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# CHAPTER 7

ELECTRICITY
Prepared by: Puan Farizah binti Ariffin

7.1 Electrostatics

## At the end of this topic, a student is able to;

describe what electrostatics is,
state the types of static electrical charges,
state the properties of static electrical charges,
describe how static electrical charges can be produced
in some materials,
describe ways to detect static electrical charges,
explain everyday phenomena caused by static electrical
charges,
state the safety measure to be taken when dealing with
static electricity.

ELECTROSTATICS
The study of static electrical charges
Some common phenomena:
- Little crackles when we pull off a supermarket
plastic bag from a roll
- When ones hair is combed with a plastic comb,
tufts of hair will be attracted to various parts of
the comb
- When a piece of transparency is placed on a
piece of paper and rubbed against the underlying
paper, it is difficult to separate the transparency
from the paper.

ELECTROSTATICS
Everything around us
of:
- Electron (negative
charge)
- Proton (positive
charge)
- Neutron (neutral)

ELECTROSTATICS
Static electric charges can be produced
through friction
When materials are rubbed together,
electrons from the atoms of one materials
may be transferred to the other.
An atom that loses electron
- positively charge (+)
An atom that gains/ accept extra electrons
negatively charge (-)

Examples

## Atoms of each material have equal numbers of electrons

and protons.
After rubbing,
- Woolen cloth becomes negatively charged
- Acetate strip becomes positively charged

Examples

## Atoms of each material have equal numbers of electrons

and protons.
After rubbing,
- Woolen cloth becomes positively charged
- Polythene strip becomes negatively charged

## GOLD LEAF ELECTROSCOPE

Electroscope is a
device to detect static
charge
Consists of a metal
cap, metal plate and a
gold leaf
Gold leaf- detect
small amount of
electrical charges

WORKS?
Charged material

## Everyday phenomena related to electrostatics

Lightning
-

is an electric charge
When the clouds rubs each
other,
negative charges build up at
the bottom of the cloud, the top
of the cloud becomes
positively charged.
The Earths surface (ground)
and the buildings are positively
charged.
Lightning will occur when
negative charges move to the
positively charged areas of
nearby cloud or negative
charged area on the ground or
buildings.

## Lightning Conductor: To reduce the

production of lightning and if lightning
strikes the lightning conductor, electrons
will be flow to the ground.

## Everyday phenomena related to electrostatics

AIRCRAFT

SPARK PLUG

7.2 Electricity
At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
give examples of sources of electrical energy used in
everyday life,
state what electricity is,
state what voltage is,
state what resistance is,
describe the directions of current and electron flow in an
electric circuit.

7.2 Electricity

## Most common sources of electrical energy

are generators and electric cells
Generators: A device that converts
mechanical energy to electrical energy
Electric cells: A device that converts
chemical energy to electrical energy

7.2 Electricity

## Van de Graaff Generator

Device that can produce electric
charges (electrostatic charges) of
very high voltage on its dome.

## Two forms of electricity that

is electrical charges
(electrostatic charges) and
electric current

Current
Flow of electrons (negative
charges) through a circuit.
The rate of flow of charges

## When the generator is turned on,

the rubber belt turns and rubs against
both rollers. The dome becomes
charged.
The generator dome positively
charged.
A dry dome can hold its charges
longer.

Electric Current

Electric Current

Voltage
Electrical energy that is needed to enable electrons to
flow from one point to another in a conductor.
Voltage is the force that pushes electrons through a
circuit to produce electric current.
Measured by voltmeter, unit: voltan (V)

Resistance
The characteristics of a material that opposes the
flow of electrons.
High resistance; allows small current to pass
through it.
Resistance depends on:

## 7.3 Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
identify the instrument for measuring current,
identify the instrument for measuring voltage,
state the unit for current,
state the unit for voltage,
state the unit for resistance,
measure current in an electric circuit.

## 7.3 Electric Current, Voltage and Resistance

Current
- Measure by using ammeter
- The ammeter must be connected in series with other
electrical appliances in a circuit
- The SI unit is Ampere (A)
Voltage
- Measure by using voltmeter
- The voltmeter must be connected in parallel with other
electrical appliances in a circuit
- The SI unit is volt (V)
Resistance
- Measure by using resistor
- The SI unit is ohm ()

## 7.4 The Relationship Between Current, Voltage and

Resistance
At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
design an experiment to study the relationship between
resistance and current,
carry out the experiment to study the relationship
between resistance and current,
describe the effects of the change in resistance on
current,
design an experiment to study the relationship between
voltage and current,
carry out the experiment to study the relationship
between voltage and current,
describe the effect of the change of voltage on current,
state Ohms Law

## 7.4 The Relationship Between Current, Voltage and Resistance

Relationship between resistance and current
Resistor:
An electrical component
which resists the flow of
electric current
Two types:
1. Fixed resistor
- resistances cannot be changed
2. Variable resistor (rheostat)
- resistances can be changed to
control the amount of
electric current
The higher the resistance in
a circuit, the lower the
current flows and vice versa.

## 7.4 The Relationship Between Current, Voltage and Resistance

Relationship between voltage and current

## The higher the voltage, the greater the electric

current that flows through the circuit.

## 7.4 The Relationship Between Current, Voltage and Resistance

Ohms Law

Discovered by George
Simon Ohm in 1827
The current flowing through a
conductor is directly proportional
to its voltage
Voltage = Current x Resistance
V = IR

## 7.5 Electric Circuit

At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
identify the components of an electric circuit and their
symbols,
draw a diagram of a complete circuit,
build a complete electric circuit
build a parallel circuit
compare and contrast the arrangement of components in
a series circuit and a parallel circuit.

## 7.5 Electric Circuit

Electric circuit is a path along
which an electric current is
able to flow
A simple electric circuit
consists of a cell, a bulb and
connecting wires
An electric circuit

## When the switch is turned on,

the electrons will flow and the
bulb will light up.
The circuit is said to be a
complete circuit or a closed
circuit.

## When the switch is turned

off, the circuit breaks off and
stops the flow of electrons.
The bulb will not light up.
The circuit is said to be an
incomplete circuit or open
circuit.

Circuit Symbols

## 7.5 Electric Circuit

Series Circuit
Connect its electrical
components in sequence from
end to end
The current has only one path
to flow through
The light bulbs connected in
series do not glow as bright as
those connected in parallel
If one light bulb is disconnected,
the other will not light up because
the circuit is incomplete.

Parallel Circuit
Connect its electrical
components which are apart but
parallel to each other
The current has more than
one path to flow through
The light bulbs glow brighter
than those connected in series
If one light bulb is
disconnected, the other still
glows.

## 7.6 Series Circuit

At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
describe the current flowing though the components in a
series circuit,
describe the voltages across the components in a series
circuit,
describe the resistance in a series circuit,
circuit.

## 7.6 Series Circuit

I = I 1 = I2 = I3

V= V1 + V2 + V3
R = R1 + R 2 + R 3

## 7.6 Series Circuit

1. All electrical appliances in
the circuit are controlled by
one switch
- suitable for the uses of large
places.
2. Cells connected in series
supply more power.
- the current increases if the
number of dry cells
increases.
3. All the bulbs share equally
the current supplied by dry
cells.
- all the bulbs will be equally
bright

1. If one bulb fuses, the other
bulbs will not light up
- Incomplete circuit
2. Each bulb does not receive
the full voltage from the
electrical source
3. The current that flows
decreases if more electrical
components are connected
in series.

## 7.7 Parallel Circuit

At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
describe the current flowing through the components in a
parallel circuit,
describe the voltage across the components in a parallel
circuit,
describe the resistance in a parallel circuit,
circuit,
compare an contrast a series circuit and a parallel circuit
in terms of current, voltage and resistance

I = I1 + I 2

V= V1 = V2

## 7.7 Parallel Circuit

1. Current flows through
more than one path.
2. If one bulb fuses, the
other bulbs still light up
- complete circuit
full voltage supply from
the electrical source.

1. Each eIectrical
appliances is controlled
by different switch.
- Not suitable for the uses
of large places
at the main supply if too
many electrical
appliances are connected
in parallel.

Series Circuit

Characteristic

One

current to flow

## The current that flows

through any points is the
same

Current

I = I1 = I2 = I3
The total voltage is the sum
of the voltages across each
bulb
V= V1 + V2 + V3
The effective resistance is
the sum of the resistances in
all the bulbs
R = R1 + R2 + R3

Voltage

Parallel Circuit

## The current that flows

through the main path is the
sum of the current in all the
paths
I = I1 + I2
The voltage across each
bulb is the same
V= V1 = V2

Resistance

## The effective resistance for

all bulbs is less than the
value of the resistance for
one bulb

7.8 Magnetism

## At the end of this topic, a student is able to;

describe what a magnetic field is,
draw the magnetic field of a bar magnet
draw the directions of the magnetic field.
relate magnetic filed lines and strength of
magnetic field,
explain the use of the a magnet in a compass.

Characteristics of A Magnet

## Only attract magnetic materials

(that are made of iron, nickel and
cobalt)
eg: paper clips, iron nails, needles

## Cannot attract non-magnetic materials

eg: glass, plastics, paper, wood

Magnetic Field
Area around the magnet where its magnetic force can be
felt.
The pattern of a magnetic field consists of curved lines of
magnetic force called magnetic field lines
Magnetic field lines represent the field of a magnet
The pattern of the magnetic field around a magnet can
be shown by using iron filings
The direction of the magnetic field can be shown by
using a compass

## Characteristics of Magnetic Field Lines

Begin at the north pole and end at the south pole of the
magnet
The lines do not cut across one another
The magnetic field lines from the same pole repel each
other
The magnetic field is strongest at the poles of a magnet
The stronger the magnetic field, the closer the magnetic
field lines

## Magnetic Field of A Bar Magnet

The Compass
Has a magnetised needle, fixed at its centre of gravity
This enable the compass needle to turn freely on its
spindle, in a horizontal plane
A magnet placed close to a compass causes the needle
to rotate until it is aligned with the magnetic field line that
passes through the compass
Earths magnetic field also causes a compass needle to
rotate
The north pole of the compass needle points towards
Earths magnetic pole that is near the geographic north
pole.
This magnetic pole is actually a magnetic south pole.

7.9 Electromagnetism
At the end of this topic, a student is able to;
relate the current flow through a conductor with
magnetism.
Describe what an electromagnet is.

Electromagnetism
The study of the relationship between electricity
and magnetism
When electric current flows through a conductor,
a magnetic field is produced around the
conductor.
When the current is turned off, the magnetic field
disappears.

Electromagnet
A temporary magnet
A conductor that has similar characteristics with a
magnet when an electric current flows through it
The magnetism of an electromagnet is produced by the
flow of electric current
The electromagnet is usually in the form of coiled wires
(solenoid) that is wound around a soft iron core
Soft iron core: To strength the magnetism of the solenoid
The pattern of magnetic field depends on the shape of
the conductor
The direction of the current determines the direction of
the magnetic field produced

## The strength of the magnetic field in an

electromagnet can be increased by:

## Using the solenoid with smaller diameter

Increasing the electric current
Using more turns of the solenoid
Using soft iron as core

Wire
Right Hand
Grip Rule

## To determine the direction of the

magnetic field based on the
direction of the current