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12- OFDM with Multiple Antennas

Multiple Antenna Systems (MIMO)

TX

RX

NT

NR

Transmit
Antennas

Receive
Antennas

NT N R

Different paths
Two cases:
1. Array Gain: if all paths are strongly correlated to which other the SNR can be
increased by array processing;
2. Diversity Gain: if all paths are uncorrelated, the effect of channel fading can be
attenuated by diversity combining

Recall the Chi-Square distribution:


1. Real Case. Let

y x x ... x
2
1

Then
with

y n2

with

2
n

xi N (0,1) real , i.i.d .

E{ y} n
var{ y} 2n

2. Complex Case. Let

Then

2
2

1 2
2n
2
E{ y} n

y | x1 |2 | x2 |2 ... | xn |2
xi ai jbi CN (0,1) complex gaussian, i.i.d .

1
var{ y} n
2

Receive Diversity:

h1
hN R

TX

NR

Transmit
Antennas

RX

yNR

NT 1

y1

y1

NR
Receive
Antennas

Different paths

h1

y N hN
R R

w1

ES s N 0

Energy per
symbol

wN
R

Noise PSD

Assume we know the channels at the receiver. Then we can decode the signal as

NR

NR

NR

i 1

i 1

i 1

y hi* yi ES | hi |2 s N 0 hi* wi
signal

noise

and the Signal to Nose Ratio

ES
SNR | hi |
i 1
N0
NR

NR

In the Wireless case the channels are random, therefore

| h |
i 1

is a random variable

Now there are two possibilities:


1. Channels strongly correlated. Assume they are all the same for simplicity

h1 h2 ... hN R h
Then
NR

2
2
2
|
h
|

N
|
h
|

i
R
R 2

assuming

i 1

E | h |2 1

and

ES
1 2 ES
SNR N R | h |
NR 2
N0
2 N0
2

From the properties of the Chi-Square distribution:

mSNR E SNR N R

SNR

ES
N0

N R ES
var SNR
2 N0

Define the coefficient of variation

better on average

but with deep fades!

var

SNR
1

mSNR
2

In this case we say that there is no diversity.

2. Channels Completely Uncorrelated.

Since:

ES
SNR | hi |
i 1
N0
NR
1 2
2
| hi | 2 N R

2
i 1
NR

1 2 ES
SNR 2 N R
2
N0
with

E SNR N R
var SNR

Diversity of order

ES
N0

N R ES
2 N0

var

NR

SNR
1

mSNR
2 NR

Example: overall receiver gain with receiver diversity.

15

N R 10

10
5

NR 2

0
-5

NR 1

-10
-15
-20
-25

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Transmitter Diversity

h1

TX

hN R

NT

NR 1

NT

Transmit
Antennas

RX

Different paths

ES
NT

NT

h s
i 1

N0 w

Total energy equally distributed


on transmit antennas

Receive
Antennas

Equivalent to one channel,


with no benefit.

However there is a gain if we use Space Time Coding (2x1 Alamouti)


Take the case of Transmitter diversity with two antennas

h1

x1[n]

y[n]

h2

TX

RX

x2 [ n ]

s1[n], s2 [n]

Given two sequences

code them within the two antennas as follows


antennas

x1
x2

s1

s2

*
2
*
1

2n 2n 1

time

ES
h1s1 h2 s2 N 0 w1
y[2n]
2
ES
y[2n 1]
h1s2* h2 s1* N 0 w2
2

This can be written as:

y[2n]
y *[2n 1]

ES
2

h1
h*
2

h2
h1*

s1
w1
s N 0 w*
2
2

To decode, notice that

h1*
z1
z *
2
h2

h2 y[2n]

*

h1 y [2n 1]

ES
2
|| h ||

s1
s
2

w%
1
N 0 || h ||
w%
2

Use a Wiener Filter to estimate s:

s1 K h1* y[2n] h2 y *[2n 1]


s1 K h2* y[2n] h1 y *[2n 1]

with

2 / ES
K
| h1 |2 | h2 |2 2 N 0 / ES

It is like having two independent channels

s1
s2

ES
|| h ||2
2

ES
|| h ||2
2

|| h ||2 ES
SNR
2 N0

N 0 || h || w%
1

z1
z2
N 0 || h || w%
2
1 2
|| h || | h1 | | h2 | 4
2
2

Apart from the factor , it has the same SNR as the receive diversity of order 2.

2x2 MIMO with Space Time Coding (2x2 Alamouti)

x1[n]

h11
h12

TX

y1[n]

h21
RX

x2 [ n ]

y1[n] h11
y [n] h
2 21

h22

y 2 [ n]

h12 x1[n] w1[n]

h22 x2 [n] w2 [n]

Same transmitting sequence as in the 2x1 case:

antennas

x1
x2

s1

s2*

s2

s1*

2n 2n 1

time

Received sequences:

y1[2n]

ES
h11s1 h12 s2 N 0 w1[2n]
2

y1[2n 1]
y 2 [ 2 n]

ES
h11 s2* h12 s1* N 0 w1[2n 1]
2

ES
h21s1 h22 s2 N 0 w2 [2n]
2

y2 [ 2n 1]

ES
h21s2* h22 s1* N 0 w2 [ 2n 1]
2

Write it in matrix form:

y1[2n]
y1*[2n 1]

y 2 [ 2n]

*
y2 [2n 1]

h11
h*
ES 12
2 h21
*
h22

h12
h11*
h22

h
*
21

s1
s N 0 w[n]
2

Combined as

z1 h11*
z *
2 h12

h12
h11

*
h21
*
h22

h22

h21

y1[2n]
y1*[2n 1]
y 2 [ 2n]

y2* [2n 1]

to obtain

z1 h
z
2 h

*
11
*
12

h12
h11

*
21
*
22

h
h

h22

h21

h11
*
ES h12
2 h21
*
h22

h12
h11*
h22
h

*
21

s1

s N 0 w[n]
2

After simple algebra:

z1
2

||
h
||
z
2

ES
2

s1
s || h || N 0 w[n]
2

with
2

1 2
|| h || | hij | 8
2
i , j 1
2

diversity 4
This yields an SNR

|| h ||2 ES
SNR
2 N0

WiMax Implementation

h1
h2

Subscriber
Station

Base Station

Down Link (DL): BS -> SS Transmit Diversity


Uplink (UL):

SS->BS

Receive Diversity

Down Link: Transmit Diversity


Use Alamouti Space Time Coding:
Transmitter:
Data in

Error
Coding

X 2m

Xn
M-QAM

buffer

IFFT

TX

STC
IFFT

TX

X 2 m 1
Block to be
transmitted

Space Time Coding

X 2m

X 2*m 1

X 2 m 1

*
X 2m

2m

2m 1

time

Receiver:

Data out

Xn

Error
Correction

M-QAM

Y2 m

X 2m
P/S
2

S/P
2

STD

FFT

Y2 m 1

X 2 m 1
Space Time Decoding:

For each subcarrier k


compute:

X 2 m [k ] K H1*[k ]Y2 m [k ] H 2 [k ]Y2*m 1[k ]


X
[k ] K H *[k ]Y [k ] H [k ]Y * [k ]
2 m 1

with

2m

2 / ES
| H1[k ] |2 | H 2 [k ] |2 2 N 0 / ES

2 m 1

Preamble, Synchronization and Channel Estimation with


Transmit Diversity (DL)

The two antennas transmit two preambles at the same time, using different sets of
subcarriers

p1[n]

EVEN subcarriers

CP

128
+

64

128

128

319

p2 [ n]
CP

128

64

128
-

time

100
ODD subcarriers

128

frequency

100

Both preambles have a symmetry:

p1[n] p1[n 128]


p2 [n] p2 [n 128]

p0 [ n ]

n 128,...,319

h0 [n]

received signal from


the two antennas

y[n]
p1[n]

h1[n]

Problems:
time synchronization
estimation of both channels

Symmetry is preserved even after the channel spreading:

h1[n] * p1[n]
CP

128
+

64

128

128

CP

128

64

128
-

128

h2 [n] * p2 [ n]

One possibility: use symmetry of the preambles

y1[n] 2h1[n] * p1[n]

y[n]
64
n0

256

64 128

n0 128

z 128

y2 [n] 2h2 [n] * p2 [n]


64 128
n0 128

The two preambles can be easily separated

MIMO Channel Simulation


Take the general 2x2 channel

e j 3

e j1

x1[n]

y1[n]

Rayleigh

T
Rayleigh

x2 [ n ]
e j 4

[ 1 N ] sec
P [ P1 PN ] dB

0 T 1 Correlation at the transmitter


0 R 1 Correlation at the receiver

y 2 [ n]
e j 2