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# PUMPING & HYDRONIC

BALANCING

## Contents of This Lecture

Pump Curve
System Curve
Pumping Arrangement

Parallel
Series

Why Balancing

Balancing Valves
Static Balancing
Dynamic Balancing

Flow Configuration
Direct Return
Reverse Return
Pumping Configuration
Primary Secondary
Variable Primary
Primary Distributed Secondary

Same Pipe Size

Curve

Pumping Energy

Water
horsepower

## The energy required by a pump, as indicated by the affinity

laws, depends on its speed and the diameter of its impeller.

## Where Q = flow, in gal/min.

s = specific gravity
Pump brake horsepower

## The energy required to operate a pump is determined in

brake horsepower bhp; the difference between water
horsepower and pump brake horsepower is the energy lost
in the pump.

Pumping Energy

## Pump Motor Power in Kilowatts

The electrical energy, pump kilowatts, for a motordriven pump must take in consideration the efficiency
of the motor on constant-speed pumps and the wire-toshaft efficiency of the motor and variable- speed drive
on variable-speed pumps.
Where is the efficiency of the electric motor or the
motor and variable-speed drive as a decimal

Curve

Speed

Pumping Rate

Pump Efficiency

## Pump Curve Showing

NPSHR

NPSHA in Proposed
Installation

NPSH Required

## Vapor Pressure & Specific Weight for

Water, 32 to 212oF

## Vapor pressure is the absolute pressure,

psia, at which water will change from
liquid to steam at a specific
temperature. For each temperature of
water, there is an absolute pressure at
which water will change from a liquid to
a gas

Affinity Laws

System Curve

System Curve

Curve

Schematic

Operation

Installation

Point Curve

System Curve

Curves

Schematic

Operation

Construction

Operation

## Single Pump Operation-Seriesed Installation

Design Requirement

## Single Pump Operation

Design Requirement

Pump Speed

Example

## Parallel C/S Pump Power Saving

Advantage Over Single C/S at Low
Flow

## Best Application Area for Parallel Equally

Sized C/S
Pumps in Comparison with V/S Occurs When
System Variable Head Loss in Low

Efficiency

Efficiency

A, B, E, etc

## Illustration of Control Curve &

Change-over
Point for Parallel C/S Pump

C/S

## Operation of Paralleled V/S pump at Low

Flow, Up to Change-over Point

## High Flow Need; V/S Pump Humps

onto C/S Pump Curve

## Over Headed Pump Runs out of flow

Capacity
Exceeds Curve End at Over 60%
Speed

## Energy Wasting Solution to Parallel

Pump
End of Curve Problem;
Difference

of Curve

## Parallel Pump Application of

Variable Volume Example

Evaluation

evaluation

curve for model
building of A

building

b. Non-uniformly
close to pumping

central plant

## b. System head area caused

by non-uniform flow in
building B & other

Point of Selection
The basic rule that has been offered in the
industry is to select the pump as closely
as possible to its best efficiency point.

## Constant-speed pumps should operate at no greater

flow range than 25 percent of the flow at the best
efficiency point.

## Normally, pumps for constant-speed operation would

be selected just to the left of the of the best
efficiency point.

## A dangerous point to operate a pump is at 1000 gal /

min and 130 ft of head, as shown in Fig. 10.1a. This
is an unacceptable selection because of the poor
efficiency and the high radial thrust existing at this
point. Additional wear may occur due to hydraulic
imbalance within the pump.

## Sometimes HVAC water systems are designed with

more estimated pump head than actually exists in

## In an attempt to avoid poor pump

operation, and recognizing the
accurately, the usual practice with
constant-speed pumps has been to
factor and then pick the pump to the
left of the best efficiency point to
ensure that the pump will operate
without damage at the higher flows

## With the advent of variable-volume water systems utilizing

variable-speed pumps and system differential pressure
controls, there is very little need to be concerned about
the shape of the pump curve.
Flat-curved pumps are desired.
should be sought for variable-speed pumping applications,
provided there is no loss in pump efficiency.
Is less speed reduction with a flat-curved pump than with a
steep-curved pump.
Less speed reduction, the wire-to-shaft efficiency of the
variable speed drive and motor is greater because the
speed reduction is less.

Concept

Conditions

Control Sequence

with each other

## Two-Way Control Calve Body

Single & Double Seat

## Three-Way Control Valves

Mixing & Diverting Types

## Three-way Valve Installation Controlling

System Water Temperature

unit flow rate

## Two-Pipe Systems, Direct Return, Unbalanced (b)

Pressure Distribution Diagram

## Two-Pipe Systems, Reverse Return (a) Flow

Diagram Pressure Distribution Diagram

Change

## Effects of Flow Variation on Heat Transfer For

Increased Design Temperature Drops

## Effects of Flow Variation on Heat Transfer For

20Design Temperature Drop

## Non-Linearity of The Terminal Unit Characteristic is

Compensated by Adoption of an Inverse Non-Linear
Characteristic For The Control Valve

Characteristic

## Direct and Reverse Return System

a. Direct Return
Piping

b. Reverse Return
Piping

## Direct and Reverse Return System

a direct Return System

a direct Return System

## Primary circuit pressurized at Pump

Suction (a) Flow Diagram (b)
Pressure Distribution Diagram

## Variable-volume-Flow System, Control of

Reverse Return (a) Flow Diagram (b) Pressure
Distribution Diagram

## Variable-Volume Flow System, ineffectiveness

of Balancing (a) Flow Diagram (b) Pressure
Distribution Diagram (e) Resistance Splitting at
Partial Flow

## The differential Pressure Applied

to The Control Valve on Its
Degree of Opening

Operation

## Correct Valve Shut-Off

Pressure Rating

Distribution System
Diagram

## New Pressure Gradient & Pump Riding

with
pump riding the curve
constant flow system

## Pump riding the

Return System

Reverse Return System

## Primary-Secondary Pumping System

Primary-Secondary-Tertiary Pumping
System

Pumping System

THANK YOU
Ahmed A. Ghani