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KAI6034 : Lecture 5

BERMAIN SEBAGAI
KURIKULUM
(PLAY AS CURRICULUM)
(PLAY-BASED CURRICULUM)

LAGI PANDANGAN MENGENAI


BERMAIN?
Chazan (2002:198):
Bermain = berkembang.
Bermain-main (playfulness) adalah aksi
dan kreativiti.
Kerana 'playfulness', maka kanak-kanak
dinamakan kanak-kanak.
Melalui bermain mereka melahirkan/
meluahkan apa yang ada dalam fikiran
mereka.

Pandangan mengenai bermain


Bermain melibatkan berbagai tingkah laku kompleks untuk diterjemahkan.
Bergantung kepada orang yang melihat dan
membina kurikulum dan pemahamannya
tentang bermain
Bermain boleh dilihat sebagai bermatlamat,
pembelajaran, kreatif, dan memberi motivasi
atau tidak bertujuan, membuang masa dan
menyemakkan ruang.

http://www.voutube.com/watch?v=tILrvPPvd
Ss
playing at preschool
http://www.voutube.com/watch?v= x1eMm6
FMUU
Learning Moments - Learning Through
Play - 3 to 5 Years
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t5JyA
0m2TvE
Importance of Play

BERMAIN SEBAGAI KURIKULUM


KURIKULUM ialah segala pengalaman
Dembelajaran yang didedahkan kepada
<anak-kanak;
KURIKULUM PAKK dirancang untuk
memberi pengalaman pembelajaran kepada
kanak-kanak.
Kurikulum dan pengalaman yang dirancang
(tersurat) dan tidak dirancang (tersirat)
membantu perkembangan kanak-kanak
semasa berada di taska/tadika.
Kurikulum adalah aktiviti harian kanak-kanak
semasa di taska/tadika.

Kurikulum adalah aktiviti harian untuk


pembelajaran bagi kanak-kanak
Jika kanak-kanak 'belajar melalui bermain', maka
bermain mestilah menjadi teras dalam merancang
kurikulum.

BERMAIN=BELAJAR
Kurikulum PAKK hendaklah merangkumi:
- segala aktiviti dan pengalaman pembelajaran
yang disediakan oleh orang dewasa
- segala aktiviti yang ditentu dan difikirkan oleh
kanak-kanak sendiri
- segala persekitaran dan peralatan untuk
memberikan pengalaman pembelajaran
kepada kanak-kanak
- Bantuan dan bimbingan guru, ibu bapa dan
komuniti

BERMAIN SEBAGAI KURIKULUM


Fokus adalah bermain
Content termasuk dalam/semasa bermain,
tidak ditetapkan - boleh berlaku dalam
pelabagai cara dan arah
Bermain yang diinisiatif oleh kk (child-led
play)
Bermain yang dirancang oleh guru
(Teacher-led play)

BAGAIMANA MERANCANG KURIKULUM


BERASAKAN BERMAIN
Kurikulum Berasaskan Bermain - tidak boleh terlalu
berstruktur
Pastikan perkembangan kemahiran, pengetahuan dan nilai
apakah yang kk perlu belajar ^ rancang mengikut milestones
perkembangan kk.
Ingat bahawa bermain adalah fokus - maka seimbangkan
bermain yg dicadang kk dan bermain yg dirancang guru
Sediakan persekitaran/bahan ^ memberi boleh memberi
fokus kepada aspek pembelajaran yang dihendaki (openended materials expand the children's learning opportunities,
e.g: blocks.)
Peranan guru: membimbing, bukan mengarah ^ gunakan
idea kk untuk mengembangkan pembelajaran dalam aspek
tertentu, misalnya literasi, numerasi dll.
Bermain bersama kkjika ada ruang mencelah.

Bermain nampak seperti tidak belajar ^ penting guru faham


bahawa belajar semasa bermain, adalah tidak berstruktur.
Guru boleh strukturkan bermain supaya kk boleh dihalakan
kepada hasil pembelajaran yang diinginkan.
Bertanya soalan dan minta kk perjelaskan apa yang sedang
berlaku
Bantu kk mula, akhir, dan mula semula
Beri cue untuk kk kembangkan idea mereka
Fokus perhatian kk supaya mereka berinteraksi antara satu
sama lain
Beri interpretasi t/laku kk jika perlu, supaya yang lain-lain
faham
Bantu kk verbalise/nyatakan perasaan mereka dalam
menyelesaikan konflik
Kembangkan kemeriahan bermain itu dengan membuat
pernyataan atau pertanyaan yang akan membawa kepada
discovery dan explorasi.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EuHXeCYs8Vc (the power

Bagaimana rupa ruang pembelajaran dalam


Kurikulum Berasaskan Bemain
Ada pelbagai ruang bermain (activity centres)
Indoor

Outdoor

Creative arts

Climbing equipment

Blocks

Swings

Table toys

Sand/mud/water

Manipulative

Wheel toys

Science/discovery

Woodworking

Dramatic play
Language/books/
reading
Math

Hollow blocks

Music

Music
Nature/science
Organized games

Apakah kurikulum yang sesuai untuk menggalakan kk


membaca?
Print-rich
environment filled with books,
posters, and
signage.
There is time each
day for both group
and individual story
time, as well as
opportunities for
children to compose
and act out their
own stories.

Apakah kurikulum yang sesuai untuk kembangkan


kemahiran psikomotor?
Outdoor play - experiencing nature is important for children's health and well being and should be a part of each child's day.
Opportunities for varied outdoor activities should be provided - including running,
climbing, riding vehicles, sand, water, and games. Indoor activities like art and
circle time can often be moved outdoors, weather permitting.

BINCANG
BAGAIMANA ANDA BAYANGKAN
SEBUAH KURIKULUM BERMAIN
APAKAH RUTIN HARIAN KANAKKANAK DI TASKA/TADIKA TERSEBUT?
APA PERANA N GURU?

Bagaimana guru merancang kurikulum


Sets specific objective

Integrates curriculum

Allows children
meaningful choice
Knows what is
worthwhile to teach

Uses environment as co-teacher


Uses people and
materials as resources
Expresses school
philosophy and goals

Knows each
child's
capabilities
Invites families and diverse
cultures into curriculum
Plans activities
Recognizes and accommodates
individual differences

Balances child-initiated and


teacher-directed learning
ses play and active learning
Uses knowledge about individual
children's learning styles and
intelligences

Cuba lihat kurikulum prasekolah kita


Walaupun kurikulum prasekolah menekankan kaedah
'belajar melalui bermain' (learning through play) bermain yang dirancangkan tidak sebenarnya 'bermain'
yang memberi kebebasan kepada kanak-kanak untuk
meluahkan idea dan perasaan. video
Bermain yang dirancangkan tidak menarik dan tidak
natural. Kanak-kanak hanya mengikut arahan dan
'lega/gembira' kerana dapat melakukan aktiviti (kalau
tidak mereak hanya duduk dan mendengar guru
mengajar) VIDEO
Contoh, guru rancang bermain:...dari sebuah artikel
dalamjurnal Pendidikan UKM:

Aktiviti Main: Muzik Suku Kata


Objektif: Mengecam dan membunyikan suku kata.
Cara : Bermain dalam kumpulan.
Bahan: Botol-botol plastik yang dilabel dengan suku kata, dan
kacang hijau
Pelaksanaan:

Masukkan
kacang hijau ke
dalam beberapa
botol dan tutup
dengan penutup
botol.
Berikan botol
kepada
setiap
murid.

Guru
menyebutkan
satu suku kata,
misalnya
suku
kata 'na'.
Murid yang memegang botol berlabel suku kata 'na', dikehendaki menggoncang
botolnya.
Ulang aktiviti dengan suku kata lain sehingga menghasilkan rentak muzik.

Hasil pembelajaran: Murid dapat mengecam dan membunyikan suku kata

Aktiviti Bermain: Baling dan Sebut


Objektif: Membina dan membaca perkataan
Cara : Bermain dalam kumpulan
Bahan: Pundi-pundi kacang yang berlabel suku kata (pastikan pundi kacang ini
boleh membina perkataan),
tiga hula-hop dan objek-objek seperti buku, baju dan sudu.
Pelaksanaan:
-

Letakkan tiga hula-hop lebih kurang dua meter di hadapan tiga orang murid.
Letakkan buku, pasu dan sudu setiap satu ke dalam hula-hop.
Longgokkan pundi kacang berlabel suku kata di hadapan murid.
Murid menamakan objek sebenar di dalam hula-hop dan membaling pundi kacang yang
betul ke dalam hula-hop, misalnya membaling pundi kacang berlabel 'ba' dan 'ju' ke
dalam hula-hop yang mengandungi baju.
- Sebut suku kata 'ba' dan 'ju', dan kemudiannya perkataan 'baju'.
- Ulang aktiviti dengan objek lain.

Hasil pembelajaran: Murid dapat membina dan membaca perkataan dengan betul

APA PANDANGAN ANDA AKTIVITI BERMAIN YANG


DIRANCANG OLEH GURU INI?

Play = Learning
what do we mean by child-led play and
learning and how will we recognize it?
how do we identify and articulate the value of
this type of play?
what do we mean by adult-led activities?
do we understand the connections between
children's play, thinking and learning?
how do we convince others of the power of
child led play for learning and teaching?

The case for a play-based curriculum from 0-7


years old.
Dweck's (2006) mengatakan peranan bermain dalam
memastikan kk membina kepercayaan diri sendiri, berfikir, dan
belajar. KK bermain kerana keperluan intrinsik dan motivasi
untuk terlibat dalam bermain.
Mereka rasa terlibat dan berupaya untuk bermain - daripada sini
mereka membina keyakinan diri dan kompetensi sebagai
pembelajar.
Apabila ini berlaku, kk membina minda yang berkembang, yang
menjadi asas kepada perkembangan kebolehan/kemampuan diri
untuk belajar.
Ini adalah kemahiran penting bagi kk untuk menjadi "effective
learners for life".

Whitebread (2011): mengenai play-based curriculum


Ini sangat penting untuk mengembangkan pemikiran
mereka, kemahiran menaakul dan menyelesaikan
masalah, sebagai asas kepada perkembangan dalam
matematik, bacaan dan pemahaman.
Bahawa melalui bermain, kk boleh kawal diri (selfregulate). Melalui aktiviti bermain, kk menyelesaikan
masalah dalam kumpulan -> become self-regulated
thinkers and learners and see themselves as successful,
capable and competent learners.

Play is an essential ingredient in the


curriculum which should be fun and
stimulating.
Well-planned play helps children to
think and make sense of the world
around them.

Play in reading

READING IS NOT
Belajar suku kata (bottom up)
Menghafal abjad dan suku kata

Ini bukan play-based curriculum

Play in math
Finding patterns
Dividing candy
Sorting trail mix
"I spy"
Noticing more and less
- ("She got more ice cream")

Playing cards

MATH for Preschoolers IS NOT...


Memorizing equations
-1+1=2

Flashcards of numbers
Colouring picture of numbers

PLAY BASED CURRICULUM


Play is freely chosen by, and under
the control of, the child.
The child decides how to play, how
long to play, what the play is
about, and who to play with.
There are many forms of play, but it is
usually highly creative, open-ended
and imaginative. It requires active
engagement of the players, and can
be deeply satisfying.

Children have the opportunity and


time to:
1. play on their own or with others both
indoors and outdoors without being
directed by an adult
2. play with a range of open-ended
resources imaginatively and create
their own 'stories'/play themes
3. talk and develop conversations as
they play.

Adults support children by:


understanding and respecting the role
of play in young children's lives and its
connection to their thinking, learning
and development, observing and
documenting their ideas and thinking,
eg photographs, video/flip camera
footage, recording talk and
conversations

Child-initiated/led play
decided wholly by the child, based
on the child's own motivation, and
remains under the child's control.
may involve many types of play, or it
may be an activity with a serious
purpose to explore a project or
express an idea.

Children have the opportunity and


time to:
become involved in their interests,
and be excited and inspired by their
discoveries
submerge themselves in and
explore their individual and
collective ideas
reflect on their ideas and interests
and return to them as part of their
daily and weekly experiences in
school
show their deeper levels of learning
as part of their flow of thinking
tell others about their interests
interact with adults who are
interested in their ideas.

Adult-led
activities which adults initiate.
The activities are not play and
children are not likely to see them
as play, but they should be playful;
open-ended activities
presented to children, which have
elements of imagination and active
exploration that will increase the
interest and motivation for children.
can include greeting times, story
times, songs and even tidying up.

Children have the opportunity and time


to:
see their interests and ideas used as a
starting point for adult-led activities
engage with supportive adults who are
planning playful activities eg using
songs and rhymes to introduce letters
and sounds
feel motivated, enthused and inspired

Adults support children by:


understanding why it is important to
follow children's interests and
fascinations and how this will lead to
positive, well-motivated, deeper levels
of thinking and learning
providing children with activities which
are exciting and imaginative rather than
repetitive and routine

Sustained shared thinking


(CO-CONSTRUCTING)
When children explore and share
their ideas with others, they try to
solve problems and develop their
thinking together - constructing
their own learning.
Sustained shared thinking involves
the adult being aware of children's
interests and understandings and
the adult and children working
together to develop an idea or skill.
Enabling young children to learn
most effectively.

Children have the opportunity and time


to:
find and explore something they are
interested in
play imaginatively indoors and outdoors
talk and have shared/joint
conversations
build their thinking and construct new
ideas with others
become immersed in their ideas,
fascinations and interests
reflect on and revisit their ideas and
interests.

Adults support children by:


careful observation of children's thinking
and documenting this as a process
rather than an end product

Children are playing with colored balls


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WIbuqM
KpPho

FIKIRKAN
Children are not potato chips and Schools
are Not Factories!
For several decades schools have been told that
we could turn around student performance by
standardizing instruction and applying factory
concepts to schools.
Fast food schooling is unhealthy for children.
Schools do not achieve impressive results by
acting like factories or fast food restaurants.
Engaging in "drill-and-kill" activities rather than playful and meaningful
learning, even at the youngest ages! -- This is unacceptable.

Which is better? Skills based preschool


programs or play based preschool
programs?
WelL.it depends on your goals, what you
intend for your child to get out of
preschool.

Academic or skills based programs are teacher directed and


managed.
This means children have limited choice in what learning
takes place and how that learning happens.
It is very structured and routine oriented.
Teachers extensively plan activities for the children in their
classes and guide the children in that learning.
This design is aimed at preparing students for kindergarten,
which seems to be the new first grade.
Children in academic programs will most likely spend the
majority of their day learning letters and sounds, colors,
shapes and numbers, as well as participating in handwriting
practice.
They may also participate in learning drills and complete
worksheets in addition to a few art projects.

Play Based or Child Centered


Preschool
In a play based program, children are given the autonomy to choose
activities based on their current interests.
A child who is interested in dams and bridges may be allowed to
spend the majority of her center time at the sand and water table.
Play based preschool classrooms are set up in sections, usually
having a kitchen area, a play house, a reading nook, a sensory
table, a block area, etc.
Teachers may incorporate academic skills through theme based
activities, and may add theme based props to classroom learning
centers, but the main goal of play based preschool programs are
often to develop social skills by teacher modeling.
In this case, the teacher acts more as a facilitator of learning than a
lecturer of direct instruction.
Students progress is monitored by their participation in hands-on
activities and observational assessments, not by worksheets and
drills.

What the Research Says


Preschools in Malaysia tend to push for children to learn more at an
earlier age.
Many European countries don't begin formal literacy and numeral
lessons until the age of at 7 and above.
Pushing too much academic can cause a child to lose interest and
motivation in learning.
Children who participate in academic based preschool programs
often score higher than their peers on standardized tests, but the
gap is typically closed by the end of primary school.
Some experts now claim that one of the greatest predictors of
lifelong success is a child's ability to control impulses which is
learned in social environments, such as a play based program.
Children who are enrolled in overly academic programs tend to have
more behavior problems than their peers.

How to Choose
So now as a parent you must decide which kind of
program to enroll your child.
There are positives and negatives to both
academic and play based preschools.
Is there an integrated program that combine
academic and play in preschool?

Integrated Approaches
Combine guided play and learning, adultled learning, and child-directed play and
learning
Involves the adult intentionally engaging
with the child in play

Figure l: Integrated teaching and learning approaches (VEYDLF, p 12)

The diagram above shows these three elements woven


together, or 'integrated', because in the most effective
learning environments, all three of these things happen.

Adult-led learning
Occurs when adults introduce an
experience or an idea, concept, topic for
exploration and direct the learning by
taking charge, giving instructions, setting
rules, asking questions, and providing
structure
Is about making judgments about what is
worth for the children to learn through
challenging experiences and interactions
that foster high-level thinking skills'

Child-directed play and learning


Occurs when children lead their learning
through exploring, experimenting,
investigating and being creative in ways
that they initiate and control.

Guided play and learning


Occurs when adults are involved in
children's play and learning, following
children's interests and responding to
spontaneous learning opportunities as
they arise.

Intentional teaching
Refers to professionals making decisions
that are thoughtful, deliberate and
purposeful as they broaden and deepen
children's knowledge, skills and
experience to take them beyond what they
already know, can do and understand
Is essential for children's learning

Why is integrated teaching and


learning important?
Children are capable of learning on their own,
but adults extend and increase that learning
and stimulate new learning through their
intentional involvement
While play can be child-directed, adults'
involvement can increase its value
Research indicates that the least successful
learning environments are those where
children are regularly allowed to spend a lot
of time in undirected free play

Effectiveness of integrated approaches (cont.)


Adults have an important role in
developing children's understanding of
concepts, eg. in literacy, numeracy and
science.
When adults lead learning, they extend
children's learning beyond what they can
know, do and understand on their own.

Planning a balanced curriculum


Effective professionals provide a balanced
curriculum - that is, they plan for a wide range of
curriculum or content areas including:
literacy
numeracy
expressive arts
technology
science
physical education
health
environmental and social studies

Effective Provision of Preschool education study

A balance across a range of curriculum areas


rather than an excessive focus on creative or
physical development experiences
A deliberate effort to plan, scaffold and
progress children's learning in mathematics,
literacy, science, language etc
Use of small group experiences, games and
other play-based approaches to promote
children's sustained, active engagement as
learners.

Effective Provision of Preschool education


curriculum development

Understanding of the need to plan


experiences that build on children's
interests
Use of a range of strategies to sustain
children's interest and to promote
meaningful learning - strategies such as
questions, prompts, reminders, close
attention and encouragement

Successful learning environments


Provide an enriched curriculum that both
follows and leads children's interests and
responds to individual differences
Pay attention to developing dispositions that
support learning, including concentration,
confidence, persistence, curiosity,
independence and resilience
Engage in meaningful interactions with
children's learning as they participate in
diverse experiences including play, projects,
practical and written tasks.

Creating physical environments that


promote learning
Creating physical learning environments
where children feel safe to take risks with
learning, cope with challenges and solve
problems for themselves or with help from
others is an important element of
integrated approaches to early childhood
education.

Play-based curriculum: The High/Scope


Curriculum
Curriculum content is based on key experiences,
which represent eight areas of learning
1. active learning
2. language
3. representation
4. classification
5. seriation
6. number
7. spatial relations
8. time

The High/Scope Curriculum


Active learning is the foundation of the High/Scope
approach: learning is initiated by the child.
The curriculum is planned around children's needs,
Interests
Children plan-do-review
Children carry out their plans individually, in pairs or in
groups.
The role of the practitioner is to facilitate learning,
support the children's decisions and plans, and monitor
their activity. The support should be tuned into what the
children are doing but, at the same time, encourage
challenge.