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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Peru Talara
November, 2012

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SECTION OBJECTIVES
Overview of various compressor types
Picture or diagram of a reciprocating compressor, identify

the location and function of each part


Lubricated parts and Recommended Lubricants

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GAS ENGINE + RECIPROCATING


COMPRESSOR
Gas Engine
The combination of gas
engine and reciprocating
compressor is the most
prevalent configuration in
the gas industry.

In most situations, a reciprocating


compressor driven by a gas
engine is the most economical
means to perform the required
compression.

Of course, a gas engine makes


perfect sense as a prime mover
because it is fueled by natural gas
a fuel that does not have to be
transported to the site because it
is already there!

Reciprocating
Compressor

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Reciprocating Compressors

Compressor Types
Operation and Components
Lubrication

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COMPRESSOR TYPES
Compressors are divided into
two major types, positive
displacement and dynamic.

STRAIGHT LOBE

ROTARY ROTARY SCREW

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

COMPRESSORS

Direct Increase in pressure


by reducing the volume of the
chamber in which a gas is
confined

ROTARY VANE

RECIPROCATING
CENTRIFUGAL

DYNAMIC
Increases gas pressure
by increasing the gas's
velocity

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AXIAL FLOW

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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
STRAIGHT LOBE

ROTARY

ROTARY SCREW

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

Positive displacement
compressors move a fixed
COMPRESSORS
volume of gas. For example, a
piston displaces a set volume
on each stroke. As a rotary
screw turns, it moves a set
volume of gas.

ROTARY VANE
RECIPROCATING
CENTRIFUGAL

DYNAMIC
AXIAL FLOW

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DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS
STRAIGHT LOBE

ROTARY

ROTARY SCREW

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

Dynamic compressors use


velocity to move gas, much
COMPRESSORS
as a fan blows air. The
different types require
different lubrication.

ROTARY VANE
RECIPROCATING
CENTRIFUGAL

DYNAMIC
AXIAL FLOW

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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT ADVANTAGES


STRAIGHT LOBE

ROTARY

ROTARY SCREW

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

Reciprocating
High pressure / Multi-Stage /
COMPRESSORS
Portable
Straight Lobe & Helical Lobe
Portable / Easy to Lubricate

ROTARY VANE
RECIPROCATING
CENTRIFUGAL

Sliding Vane
DYNAMIC
Efficient / Small
Liquid Piston
High Volume / Easy to Lubricate

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AXIAL FLOW

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DYNAMIC ADVANTAGES
STRAIGHT LOBE

ROTARY

Centrifugal

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

Large volumes at low pressures at


high speeds.

COMPRESSORS
Axial Flow

ROTARY SCREW

ROTARY VANE
RECIPROCATING

Direct connected to turbines and


rotors with high volumes.

CENTRIFUGAL

DYNAMIC
AXIAL FLOW

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Reciprocating Compressors

Separable
Integral

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10

Reciprocating Compressors
Compressor Types
Operation and Components
Lubrication

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11

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Reciprocating compressors take
rotary motion from the driver and
convert it into reciprocating motion
in the form of the motion of the
compressor's pistons.

The motion of the pistons reduces the volume of the gas and
therefore increases its pressure.
In contrast, a gas engine uses reciprocating motion to make
rotary motion.
Since both the gas engine and reciprocating compressor convert
between reciprocating and rotary motion, they each use many
similar components, including pistons, cylinders, valves,
crankshaft, crankcase, and connecting rods.
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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
Take a look, one by one, at the major components of a
reciprocating compressor.

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13

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

The
Theconnecting
connectingrod
rod
transmits
power
transmits powerfrom
fromthe
the
crankshaft
crankshaft(input
(inputshaft)
shaft)to
to
the
thecrosshead.
crosshead.

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Connectin
g Rod

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14

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

The
Thecrosshead
crossheadtransmits
transmitspower
powerfrom
from
the
theconnecting
connectingrod
rodto
tothe
the
compressor
compressorrod.
rod.Transfers
Transfersrotating
rotating
motion
motionto
tolinear
linearmotion.
motion.
The
Thecrosshead
crossheadisissupported
supportedby
bythe
the
crosshead
crossheadguide.
guide.

Connecting
Rod

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15

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

The
Thecompressor
compressorrod
rod
gives
givespower
powerto
tothe
the
piston.
piston.

Connecting
Rod

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Compress
or Rod

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16

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

The
Thepistons
pistonstake
takepower
powerfrom
fromthe
the
compressor
compressorrod
rodand
andmove
movein
inthe
the
cylinder
cylinderto
toreduce
reducethe
thegas
gasvolume,
volume,
Connecting
which
whichcompresses
compressesthe
thegas.
gas.
Rod
The
Therings
ringswrap
wraparound
aroundthe
thepiston
piston
and
andare
arewhat
whatactually
actuallycontact
contactthe
the
cylinder.
cylinder.

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Compressor
Piston &
Rings

Compresso
r Rod

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17

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

Gas
Gasto
tobe
becompressed
compressed(the
(the
suction
gas)
enters
the
suction gas) enters the
cylinder
cylinderthrough
throughthe
thesuction
suction
valves
valveswhen
whenthey
theyopen.
open.The
The
valves
valvesopen
openwhen
whenthe
thesuction
suction
line
linepressure
pressurebecomes
becomesgreater
greater
than
the
cylinder
pressure.
Suctio than the cylinder pressure.
Connecting
n
Rod
Valves

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Compressor
Piston &
Rings

Compresso
r Rod

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18

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Discharg
e Valves

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

Compressor
Piston &
Rings

The
Thecompressed
compressedgas
gas(discharge
(discharge
gas)
leaves
the
cylinder
gas) leaves the
Connecting
cylinderthrough
through
the
valves
thedischarge
dischargeRod
valveswhen
whenthey
they
open.
open. The
Thevalves
valvesopen
openwhen
whenthe
the
cylinder
cylinderpressure
pressurebecomes
becomes
greater
greaterthan
thanthe
thedischarge
dischargeline
line
pressure.
pressure.

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19

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

Suction
Valves
Pressure packing" is sometimes called "rod packing"
and
"oil wiper packing" is sometimes just called "wiper
packing".

Pressure
Packing

Compressor
Piston &
Rings

The
Thepressure
pressurepacking
packingisisaa
seal
the
sealthat
thatprevents
prevents
thegas
gas
Compresso
in
from
inthe
thecylinder
cylinder
from
r
Rod
entering
enteringthe
thecrankcase
crankcase
through
throughthe
thecompressor
compressor
rod
rodopening.
opening.

The combination of the "pressure packing" and the


"wiper packing" is called the "compressor packing" or
just the "packing."
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20

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

Suction
Valves

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Oil Pressure
Wiper Packing
Packing

Compressor
Piston &
Rings

IsIsan
anoil
oilseal
sealthat
thatkeeps
keepscrankcase
crankcase
lubricant
lubricantfrom
fromgetting
gettinginto
intothe
the
pressure
pressurepacking.
packing.
ItItgets
getsits
itsname
namebecause
becauseititwipes
wipes
excess
excessoil
oiloff
offof
ofthe
thecompressor
compressorrod.
rod.

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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

Oil Pressure
Wiper Packing
Packing

Cylind Suction
Connecting
er Valves
Rod
Coolan
t Area Can you find the coolant area
Can you find the coolant area
under
underthe
thecompressor
compressor
cylinder?
cylinder?
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Compressor
Piston &
Rings

Compresso
r Rod

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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR 8

Suction Line

Crosshead &
Crosshead
Guides

Oil Pressure
Wiper Packing
Packing

Compressor
Piston &
Rings

Compresso
Cylinde Suction
r Rod
Connecting
r Valves Compressor
Frame
Rod
Coolant
Footings or
Area
nottorqued
torqued
Anchor IfIfnot
correctly,
correctly,
misalignment
misalignmentcan
can
result.
result.
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23

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Suction Line

Crankcase
Crosshead & Breather
Oil Pressure
Crosshead
Wiper Packing
Guides
Packing

Compressor
Piston &
Rings

The
Thecrankcase
crankcasebreather
breatherallows
allows
excess
air
in
the
crankcase
excess air in the crankcaseto
toescape
escape
and
andavoid
avoidcrankcase
crankcasepressure
pressurebuildbuildup
upthat
thatwould
wouldotherwise
otherwiserupture
rupture
seals.
seals.
Cylinde Suction
Compressor
r Valves
Frame Footings
Coolant
or Anchor
Area

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Connecting
Rod

Compresso
r Rod

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ANIMATION OF RECIPROCATING
COMPRESSOR
Horizontally opposed compressor

COMPRESSOR WITH INTERCOOLER

This is a two-stage compressor with intercooler.


Reciprocating compressors can have different shapes, but
the components are the same as in the previous slides.
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COMPRESSOR WITH INTERCOOLER

An intercooler is necessary for good efficiency because


gas temperature increases when it is compressed. The
hotter the gas is, the more work it takes to compress
it.
The
Intercooler
cools
the gas between stages of
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compression so it will take less work in the next

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STAGES & PISTON DIAMETERS


What is a 2-stage, 3-stage, or 4-stage compressor?
A 2-stage compressor raises the pressure of the gas twice (in 2
stages), while a 3-stage compressor raises the pressure of the
gas 3 times (in 3 stages), and so on.
In a 2-stage compressor, for instance, the gas will be
compressed in the 1st stage from one pressure to another
pressure, cooled in the intercooler and then compressed in the
2nd stage to a higher pressure. Multiple stages are used to
compress gas to higher pressures.
A compressor's number of stages can be determined by noting
the number of different piston diameters it has. If the
compressor uses pistons with three different piston diameters
then it's a 3-stage compressor.
(Note: The number of pistons a compressor has is not indicative
of whether a compressor is multi-stage.)
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CAN YOU FIND THESE?

Can you find these?


Suction Valves
Crosshead & Crosshead
Guides
Connecting Rod
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Piston & Rings


Compressor Packing
Compressor Rod

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LUBRICATION AREAS
Reciprocating compressors have three distinct areas for
lubrication:

Crankcase (bearings, bushings, timing gears, crosshead


guides, etc.)

Packing (oil wiper packing and pressure packing)

Cylinders (cylinder walls, piston rings, and valves)

Although most compressors use the same oil to


lubricate all three (usually a gas engine oil), some
applications require that a different lubricant be
used to lubricate the packing and cylinders.
Many hydrocarbon compressors are moving toward
dry or non-lubricated packing. Cylinders are
sometimes lubricated by the material being
compressed.
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CIRCULATION LUBRICATION
The 3 areas that need lubrication (crankcase, packing &
cylinders) are lubricated by two separate systems.

The first system is an oil circulation system that lubricates the


crankcase area. The oil circulation system uses an oil pump to
circulate oil from the pool of lubricant that fills the compressor
crankcase to the various lubricated components in the crankcase
(main bearings, rod bearings, crosshead guides, etc.).

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FORCE FEED LUBRICATION

Force Feed
Lubricator

The second system is a force feed lubrication system that


lubricates the packing and cylinders (the other two areas) via
tubing. The force feed lubrication rate can be adjusted by the
operator to deliver more or less oil to the packing and
cylinders.
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LUBRICATION
For the majority of compressors driven by gas engines, the oil
used in both the compressor crankcase (oil circulation system)
and in the force feed lubrication system (for the cylinders &
packing) will be the same as the oil used in the gas engine.
Of course, since integral compressors share their crankcase
with the engine, engine oil must be used in the circulation
system as there is no separate compressor crankcase.
If a separable compressor is turned by a gas engine, the
compressor crankcase will almost always use the same gas
engine oil the engine uses. However, if turned by an electric
motor or another driver, the compressor crankcase may be
filled with a circulating oil like? Mineral, PAO, PAG, compounded.
Reciprocating compressor crankcases typically use an SAE 30
(ISO VG 100) or an SAE 40 (ISO VG 150-220).

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GAS ENGINE OILS


Gas engine oils are formulated for the engine rather than
the compressor.
The engine's operating conditions dictate the type of gas
engine oil recommended.
Once the engine oil
recommendation has been made,
the compressor's operating
conditions are analyzed to
determine whether the engine oil
can also be used to lubricate the
compressor.
In the majority of cases, the same
gas engine oil used to lubricate
the engine can also lubricate the
reciprocating compressor.
Gas Engine Oil is NOT THE
PRIMARY lubricant OEM

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LUBRICATION

The force feed lubrication system (for packing and


cylinders) will usually use the same oil as the
compressor crankcase (usually gas engine oil, but
sometimes circulating oil).
The exception to this is when the gas will be
compressed above 1,000 psig (pounds per square inch
gauge) in pressure or when the gas is not pipeline
quality natural gas. In these cases, the TA and OEM
recommendation should be consulted to provide the
proper product recommendation*.
Lubricant selection is gas quality and discharge
pressure dependent

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ALL LOSS SYSTEM


The force feed lubrication system to the packing and cylinders is
an
all loss system. This means that all oil supplied to the packing
and cylinders mixes with the gas and leaves with the discharge
gas into the pipeline.
Shell Technical Advisors can do compressor cylinder feed rate
studies (*) to:
a) Reduce oil usage
b) Improve valve life
c) Reduce problems down stream of the compressor due to
excessive oil
feed
Valve
(too much feed)
tosticking
cylinders.
Valve wear (not enough feed)
Improper feed rates can cause numerous problems, including:
High oil consumption (too much)
Problems downstream even flash fires

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36

ARIEL CIGARETTE PAPER TEST METHOD


Checking cylinders for the proper lubrication rates, the cigarette
paper test method can provide a practical indication.
Remove a head end suction valve and position piston at inner
center, for the cylinder to be checked. Use two layers of regular
unwaxed commercial cigarette paper, together. Wipe the
cylinder bore at top with both papers using light pressure in
circumferential motion through about 20. The paper
next to the bore should be stained (wetted with oil), but the
second paper should not be soaked through.
Repeat the test at both sides of the bore at about 90 from the
top, using two new clean papers for each side. When the paper
next to the bore is not stained through, it may be an indication of
under lubrication. When both papers are stained through, it may
be an indication of over lubrication.

LUBRICANT GUIDANCE
Ariel Reciprocating Compressors
90% Market Share

10% Market Share


Cylinder Discharge Pressure

Gas Stream

<1000 PSIG
<(70 bar-g)

1000 to 2000
PSIG
(70 to 140 bar-g)

2000 to 3500
PSIG
(140 to 240 bar-g)

3500 to 5000
PSIG
(240 to 345 bar-g)

>5000 PSIG
>(345 bar-g)

Pipeline Quality
natural Gas
Including CNG
(Dry)

ISO 150
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150
Morlina S4 B 100 (PAO)

ISO 150-220
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150-220
Morlina S4 B 100-150
(PAO)

ISO 220
(Compounded, Syn)
Gas Compressor Oil S3
PSN 220
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

ISO 320-460
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)

Natural Gas
(Water Saturated
and/or Heavy
hydrocarbons
Methane<90%
Propane>8%
SG>0.7)

ISO 150-220
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150-220
Morlina S4 B 100-150
(PAO)

ISO 220-320
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Morlina S4 B 220-320
(PAO)

ISO 680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 680
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)

ISO 680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 680
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PN
220 (PAG)

Natural Gas
(Water Saturated
and Carbon
Dioxide
>2% to 10%)

ISO 150-220
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150-220
Morlina S4 B 100-150
(PAO)

ISO 150-320
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)
Morlina S4 B 100-150
(PAO)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)

ISO 680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 680
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)

ISO 680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 680
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PN
220 (PAG)

Natural Gas
(Water Saturated
and Carbon
Dioxide
>10%)

ISO 150-220
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150-220
Morlina S4 B 100-150
(PAO)

ISO 150-320
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)
Morlina S4 B 100-150
(PAO)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)

ISO 680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 680
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)

ISO 680
(Compounded, PAG)
Omala S1 W 680
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PN
220 (PAG)

Consult your Shell LTA for actual product recommendation

38

LUBRICANT GUIDANCE
Ariel Reciprocating Compressors
90% Market Share

10% Market Share


Cylinder Discharge Pressure

Gas Stream

<1000 PSIG
<(70 bar-g)

1000 to 2000
PSIG
(70 to 140 bar-g)

2000 to 3500
PSIG
(140 to 240 bar-g)

ISO 150
(Compounded, Syn)
Morlina S4 B 100 (PAO)

ISO 150-220
(Compounded, Syn)
Gas Compressor Oil S3
PSN 220
Morlina S4 B 150-220
(PAO)

ISO 220
(Compounded, Syn)
Gas Compressor Oil S3
PSN 220
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

Natural Gas
(Water Saturated
and H2S
>30%)

ISO 150
(Compounded, Syn)
Morlina S4 B 100 (PAO)

ISO 150-220
(Compounded, Syn)
Gas Compressor Oil S3
PSN 220
Morlina S4 B 150-220
(PAO)

ISO 220
(Compounded, Syn)
Gas Compressor Oil S3
PSN 220
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

Air or gas mixtures with


>4% oxygen

ISO 100
(Diester or Polyol ester)
Corena S4 P 100

ISO 150
(Diester or Polyol ester)

Nitrogen
(Bone Dry - Contact Ariel)

ISO 150
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150
Morlina S4 B 100 (PAO)

ISO 150-220
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 150-220
Morlina S4 B 100 (PAO)

Natural Gas
(Water Saturated
and H2S
>2% to 30%)

3500 to 5000
PSIG
(240 to 345 bar-g)

>5000 PSIG
>(345 bar-g)

ISO 320
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Morlina S4 B 220-320 (PAO)
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PN
220 (PAG)

ISO 320
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S4 WE 150 (PAG)
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Morlina S4 B 220-320 (PAO)
Omala S4 WE 220 (PAG)
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PN
220 (PAG)

ISO 150
(Diester or Polyol ester)

ISO 150
(Diester or Polyol ester)

ISO 150
(Diester or Polyol ester)

ISO 220
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 220
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

ISO 320
(R&O, Syn)
Morlina S2 B 320
Morlina S4 B 150 (PAO)

ISO 460-680
(Compounded, Syn)
Omala S1 W 460-680
Morlina S4 B 220-320 (PAO)

Consult your Shell LTA for actual product recommendation


39

COMPARING VISCOMETRICS @ 300F


Shell product
Corena S4 P 100
Corena S2 P 150
Morlina S4 B 100
Morlina S2 B 150
Gas Compressor Oil S3 PSN
220
Morlina S2 B 220
Morlina S4 B 150
Morlina S2 B 320
Morlina S2 B 460
Omala S4 WE 150
Morlina S4 B 220
Omala S1 W 460
Omala S1 W 680
Morlina S4 B 320
Omala S4 WE 220
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PN
220
Morlina S4 B 320
Gas Compressor Oil S4 PV
220
Omala S4 WE 320
Omala S4 WE 460

Base
Fluid
Diester
Mineral
PAO
Mineral
Syn
Blend
Mineral
PAO
Mineral
Mineral
PAG
PAO

Ariel Type
Diester
Compressor
Syn
R&O

R&O
R&O
Syn
R&O
R&O
PAG
Syn
Compounde
Mineral
d
Compounde
Mineral
d
PAO
Syn
PAG
PAG

VI
78
52
130
95

cSt @ 149 C
(300F)
3.8
4.1
5.0
5.4

40C VG Class @
300F
(undiluted)
<150
<150
150
150

17.9
18.3
19.8
25
30
22.5
25.9

92
92
149
96
94
188
149

6.0
6.1
7.6
8.0
9.0
9.2
9.4

220
220
320
320
460
460
460

460

31.2

98

9.4

460

680
320
220

680
320
222

35.2
33.8
34.4

83
148
203

9.8
11.6
13.5

680
680
1000

ISO
100
150
100
150

cSt @
40C
100
155
100
150

cSt @
100C
10.2
12.1
12.8
15

220
220
150
320
460
150
220

211
220
150
320
460
136
220

460

PAG
PAO

PAG
Syn

220
460

198
460

34.8
45.5

223
155

14.3
15.0

1500
1500

PAG
PAG
PAG

PAG
PAG
PAG

220
320
460

190
321
460

36
52.7
73.2

200
230
239

15.2
20.6
27.9

1500
2200
>2200

Consult your Shell LTA for actual product recommendation


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