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PUMPING & HYDRONIC

BALANCING

AHMED ABD EL GHANI

Contents of This Lecture


Pump Curve
Net Positive Suction Head
System Curve
Pressure Gradient Diagrams
Pumping Arrangement

Parallel
Series

Why Balancing

Balancing Valves
Static Balancing
Dynamic Balancing

Flow Configuration
Direct Return
Reverse Return
Pumping Configuration
Primary Secondary
Variable Primary
Primary Distributed Secondary

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?

Same Flow Rate


Same Pipe Size

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE ?

Head Capacity Curve

Flat Versus Steep Pump


Curve

Pump Head-Capacity Curve

Pumping Energy

Water
horsepower

The energy required by a pump, as indicated by the affinity


laws, depends on its speed and the diameter of its impeller.

Where Q = flow, in gal/min.


h = head, in ft
s = specific gravity
Pump brake horsepower

The energy required to operate a pump is determined in


brake horsepower bhp; the difference between water
horsepower and pump brake horsepower is the energy lost
in the pump.

Pumping Energy

Where = pump efficiency as a decimal

Pump Motor Power in Kilowatts


The electrical energy, pump kilowatts, for a motordriven pump must take in consideration the efficiency
of the motor on constant-speed pumps and the wire-toshaft efficiency of the motor and variable- speed drive
on variable-speed pumps.
Where is the efficiency of the electric motor or the
motor and variable-speed drive as a decimal

Total BHP Requirement


Curve

Pump Curves at Given


Speed

Impeller Pressures Causing Radial Thrust

Radial Thrust Versus


Pumping Rate

Pump Efficiency

Pump Head-Capacity Curve

Pumping Power Increase & Pump Flow

Pump Curve Showing


NPSHR

NPSHA in Proposed
Installation

NPSH Required

Vapor Pressure & Specific Weight for


Water, 32 to 212oF

Vapor pressure is the absolute pressure,


psia, at which water will change from
liquid to steam at a specific
temperature. For each temperature of
water, there is an absolute pressure at
which water will change from a liquid to
a gas

Water Vapor Pressure

HVAC Pumps & Performance

HVAC Pump Performance

HVAC Pump Performance

System Curve Plot

Equations From Pump


Affinity Laws

System Curve

System Curve

System Curve & Pump head-Capacity Curve

System Curve & Pump Head-Capacity


Curve

Parallel & Series Pump Application

Parallel Pumps Piping


Schematic

Parallel Pump System


Operation

Single Pump Operation-Paralleled


Installation

Built-up Pump Curves

Pump Curve End Point

Paralleled Pumps End


Point Curve

Pump Curve End Point

Paralleled B Pump Curve

System Curve

Single Pump Operation

Typical Built-up Pump


Curves

Paralleled Pump Curve

Single Pump Operation

Series Pumps Piping


Schematic

Basic Series Pump


Operation

Seriesed Pump Curve


Construction

Seriesed Pump System


Operation

Single Pump Operation-Seriesed Installation

Design Requirement

Seriesed Pump Curve

Single Pump Operation

Design Requirement

Seriesed Pump Curve

Combination Parallel & Series Pump Curves

System Operational Time

Pump Curve: Power Reduction Versus


Pump Speed

Load Profile & KWH Usage Calculation for C/S


Example

Potential HP Saving as Affected by


Maintaining a Constant Head

Parallel C/S Pump Power Saving


Advantage Over Single C/S at Low
Flow

Best Application Area for Parallel Equally


Sized C/S
Pumps in Comparison with V/S Occurs When
System Variable Head Loss in Low

Variable Frequency Drive Control


Efficiency

Variable Frequency Drive Control


Efficiency

Variable Speed Operational Points


A, B, E, etc

Illustration of Control Curve &


Change-over
Point for Parallel C/S Pump

V/S Pump in Parallel with


C/S

Operation of Paralleled V/S pump at Low


Flow, Up to Change-over Point

Small Lower HD Pump-Humps is FlowHead Curve onto Larger Pump

High Flow Need; V/S Pump Humps


onto C/S Pump Curve

Over Headed Pump Runs out of flow


Capacity
Exceeds Curve End at Over 60%
Speed

Energy Wasting Solution to Parallel


Pump
End of Curve Problem;
Increase Maintained Constant Head
Difference

Best Solution to Parallel pump End


of Curve

Parallel Pump Application of


Variable Volume Example

Model Building for System Head Area


Evaluation

Model Building for


system head area
evaluation

Uniform system head


curve for model
building of A

Model Building Loading

a. Uniformly loaded
building
40% load on each

b. Non-uniformly
loaded building, AHUs
close to pumping

Model Building Loading

c. Non-uniformly loaded building, AHUs far


from pumping source fully loaded

Configuring an HVAC Water System


System Head area

Campus Type Chilled or Hot Water System

a. Load los variation in


central plant

b. System head area caused


by non-uniform flow in
building B & other

Point of Selection
The basic rule that has been offered in the
industry is to select the pump as closely
as possible to its best efficiency point.

Points of Pump Selection & Operation

Points of Pump Selection & Operation

Selecting Constant-Speed Pumps

Constant-speed pumps should operate at no greater


flow range than 25 percent of the flow at the best
efficiency point.

Normally, pumps for constant-speed operation would


be selected just to the left of the of the best
efficiency point.

A dangerous point to operate a pump is at 1000 gal /


min and 130 ft of head, as shown in Fig. 10.1a. This
is an unacceptable selection because of the poor
efficiency and the high radial thrust existing at this
point. Additional wear may occur due to hydraulic
imbalance within the pump.

Sometimes HVAC water systems are designed with


more estimated pump head than actually exists in

Selecting Constant-Speed Pumps

In an attempt to avoid poor pump


operation, and recognizing the
inability to compute system head
accurately, the usual practice with
constant-speed pumps has been to
add a pump head conservation
factor and then pick the pump to the
left of the best efficiency point to
ensure that the pump will operate
without damage at the higher flows

Steep Versus Flat Head-Capacity Curves

With the advent of variable-volume water systems utilizing


variable-speed pumps and system differential pressure
controls, there is very little need to be concerned about
the shape of the pump curve.
Flat-curved pumps are desired.
Pumps with flat-curved head-capacity characteristics
should be sought for variable-speed pumping applications,
provided there is no loss in pump efficiency.
Is less speed reduction with a flat-curved pump than with a
steep-curved pump.
Less speed reduction, the wire-to-shaft efficiency of the
variable speed drive and motor is greater because the
speed reduction is less.

Two-Pipe Source-Load
Concept

Airside & Waterside Flow & Temperature


Conditions

Control Sequence

The six component elements of the control loop interact


with each other

Two-Way Control Calve Body


Single & Double Seat

Terminal Control with Thermostat & ThreeWay Mixing Valve

Terminal Control with Thermostat & TowWay Valve

Three-Way Control Valves


Mixing & Diverting Types

Three-way Valve Installation Controlling


System Water Temperature

Three-Way valve installation controlling


unit flow rate

Two-Pipe Systems, Direct Return, Unbalanced (b)


Pressure Distribution Diagram

Two-Pipe Systems, Reverse Return (a) Flow


Diagram Pressure Distribution Diagram

Coil Output Versus Temperature Flow


Change

Water Coil Emission

Effects of Flow Variation on Heat Transfer For


Increased Design Temperature Drops

Effects of Flow Variation on Heat Transfer For


20Design Temperature Drop

Chilled Water Coil Emission

Control Valve Flow Characteristics

Equal percentage Valve and Coil Emission

Non-Linearity of The Terminal Unit Characteristic is


Compensated by Adoption of an Inverse Non-Linear
Characteristic For The Control Valve

Distortion of Equal Percentage


Characteristic

Direct and Reverse Return System

a. Direct Return
Piping

b. Reverse Return
Piping

Direct and Reverse Return System

C. Pressure Gradient for


a direct Return System

d. Pressure Gradient for


a direct Return System

Pressurization of Closed Hydronic System

Primary circuit pressurized at Pump


Suction (a) Flow Diagram (b)
Pressure Distribution Diagram

Variable-volume-Flow System, Control of


Reverse Return (a) Flow Diagram (b) Pressure
Distribution Diagram

Variable-Volume Flow System, ineffectiveness


of Balancing (a) Flow Diagram (b) Pressure
Distribution Diagram (e) Resistance Splitting at
Partial Flow

The differential Pressure Applied


to The Control Valve on Its
Degree of Opening

Applied Control Valve


Operation

Correct Valve Shut-Off


Pressure Rating

Distribution System
Diagram

Pressure Gradient Diagram for a


Distribution System at Full Load

Direct Return Pressure Gradient at Part


Load Operating

Note: Pump is not Riding the Curve

New Pressure Gradient & Pump Riding

New pressure gradient


with
pump riding the curve
constant flow system

Pump riding the


curve at part load

Pressure Gradient at Full Load in a Reverse


Return System

Pressure Gradient at Part Load in a


Reverse Return System

Note: Pump is not riding the curve

Network Reverse Return Loop System

Primary Pumping System

Primary-Secondary Pumping System

Primary-Secondary-Tertiary Pumping
System

Primary with Distributed Secondary


Pumping System

Primary Distribute Secondary Pumping

THANK YOU
Ahmed A. Ghani

Allied Consultants Ltd.