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Contents of This Lecture

Pump Curve
Net Positive Suction Head
System Curve
Pressure Gradient Diagrams
Pumping Arrangement


Why Balancing

Balancing Valves
Static Balancing
Dynamic Balancing

Flow Configuration
Direct Return
Reverse Return
Pumping Configuration
Primary Secondary
Variable Primary
Primary Distributed Secondary


Same Flow Rate

Same Pipe Size


Head Capacity Curve

Flat Versus Steep Pump


Pump Head-Capacity Curve

Pumping Energy


The energy required by a pump, as indicated by the affinity

laws, depends on its speed and the diameter of its impeller.

Where Q = flow, in gal/min.

h = head, in ft
s = specific gravity
Pump brake horsepower

The energy required to operate a pump is determined in

brake horsepower bhp; the difference between water
horsepower and pump brake horsepower is the energy lost
in the pump.

Pumping Energy

Where = pump efficiency as a decimal

Pump Motor Power in Kilowatts

The electrical energy, pump kilowatts, for a motordriven pump must take in consideration the efficiency
of the motor on constant-speed pumps and the wire-toshaft efficiency of the motor and variable- speed drive
on variable-speed pumps.
Where is the efficiency of the electric motor or the
motor and variable-speed drive as a decimal

Total BHP Requirement


Pump Curves at Given


Impeller Pressures Causing Radial Thrust

Radial Thrust Versus

Pumping Rate

Pump Efficiency

Pump Head-Capacity Curve

Pumping Power Increase & Pump Flow

Pump Curve Showing


NPSHA in Proposed

NPSH Required

Vapor Pressure & Specific Weight for

Water, 32 to 212oF

Vapor pressure is the absolute pressure,

psia, at which water will change from
liquid to steam at a specific
temperature. For each temperature of
water, there is an absolute pressure at
which water will change from a liquid to
a gas

Water Vapor Pressure

HVAC Pumps & Performance

HVAC Pump Performance

HVAC Pump Performance

System Curve Plot

Equations From Pump

Affinity Laws

System Curve

System Curve

System Curve & Pump head-Capacity Curve

System Curve & Pump Head-Capacity


Parallel & Series Pump Application

Parallel Pumps Piping


Parallel Pump System


Single Pump Operation-Paralleled


Built-up Pump Curves

Pump Curve End Point

Paralleled Pumps End

Point Curve

Pump Curve End Point

Paralleled B Pump Curve

System Curve

Single Pump Operation

Typical Built-up Pump


Paralleled Pump Curve

Single Pump Operation

Series Pumps Piping


Basic Series Pump


Seriesed Pump Curve


Seriesed Pump System


Single Pump Operation-Seriesed Installation

Design Requirement

Seriesed Pump Curve

Single Pump Operation

Design Requirement

Seriesed Pump Curve

Combination Parallel & Series Pump Curves

System Operational Time

Pump Curve: Power Reduction Versus

Pump Speed

Load Profile & KWH Usage Calculation for C/S


Potential HP Saving as Affected by

Maintaining a Constant Head

Parallel C/S Pump Power Saving

Advantage Over Single C/S at Low

Best Application Area for Parallel Equally

Sized C/S
Pumps in Comparison with V/S Occurs When
System Variable Head Loss in Low

Variable Frequency Drive Control


Variable Frequency Drive Control


Variable Speed Operational Points

A, B, E, etc

Illustration of Control Curve &

Point for Parallel C/S Pump

V/S Pump in Parallel with


Operation of Paralleled V/S pump at Low

Flow, Up to Change-over Point

Small Lower HD Pump-Humps is FlowHead Curve onto Larger Pump

High Flow Need; V/S Pump Humps

onto C/S Pump Curve

Over Headed Pump Runs out of flow

Exceeds Curve End at Over 60%

Energy Wasting Solution to Parallel

End of Curve Problem;
Increase Maintained Constant Head

Best Solution to Parallel pump End

of Curve

Parallel Pump Application of

Variable Volume Example

Model Building for System Head Area


Model Building for

system head area

Uniform system head

curve for model
building of A

Model Building Loading

a. Uniformly loaded
40% load on each

b. Non-uniformly
loaded building, AHUs
close to pumping

Model Building Loading

c. Non-uniformly loaded building, AHUs far

from pumping source fully loaded

Configuring an HVAC Water System

System Head area

Campus Type Chilled or Hot Water System

a. Load los variation in

central plant

b. System head area caused

by non-uniform flow in
building B & other

Point of Selection
The basic rule that has been offered in the
industry is to select the pump as closely
as possible to its best efficiency point.

Points of Pump Selection & Operation

Points of Pump Selection & Operation

Selecting Constant-Speed Pumps

Constant-speed pumps should operate at no greater

flow range than 25 percent of the flow at the best
efficiency point.

Normally, pumps for constant-speed operation would

be selected just to the left of the of the best
efficiency point.

A dangerous point to operate a pump is at 1000 gal /

min and 130 ft of head, as shown in Fig. 10.1a. This
is an unacceptable selection because of the poor
efficiency and the high radial thrust existing at this
point. Additional wear may occur due to hydraulic
imbalance within the pump.

Sometimes HVAC water systems are designed with

more estimated pump head than actually exists in

Selecting Constant-Speed Pumps

In an attempt to avoid poor pump

operation, and recognizing the
inability to compute system head
accurately, the usual practice with
constant-speed pumps has been to
add a pump head conservation
factor and then pick the pump to the
left of the best efficiency point to
ensure that the pump will operate
without damage at the higher flows

Steep Versus Flat Head-Capacity Curves

With the advent of variable-volume water systems utilizing

variable-speed pumps and system differential pressure
controls, there is very little need to be concerned about
the shape of the pump curve.
Flat-curved pumps are desired.
Pumps with flat-curved head-capacity characteristics
should be sought for variable-speed pumping applications,
provided there is no loss in pump efficiency.
Is less speed reduction with a flat-curved pump than with a
steep-curved pump.
Less speed reduction, the wire-to-shaft efficiency of the
variable speed drive and motor is greater because the
speed reduction is less.

Two-Pipe Source-Load

Airside & Waterside Flow & Temperature


Control Sequence

The six component elements of the control loop interact

with each other

Two-Way Control Calve Body

Single & Double Seat

Terminal Control with Thermostat & ThreeWay Mixing Valve

Terminal Control with Thermostat & TowWay Valve

Three-Way Control Valves

Mixing & Diverting Types

Three-way Valve Installation Controlling

System Water Temperature

Three-Way valve installation controlling

unit flow rate

Two-Pipe Systems, Direct Return, Unbalanced (b)

Pressure Distribution Diagram

Two-Pipe Systems, Reverse Return (a) Flow

Diagram Pressure Distribution Diagram

Coil Output Versus Temperature Flow


Water Coil Emission

Effects of Flow Variation on Heat Transfer For

Increased Design Temperature Drops

Effects of Flow Variation on Heat Transfer For

20Design Temperature Drop

Chilled Water Coil Emission

Control Valve Flow Characteristics

Equal percentage Valve and Coil Emission

Non-Linearity of The Terminal Unit Characteristic is

Compensated by Adoption of an Inverse Non-Linear
Characteristic For The Control Valve

Distortion of Equal Percentage


Direct and Reverse Return System

a. Direct Return

b. Reverse Return

Direct and Reverse Return System

C. Pressure Gradient for

a direct Return System

d. Pressure Gradient for

a direct Return System

Pressurization of Closed Hydronic System

Primary circuit pressurized at Pump

Suction (a) Flow Diagram (b)
Pressure Distribution Diagram

Variable-volume-Flow System, Control of

Reverse Return (a) Flow Diagram (b) Pressure
Distribution Diagram

Variable-Volume Flow System, ineffectiveness

of Balancing (a) Flow Diagram (b) Pressure
Distribution Diagram (e) Resistance Splitting at
Partial Flow

The differential Pressure Applied

to The Control Valve on Its
Degree of Opening

Applied Control Valve


Correct Valve Shut-Off

Pressure Rating

Distribution System

Pressure Gradient Diagram for a

Distribution System at Full Load

Direct Return Pressure Gradient at Part

Load Operating

Note: Pump is not Riding the Curve

New Pressure Gradient & Pump Riding

New pressure gradient

pump riding the curve
constant flow system

Pump riding the

curve at part load

Pressure Gradient at Full Load in a Reverse

Return System

Pressure Gradient at Part Load in a

Reverse Return System

Note: Pump is not riding the curve

Network Reverse Return Loop System

Primary Pumping System

Primary-Secondary Pumping System

Primary-Secondary-Tertiary Pumping

Primary with Distributed Secondary

Pumping System

Primary Distribute Secondary Pumping

Ahmed A. Ghani

Allied Consultants Ltd.