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CAMPBELL BIOLOGY IN FOCUS

Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson Reece

21
The Evolution
of Populations
Questions prepared by

Fleur Ferro, Community College of Denver


William Wischusen, Louisiana State University
Ronald Balsamo, Villanova University
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

In evolutionary terms, an organism's fitness is


measured by its ________.
A. stability in the face of environmental change
B. contribution to the gene pool of the next
generation
C. genetic variability
D. mutation rate
E. health

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

In evolutionary terms, an organism's fitness is


measured by its ________.
A. stability in the face of environmental change
B. contribution to the gene pool of the next
generation
C. genetic variability
D. mutation rate
E. health

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Red short-horned cattle are homozygous for the red


allele, white cattle are homozygous for the white
allele, and roan cattle are heterozygotes. Population
A consists of 36% red, 16% white, and 48% roan
cattle. What are the allele frequencies?
A. red 0.36, white 0.16
B. red 0.6, white 0.4
C. red 0.5, white 0.5
D. Allele frequencies cannot be determined unless
the population is in equilibrium.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Red short-horned cattle are homozygous for the red


allele, white cattle are homozygous for the white
allele, and roan cattle are heterozygotes. Population
A consists of 36% red, 16% white, and 48% roan
cattle. What are the allele frequencies?
A. red 0.36, white 0.16
B. red 0.6, white 0.4
C. red 0.5, white 0.5
D. Allele frequencies cannot be determined unless
the population is in equilibrium.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate which of the HardyWeinberg conditions is


being violated in the following example: Some
moths on a tree are easier to see due to their lighter
color and therefore are eaten by predators more
often.
A. large population size
B. no mutation
C. no gene flow
D. random mating occurring
E. no selection
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate which of the HardyWeinberg conditions is


being violated in the following example: Some
moths on a tree are easier to see due to their lighter
color and therefore are eaten by predators more
often.
A. large population size
B. no mutation
C. no gene flow
D. random mating occurring
E. no selection
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate which of the HardyWeinberg conditions is


being violated in this example: Female sailfin
blennies (a fish) tend to choose males with either a
large sailfin on top of their heads or the best flicking
motion of their sailfin.
A. large population size
B. no mutation
C. no gene flow
D. random mating occurring
E. no selection
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate which of the HardyWeinberg conditions is


being violated in this example: Female sailfin
blennies (a fish) tend to choose males with either a
large sailfin on top of their heads or the best flicking
motion of their sailfin.
A. large population size
B. no mutation
C. no gene flow
D. random mating occurring
E. no selection
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate which of the HardyWeinberg conditions is


being violated in this example: Due to global
warming, a river has dried up, allowing two different
rabbit populations to mate with one another,
whereas they were isolated before.
A. large population size
B. no mutation
C. no gene flow
D. random mating occurring
E. no selection
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate which of the HardyWeinberg conditions is


being violated in this example: Due to global
warming, a river has dried up, allowing two different
rabbit populations to mate with one another,
whereas they were isolated before.
A. large population size
B. no mutation
C. no gene flow
D. random mating occurring
E. no selection
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The textbook discusses how the conversion of


quality habitat into farmland has greatly depleted
the greater prairie chicken populations and, as a
result, their genetic diversity. Which of the following
occurred in this example?
A. founder effects
B. mutation
C. natural selection
D. gene flow
E. bottlenecking
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The textbook discusses how the conversion of


quality habitat into farmland has greatly depleted
the greater prairie chicken populations and, as a
result, their genetic diversity. Which of the following
occurred in this example?
A. founder effects
B. mutation
C. natural selection
D. gene flow
E. bottlenecking
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate what type of selection is occurring in the


example here: Due to less snowfall in an area, white
mice are predated on more than intermediate- or
dark-colored mice.

A. directional selection
B. disruptive selection
C. stabilizing selection

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate what type of selection is occurring in the


example here: Due to less snowfall in an area, white
mice are predated on more than intermediate- or
dark-colored mice.

A. directional selection
B. disruptive selection
C. stabilizing selection

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate what type of selection is occurring in the


example here: During a drought, it was discovered
that finches with large beaks and those with small
beaks were more successful due to the food
sources available during the drought.
A. directional selection
B. disruptive selection
C. stabilizing selection

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Indicate what type of selection is occurring in the


example here: During a drought, it was discovered
that finches with large beaks and those with small
beaks were more successful due to the food
sources available during the drought.
A. directional selection
B. disruptive selection
C. stabilizing selection

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The frequency of cystic fibrosis, a recessive genetic


disease, is 1 per 2,500 births among Northern
Europeans. Assuming random mating, what is the
frequency of carriers?

A. 1/2,500, or about 0.04%


B. 1/50, or about 2%
C. 1/25, or about 4%
D. The frequency cannot be calculated because
selection violates HardyWeinberg assumptions.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The frequency of cystic fibrosis, a recessive genetic


disease, is 1 per 2,500 births among Northern
Europeans. Assuming random mating, what is the
frequency of carriers?

A. 1/2,500, or about 0.04%


B. 1/50, or about 2%
C. 1/25, or about 4%
D. The frequency cannot be calculated because
selection violates HardyWeinberg assumptions.
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Until the 1950s, infants born with cystic fibrosis did


not survive longer than a few months. If the
frequency of carriers was 4% in the year 1900, what
proportion of CF alleles was eliminated in one
generation?
A. 100%
B. 50%
C. 4%
D. 2%
0.1%
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Until the 1950s, infants born with cystic fibrosis did


not survive longer than a few months. If the
frequency of carriers was 4% in the year 1900, what
proportion of CF alleles was eliminated in one
generation?
A. 100%
B. 50%
C. 4%
D. 2%
0.1%
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Before treatment with 3TC, did 3TC-resistant


viruses exist in these patients?

A. yes
B. no
C. no way to tell
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Before treatment with 3TC, did 3TC-resistant


viruses exist in these patients?

A. yes
B. no
C. no way to tell
2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

A high proportion of the cats on Key West have


extra toes (polydactyly). What is the most likely
explanation?
A. high rate of mutation
B. founder effect
C. bottleneck effect
D. directional selection for extra toes

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

A high proportion of the cats on Key West have


extra toes (polydactyly). What is the most likely
explanation?
A. high rate of mutation
B. founder effect
C. bottleneck effect
D. directional selection for extra toes

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.