Anda di halaman 1dari 57

Fokus Mata Kuliah

Mata kuliah ini pada dasarnya akan


membahas aspek mikro dari kegiatan
bisnis lintas negara yang dilakukan
oleh para pelaku bisnis.
formation and enforcement of
agreements between private
commercial parties

Legal Framework for


International Business
Growth of international business
The importance of law in a transnational
business transaction: strategic
planning identifying relevant legal
issues as early as possible in the process
Various legal system: civil law and
common law (p. 8)
International cooperation and the
harmonization of business law (p. 43)

Sources of International Business


Law
National law
International law:
a)Konvensi internasional
b)Model law
c)General principles
d)Standar kontrak
Perbandingan hukum (Adolf p. 13)

Introduction to International and


Comparative Law
Public vs private international law
Public
: legal relationships between and
among STATES
Private : laws governing the conduct between
PEOPLE (and corporations) from different
states.
Nowadays, the term international law refers to
both public and private aspects of
international law.
International law as a soft law: there is no such
formal lawmaking machinery (legislatures,
court and government agencies) exists

Many views on International


Law
Cosmopolitans: intl law is based on
universal human rights
Positivists: intl law is based on the
sovereign equality of all states in the
intl system and state consent to
individual intl laws, either through
treaties or custom.
Hobbesian: states will make agreements
and abide by intl law only when it suits
their self-interests.

Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum


Perdata (KUHPer) sebagai Hukum
Nasional
KUHPer atau Burgerlijk Wetboek merupakan
hukum perdata Indonesia yang bersumber
dari Kode Napoleon. Peruntukan awalnya
adalah bagi golongan Eropa, Timur Asing
dan Tionghoa. Setelah Indonesia merdeka
aturan hukum ini berlaku untuk semua
warga negara Indonesia, yang diberlakukan
melalui Pasal 2 aturan peralihan UUD 1945
(asas konkordasi).
Seluruh peraturan yang dibuat oleh
pemerintah Hindia-Belanda berlaku bagi
warga negara Indonesia

Sistematika KUHPer (Cont)


Buku I : Orang (subyek hukum, hukum
perkawinan dan hukum
keluarga)
Buku II : Benda/Barang
Buku III : Perikatan
Buku IV : Pembuktian dan Daluwarsa

Perikatan
Perikatan = perjanjian?
Perikatan adalah lebih luas daripada perjanjian.
Semua perjanjian sudah pasti merupakan
perikatan. Sedangkan suatu perikatan belum
tentu merupakan perjanjian. Mengapa? Karena
sumber dari perikatan tidak hanya dari
perjanjian, tetapi bisa bersumber dari undangundang [Pasal 1233 KUHPer) (perbuatan hukum
yang melanggar hukum (orechmatige daad) dan
pengurusan kepentingan orang lain yang tidak
berdasarkan persetujuan (zaakwarneming)).
Buku
ketiga
memiliki
sifat
terbuka
(tambahan/aanvulend recht)

Apakah aturan hukum nasional kita sudah mampu


mengakomodasi perkembangan hukum komersial
yang ada di masyarakat?

Ferronica Taylor: the legal rules that govern


contracts in Indonesia are found primarily Dutchstyle Civil Code and partially revised Commercial
Code, although many of the Code provisions are
now regarded as obsolete or inappropriate for
current
commercial
transactions.
Commercial
parties routinely seek to contract out or exclude the
operation of archaic parts of the Code from their
own contracts. The fact that there is no authorized
or standardized translation of the Civil Code into
English also symbolizes its lack of pungency
(Indonesia, Law and Society, page 279).
Source: Taryana Sunandar, S.H., M.H., Prinsip-Prinsip UNIDROIT:
sebagai Sumber Hukum Kontrak dan Penyelesaian Sengketa Bisnis
Internasional, Sinar Grafika, 2004.

Kontrak
Kontrak nasional v. kontrak internasional
Indikator unsur asing (foreign elements) yang
ada didalam suatu kontrak:
1.Kebangsaan yang berbeda
2.Domisili hukum di negara yang berbeda
3.Governing law adalah hukum asing
4.Penyelesaia sengketa dilakukan di luar negeri
5.Penandatanganan kontrak dilakukan di luar
negeri
6.Objek perjanjian berada di luar negeri
7.Bahasa yang digunakan adalah bahasa asing
8.Menggunakan mata uang asing
Source: Huala Adolf, Dasar-Dasar Hukum Kontrak Internasional, hal: 4

Prinsip Fundamental dan PrinsipPrinsip Hukum Kontrak Internasional


Prinsip Fundamental
1.Prinsip kedaulatan hukum nasional
2.Prinsip kebebasan berkontrak (party
autonomy)
Prinsip-Prinsip Hukum Kontrak
Internasional
1.Pacta sunt servanda (Pasal 1338 KUHPer)
2.Good faith

Hukum Kontrak Internasional


sebagain Bidang Ilmu yang
bersifat
Interdisipliner
a. Hukum Kontrak Nasional
b.
c.
d.
e.

Hukum Perdata Internasional


Hukum Perdagangan Internasional
Hukum Internasioal
Comparative Law

Harmonisasi Hukum Kontrak


Internasional
Harmonisasi v. Unifikasi
Upaya dalam Melakukan Harmonisasi
Hukum Kontrak Internasional

Para Pihak dalam Kontrak


Komersial Internasional
Kontrak internasional v. Kontrak
Komersial Internasional
Pihak-pihak dalam kontrak internasional:
a.Antar perusahaan
b.Antar negara dan perusahaan
c.Antar negara dengan negara
d.Antar organisasi internasional dengan
perusahaan

Sumber Hukum Kontrak


Komersial Internasional
1. Hukum nasional
2. Dokumen kontrak
3. Kebiasaan perdagangan internasional (lex
mercatoria)
4. Prinsip-prinsip hukum umum mengenai kontrak
5. Putusan pengadilan yang berkekuatan hukum
tetap
6. Doktrin
7. Perjanjian internasional mengenai kontrak

Pilihan hukum (choice of


law/governing law)
Substantive law and procedural law
Prinsip-prinsip pilihan hukum
1.Prinsip kebebasan para pihak
2.Prinsip bonafide
3.Prinsip real connection
4.Prinsip separabilitas klausul pilihan
hukum

Pilihan Forum dalam Kontrak


Komersial Internasional
Fungsi
Prinsip-prinsip dalam melakukan pilihan
forum
1.Prinsip kebebasan para pihak
2.Prinsip bonafide
3.Prinsip prediktabilitas dan efektivitas
4.Prinsip jurisdiksi ekslusif

Penentuan pilihan hukum (choice of law) dan pilihan forum (choice of forum)
merupakan hak bagi para pihak, sebagaimana sesuai dengan prinsip
universal dalam hukum kontrak, yang dikenal dengan istilah party autonomy
(kebebasan para pihak). Meskipun demikian, bebas disini bukan berarti
bebas sebebas-bebasnya tanpa ada suatu batasan. Setiap pihak yang
terlibat dalam suatu transaksi/bisnis internasional harus memahami bahwa
prinsip kedaulatan hukum adalah suatu prinsip yang paling tinggi dan tidak
dapat dinegasikan oleh prinsip-prinsip lainnya. Hal penting lainnya yang
penting untuk menjadi perhatian adalah bahwa masing-masing negara
menganut sistem hukumnya sendiri-sendiri. Selain itu hukum yang ada di
masing-masing negara tumbuh dan berkembang sesuai dengan
perkembangan yang ada dalam masyarakat tersebut, yang dipengaruhi oleh
faktor sosial, budaya, agama, dan politik. Oleh karena itu, meskipun para
pihak diberikan kebebasan untuk memilih hukum mana yang akan mengatur
kontrak mereka, pilihan hukum tersebut akan dibatasi oleh ketertiban umum
yang berlaku di masing-masing negara yang ada kaitannya dengan kontrak
yang dibuat oleh para pihak.

Fungsi Ketertiban Umum dalam


Kaitannya dengan Choice of Law
1. Sebagai rem atau penghambat, yaitu membatasi
diberlakukannya hukum asing dalam hal-hal tertentu;
2. Untuk menghalangi kebebasan hak otonomi para pihak
dalam menentukan berlakunya hukum dalam kontrak
mereka;
3. Sebagai elemen yang membatasi berlakunya stelsel
hukum asing yang tidak sesuai dengan stelsel hukum
dari hakim yang mengadili sengketa para pihak; dan
4. Sebagai perlindungan terhadap pemakaian otonomi hak
para pihak dalam choice of law yang terlampau luas.
Sumber: Pandangan Yuridis Conflict of Law dan Choice of Law dalam Kontrak Bisnis Internasional, Prof.
Dr. Abdul Gani Abdullah, S.H., http://www.bi.go.id/NR/rdonlyres/A0050DCB-4CF8-4A5E-B196BF1B4D6A4028/8007/1pandangan.pdf, terakhir kali diakses pada 20 Oktober 2013.

Pembatasan terhadap Pilihan


Hukum di Amerika Serikat
Pembatasan terhadap pilihan hukum
para pihak diatur dalam Pasal 187 (2) (b)
The
Restatement
(second),
yang
menentukan
pengadilan
mengikuti
hukum para pihak, kecuali bertentangan
dengan kebijaksanaan mendasar dari
negara yang mempunyai hubungan lebih
erat dengan pilihan hukum yang telah
dilakukan.

Pembatasan atas Asas


Kebebasan Berkontrak di
Indonesia
Pasal 1337 KUHPerdata, bahwa suatu

sebab
terlarang apabila bertentangan dengan undangundang, kesusilaan atau ketertiban umum,
demikian pula Pasal 25 AB, bahwa perbuatan atau
perjanjian tidak boleh menghilangkan kekuatan
peraturan
hukum,
ketentuan
umum
atau
kesusilaan.
Pasal 17 AB mengatur tentang barang tidak
bergerak berlaku hukum nasional di tempat barang
itu terletak sesuai dengan asas lex rei sitae.

Hukum negara hakim yang mengadili


dapat menjadi dasar penyelesaiannya
apabila hukum yang dipilih para pihak
tidak dapat diterapkan dalam sengketa
yang terjadi.

Pendekatan yang digunakan


dalam Menentukan Pilihan
Hukum
Tepat
Lex Loci yang
contractus:
the law of the place

of
contracting a contract is like a person,
was subject to the law of the place of its
origin, and the origin as such was the place
where the contract was born (20 EMORY
INTL L . REV 511 517 (2006))
Party autonomy: party intention
What if the parties did not expressly or
impliedly state the governing law of their
contract?

Friedrich Carl Von Savigny


Every legal relationship is governed by the law of
the state or nation in which it has its seat
Dalam menentukan seat yang dimaksud, Savigny
berpendapat
bahwa
hakim
sebaiknya
memperhatikan the intimate connection between
the forum and the territorial law: the primary factor
in determining the seat it the intention of the parties
in concluding the contract. If such intention was not
clearly manifested, it should be inferred from the
circumstances under which the obligation arose

The parties feel that the question of an


express choice of law and forum clause would
cause an unnecessary quarrel over a matter of
prestige and impair chances for effective cooperation
Thus, some multi-party contracts on long-term
cooperation, e.g. ventures on the exploitation
of natural resources (mining, fishing) do not
contain express choice of law clauses.
This inclination to avoid the application of a
national law is obvious in contracts with
international institutions, such as the World
Bank

the parties still regard an express choice of law clause


as a certain safeguard against unforeseen legal
consequences. Moreover, some countries insist on the
application of their own national law. This is often true
with contracts where one party is a government or
governmental agency, particularly in the case of
developing countries. It is legal tradition in Latin
American countries, and more recently the practice of
some of the Arab countries has been to have contracts
subjected
to
their
own
national
laws
and
jurisdiction.This position can lead to difficult problems
if the applicable national laws have no adequate
solution to the legal problems which may arise out of
the relevant transaction, or if the courts are not inclined
to take notice of the fair expectations of foreign parties.

Metode Penyelesaian Sengketa


dalam Kasus Kontrak Komersial
Internasional
Litigasi
Non-litigasi
1.Negosiasi
2.Mediasi
3.Arbitrase

Hal-hal penting yang harus dipahami dalam


pembuatan dan pelaksanaan kontrak komersil
internasional

contracts as the legal tools for the


peaceful transfer of goods, services and
technology in a fair balance of interests
(http://www.trans-lex.org/113800)

Types of contracts, types of clauses and


types of legal problems
Identical standard clauses: contracts legal
structure
Internationally uniform legal regime of
mandatory rules of an international
convention

Elements of Good Contract


Quality of the text
Clause/rule (responding to practical
needs and must reflect a fair balance of
interests and risks)
Attention to firmly established
traditions/rules/customs

Harmonisasi Hukum Kontrak


Komersial Internasional
United Nations Convention on Contract for
the International Sale of Goods (CISG) by
United Nations Conference on International
Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
Principles of International Commercial
Contract (Prinsip-prinsip UNIDROIT)
Upaya harmonisasi hukum kontrak telah dimulai sejak tahun 1917 yang dilakukan oleh
pemerintah Perancis dan Italia.
Upaya unifikasi hukum antar negara dipandang sebagai suatu proyek yang ambisius. Oleh
karena itu, dibentuklah suatu kelompok kerja yang disebut dengan kelompok kerja
UNIDROIT. Tujuan dibentuknya kelompok kerja ini adalah untuk menghasilkan prinsipprinsip umum bagi hukum kontrak komersial internasional. (Soenandar, hal. 9)

Prinsip-prinsip UNIDROIT akan berlaku apabila terdapat kesepakatan


diantara para pihak untuk menggunakan prinsip ini sebagai governing
law bagi kontrak yang mereka buat, dan sekaligus juga tunduk pada
prinsip hukum umum (general principles of law) dan lex mercatoria.
(Soenandar, hal. 10)
Biasanya para pihak akan menentukan terlebih dahulu governing law
bagi kontrak mereka, i.e. CISG atau misalnya hukum negara X (dimana
hukum perdata internasional negara tersebut juga menunjuk CISG
sebagai hukum bagi penyelesaian sengketa bagi para pihak), lalu
klausul ini kemudian diikuti oleh pernyataan sebagai berikut
This contract shall be governed by the United Nations Convention on
Contracts for the International Sale of Goods of 1980 (CISG) without
regard to any national reservation, supplemented for matters
which are
not governed by the CISG, by the UNIDROIT
Principles of International
Commercial Contracts and these
supplemented by the otherwise
applicable national law.

Pembentukan CISG
Harmonisasi hukum kontrak jual beli barang
internasional
UNCITRAL
sebagai
lembaga
yang
mempromosikan
progresivitas
dalam
harmonisasi dan unifikasi hukum di bidang
perdagangan internasional.
Konferensi yang membahas rancangan
(draft) konvensi diselenggarakan selama
lebih kurang 1 bulan, yang menghasilkan
CISG yang tediri dari 101 pasal.

Sistematika CISG
Aturan substansial
Pasal 1 s.d. Pasal 88
Aturan administratif
Pasal 89 s.d. Pasal 101
CISG mulai berlaku pada tanggal 1 Januari 1988
terhadap 11 negara. (Berapakah jumlah negara
peratifikasi CISG hingga saat ini?)
CISG hanya mengatur kontrak jual beli barang
yang bersifat internasional.

Pertanyaan Refleksi
Apakah kehadiran CISG dan UNIDROIT
principles telah menunjukkan adanya
harmonisasi hukum kontrak komersial
internasional dalam praktik transaksi
komersial lintas negara?

Empat tahapan kontrak


1. Negosiasi
2. Pembuatan kontrak (formation of
contract)
3. Tahap pelaksanaan (performance of
contract)
4. Pasca contractual

Muatan Konvensi CISG


Ketentuan-ketentuan terkait substansi
kontrak dibagi kedalam lima bab:
I.Ketentuan umum
II.Kewajiban membayar
III.Kewajiban pembeli
IV.Peralihan resiko
V.Ketentuan umum terhadap kewajiban
penjual dan pembeli

Berlakunya CISG
1.

2.

3.

4.

For parties with their relevant places of business in different


Contracting States, where their contract falls within the scope
of the CISG, the contract is automatically governed by the CISG,
unless the parties indicate otherwise;
When only one of the parties has his relevant place of business
in a Contracting Stateif the applicable domestic law regards
the law of that Contracting State as the governing law;
The CISG can apply to transactions between parties neither of
whom has his relevant place of business in a Contracting State;
and
There are situations in which principles of the CISG can be
deemed applicable even when neither party has his relevant
place of business in a Contracting State and the parties have
made no reference to the CISG in their contract

In a series of contracts for the sale of goods on f.o.b. terms, the buyer disputed, both prior to
shipment and upon arrival, the conformity of goods covered under one of the contracts with certain
contract specifications. The buyer treated the goods in order to make them more saleable and sold
them at a loss. The seller demanded full payment and the buyer filed a counterclaim demanding
compensation for direct losses, financing costs, lost profits and interest.
The arbitral tribunal held, pursuant to article 13(3) of the 1975 ICC arbitration rules, which allows
the tribunal in the absense of a choice of law by the parties to determine the applicable law by
applying the private international law rule that it deems appropriate, that the contract
was governed by the law of the country where the seller had his place of business. In
addition, pursuant to article 13(5) of the ICC arbitration rules, the tribunal decided to take into
account CISG as a source of prevailing trade usages. As the applicable provisions of the law of the
country where the seller had his place of business appeared to deviate from the generally accepted
trade usages reflected in CISG in that it imposed extremely short and specific time requirements in
respect of the buyer giving notice to the seller in case of defects, the tribunal applied CISG.
The tribunal found that the buyer had complied with the requirements of CISG to examine the
goods properly (art. 38(1) CISG) and to notify the seller accordingly (art. 39(1) CISG). It was held
that, according to article 40 CISG, at any rate the seller would not be entitled to rely on noncompliance by the buyer with article 38 and 39 of CISG for the reason that the seller knew of could
not have been unaware of the non-conformity of the goods with contract specifications. The
tribunal awarded the seller the full amount of its claim and set it off against part of the buyer's
counterclaim.

Applicability/Trade usages, CISG as source of/Lex mercatoria.


Article 9(1) states that the parties are bound by any usages to
which they have agreed, either expressly or by implication.
Article 9(2) provides that an agreement may be implied only
when the usage is "widely known to, and regularly observed by
parties to contracts of the type involved in the particular trade
concerned." Referring to ICC Arbitration Rules which state that
arbitrators will take into account "relevant trade usages", the
tribunal stated that the CISG's notice provisions are "prevailing
trade usages" and held that, as such, they apply to this case.
http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/wais/db/cases2/895713i1.ht
ml

Scholarly articles on CISG


http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/biblio/drob
nig.html (General Principles of European
Contract Law )
http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/biblio/schw
enzer-hachem.html (The CISG - Successes
and Pitfalls)
http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/biblio/audit
.html (The Vienna Sales Convention and the
Lex Mercatoria )

Ruang Lingkup Pengaturan


Berlakunya CISG
CISG tidak berlaku apabila:
Article 2
http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/dige
st-2012-02.html
Article 3
http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/dige
st-2012-03.html

Sales and Goods


Sales: secara eksplisit tidak ditemukan pengertian sales (jual beli)
di dalam CISG. Secara implisit CISG menyebutkan bahwa kewajiban
seorang penjual terdiri dari mengirimkan barang, menyerahkan
dokumen-dokumen terkait dan menyerahkan hak kepemilikan dari
benda tersebut; sedangkan seorang pembeli berkewajiban untuk
melakukan pembayaran. Berdasarkan penjabaran tersebut, bisa
dilihat bahwa pengertian sales menurut CISG adalah passing of
title from the seller to they buyer for a price.
Goods: Drafters CISG juga tidak menyebutkan pengertian CISG,
melalui pengecualian-pengecualian yang dijabarkan dalam Pasal 2
dapat dipahami bahwa konvensi CISG hanya mengatur tentang
barang-barang yang bergerak (movable) dan dapat dilihat (tangible).
Dalam versi bahasa Perancis Convention Relating to a Uniform Law
on the International Sales of Goods 1964, istilah goods merujuk
pada terminologi merchandise.

Pengecualian-pengecualian untuk jenis


jual beli barang tertentu dibuat
karena mengingat hukum nasional
masing-masing negara telah memiliki
pengaturan tersendiri mengenai hal
tersebut.

Isu Kontraktual yang


Dikecualikan oleh CISG
1. Illegality (ketidaksahan) and
incompetency (ketidakcakapan
hukum)
2. Third-party Claims and Personal
Injuries

Interpreting CISG
Article 7(1)
1.The international character of the convention;
2.The need to promote uniformity in the
conventions application; and
3.The observance of good faith.
The use of plain meaning
Travaux preparatoires
Case law

Article 7 (2):
1.The convention;
2.The general principles on which the
convention is based;
3.The rules of private international law.

Interpreting Sales Contract


What?
Whether a contract has been made
Interpretation of the terms
Ascertaining that contract has been performed as agreed
How?
Article 8: Rules for interpreting the statements and
conduct of the parties
Article 9: Usages and practices (of the parties and as well
as the practices of trade to which the contract relates)

Article 8
1.

2.

3.

For the purposes of this Convention statements made by and


other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according to
his intent where the other party knew or could not have
been unaware what that intent was;
If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, statements made
by and other conduct of a party are to be interpreted according
to the understanding that a reasonable person of the
same kind as the other party would have had in the same
circumstances; and
In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a
reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be
given to all relevant circumstances of the case including
the negotiations, any practices which the parties have
established between themselves, usages and any subsequent
conduct of the parties.

Statement and Conduct of the


Parties
Subjective Intent Approach
Objective Intent Approach

Parol evidence rule: a rule that forbids a court


from
considering
any
prior
or
any
contemporaneous oral understanding when it
is interpreting a writing that the parties intended
as a final expression of their agreement.
Did CISG adopt this kind of rule?

Article 8 (3) and Article 6


Article 8 (3):
Article 6: The parties may exclude the application of this
Convention or, subject to article 12, derogate from or vary the
effect of any of its provisions.
Article 12: Any provision of article 11, article 29 or Part II of this
Convention that allows a contract of sale or its modification or
termination by agreement or any offer, acceptance or other
indication of intention to be made in any form other than in
writing does not apply where any party has his place of
business in a Contracting State which has made a declaration
under article 96 of this Convention. The parties may not
derogate from or vary the effect or this article.

Article 11: A contract of sale need not be concluded in or


evidenced by writing and is not subject to any other
requirement as to form. It may be proved by any means,
including witnesses.
Article 96: A Contracting State whose legislation requires
contracts of sale to be concluded in or evidenced by
writing may at any time make a declaration in accordance
with article 12 that any provision of article 11, article 29,
or Part II of this Convention, that allows a contract of sale
or its modification or termination by agreement or any
offer, acceptance, or other indication of intention to be
made in any form other than in writing, does not apply
where any party has his place of business in that State.

Pembentukan Kontrak
Penawaran (offer)
Kapan suatu penawaran menjadi
efektif?
Acceptance
Does silence constitute as an
acceptance?
What about acceptance with
modifications?

Wanprestasi (breach of
contract)

Fundamental breach
Avoidance
Requests for specific performance
Ganti rugi (remedies)

Excuses for Non-Performance


Force Majeur

Exercises page 569


Questions 2 - 10

Seller and Buyers Obligations


Sellers obligations
Buyers obligations