastewater
treatment
to
meet
discharge limits.

Generates
bio-mass
waste which is treated
an aerobically.
Activated carbon
Anthracite coal
Sand

5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Gas treatment and Sulfur Recovery


In order to meet the SOx emissions limits and to recover saleable sulfur, refinery process off-gas
streams should be treated.

Process off-gas streams contain high


concentrations of:

hydrogen sulfide + light refinery fuel


gases.

Amine + hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulfide

These fuel gases (methane and ethane) need to


be separated before elemental sulfur can be
recovered.
This is accomplished by:
Dissolving the hydrogen sulfide in a
chemical solvent such as diethanolamine
(DEA) in an absorption tower.
Using dry adsorbents such as molecular
sieves, activated carbon, iron sponge and
zinc oxide.

Is then heated and steam stripped to


remove the hydrogen sulfide gas.

Two processes are typically combined


to remove sulfur from the hydrogen
sulfide gas streams:
Beaven Process

Claus Process

Scot Process
Wellman-Land Process

5.3 ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Gas treatment
Other emissions sources come from periodic
regeneration of catalysts, these emissions may
contain:

high levels of carbon monoxide + particulates +


VOCs.
Before being released to the atmosphere

www.e2t.com/E2T/app_pc05.htm

CARBON MONOXIDE BOILER


To burn carbon monoxide and VOCs

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR OR CYCLONE SEPARATOR


To remove particulate matter

Solid waste treatment


Sludge treatment use bioremediation or solvent extraction, followed by combustion
of the residues or by use for asphalt. The residue could require stabilization before
disposal to reduce the leachability of toxic metals.

More information:
www.ppcesp.com

As we showed in the statistics section, petroleum industries which


are very important for the economy and development and also are
causing serious environmental problems.

Petroleum

STUDY CASE

PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTES

A major concern in refineries is the


release
of
phenols,
although
described as this, the category may
include a variety of similar chemical
compounds
among
which
are
polyphenols,
chlorophenols,
and
phenoxyacids.
The concern is
because of their toxicity to aquatic
life and the high oxygen demand
they sponsor in the streams that
receive it. Phenols are toxic to fish
and also they can cause taste and
odor problems when present in
potable water.

LPH and Gas


Refinery fuel gas

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Gasoline

Sweet Gasoline

Sweetening
Unit

LPG

Stabilizer

Naphta
Gasoline
Middle Distillates
Solvents

Gas

Gas Oil

Lube-Base
Stocks

Vacuum
Distillation

Hydrotreating

Treating and Blending

The first step in


a
petroleum
refinery is to
preheat
the
crude, then it is
washed
with
water to remove
various salts.

Atmospheric
Distillation

Middle Distillates

Aviation fuels

Gas oil and heavy stocks are fed to a catalyticcracking unit to be converted to lower molecular
Gasoline
The light
gas oil
leaving
thewaste
fractionator
can
weight
fractions.
The main
stream
fromserve
this
Diesels
as
a
lean-oil
solvent
in
a
phenol
extraction
process
Catalytic is the condensate from strippingprocess,
in the
Light
Gas Oil
being
this a column.
beneficiary
mass
transfer because
in
Cracking
fractionating
This
condensate
commonly
addition
to
purify
water,
phenols
can
act
as
contains ammonia, phenols and Heating
sulfides
as
oils
oxidationWastewater,
inhibitors
and as
stabilizers.
contaminants,
this R1
has
to color
be stripped
to remove
ammonia and sulfides. The bottom product of the
stripper must be treated to eliminate phenols.
Lube oils
Lube Oil

Solvent
Extraction and
Dewaxing

Waxes

Greases

Gasoline, Naphtha and

Asphalts

The main objectives


of visbreaking are to reduce
Middle distillates
the viscosity and the pour points of vacuum-tower
Fuel Oil
bottoms and to increase
the feed stocks
to catalytic
Visbreaker
Industrial
fuels
cracking. The source
of
wastewater
is
the
overhead
Asphalt
accumulator on the fractionator, where water is
separatedWastewater,
from theR2hydrocarbon vapor.
This water
Refinery fuel oil
contains phenols, ammonia an sulfides

Hydroskimming Refinery (1st


Generation)
Gasplant

C1 + H2S

Sulfur Plant

C3 + C4

FUEL GAS
SULFUR

LPG + BUTANE
+ PROPANE

Gas

Alkylation

Sulfur rich gas

Alkylate

C
Naphtha

LIGHT NAPHTHA TO
PETROCHEMISTRY

Kerosene

DHT

Catalytic
Reforming

MOTOR SPIRIT

Reformate

Hydrogen

Gasoil

Atmospheric
Residue

JET FUEL

Merox
Desulfurization

DIESEL

HEATING
GASOIL

BUNKER FUEL

HEAVY FUEL

Conversion Refinery (2nd


Generation)
Gasplant

C1 + H2S

FUEL GAS

Sulfur Plant

C3 + C4

SULFUR

LPG + BUTANE
+ PROPANE

Gas

Naphtha

CRUDE

MTBE

Alkylate

C
D

MTBE

Alkylation

Sulfur rich gas

DHT

Kerosene

Catalytic
Reforming

LIGHT NAPHTHA TO
PETROCHEMISTRY
MOTOR SPIRIT

Reformate
Cat Cracked Spirit

Hydrogen

Gasoil

JET FUEL

Merox
Desulfurization

Atmospheric
Residue

DIESEL

HEATING
GASOIL

Catalytic
Cracking

Wax

V
D
U

Visbroken naphtha

Visbreaking
Vacuum
Residue

Bitumen Plant

Light Cycle Oil


Heavy Cycle Oil

BUNKER FUEL

Visbroken Gasoil
HEAVY FUEL
Visbroken Residue
BITUMEN FOR
ROAD CONSTRUCTION

Deep Conversion Refinery (3rd


Generation)
C1 + H2S

Gasplant

FUEL GAS

Sulfur Plant

C3 + C4

SULFUR

LPG + BUTANE
+ PROPANE

Gas

Naphtha

CRUDE

MTBE

Alkylate

C
D

MTBE

Alkylation

Sulfur rich gas

DHT

Kerosene

Catalytic
Reforming

LIGHT NAPHTHA TO
PETROCHEMISTRY
MOTOR SPIRIT

Reformate
Cat Cracked Spirit

Hydrogen

Gasoil

JET FUEL

Merox
Desulfurization

Atmospheric
Residue

HEATING
GASOIL

Hydrogen

ARDS

Gasoil

Residue

Catalytic
Cracking

Wax

V
D
U

Visbroken naphtha

Visbreaking
Vacuum
Residue

DIESEL

Bitumen Plant

Light Cycle Oil


Heavy Cycle Oil

BUNKER FUEL

Visbroken Gasoil
HEAVY FUEL
Visbroken Residue
BITUMEN FOR
ROAD CONSTRUCTION