Anda di halaman 1dari 43

WATER PURIFICATION

PROCESS IN NATURAL
SYSTEM

Self-cleaning process to remove natural


pollutants or render them harmless
Human activity increased the amount
and changed the nature entering
watercourse
Factors affecting the self-purification
process volume, rate and turbulence
of flow, physical characteristics of
bottom and bank material, variations in
sunlight and temp, chemical nature of
natural water

PHYSICAL PROCESSES

1. DILUTION
Most economical means of WW
disposal & good engineering practice
Success depends upon discharging
relatively small quantities of waste
into large bodies of water
Dilution capacity calculation use
principle of mass balance

In = Out
CQin = CQout

2. SEDIMENTATION AND
RESUSPENSION
Natures method of removing Suspended
Solid form watercourse
Most large solids will settle out readily in
quiescent water
Drawback develop anaerobic condition,
decompose of organics releasing soluble
compounds, creating unsuitable conditions
for reproduction of aquatic organism, flooding
Increased turbulence may resuspend solids

3. FILTRATION
Pebbles/rocks filter out small bits of
sediments/organic matter/clays etc
As water percolates downward into
groundwater aquifer, it is filtered if
the soil layer is deep & fine (SS
material removed completely)
Filtered water in aquifer may reenter
stream at some point downstream

4. GAS TRANSFER
Transfer of gases into/out of water is
important part of the natural purification
process
O2 lost due to bacterial
degradation/organic waste is replenished
by the transfer of O2 from air to water
Gases evolved from chemical/biological
processes in water is transferred to atm
Two important characteristics (1)
solubility and (2) transfer rate

Liquid (initially pure/no


gas) in sealed
container
- Gas will dissolve in liq,
also leave liq until
equilibrium
(input =output)
- Liquid is said to be
saturated with gas
-

Gas

Liquid

Solubility of gas
Solubility of gas in equilibrium with liq
is expressed by Henrys Law:
Equilibrium
mole fraction
of dissolved
gas at 1 atm

P
x
H

Pressure of gas
above liq

Henrys
coefficient

X is affected by T (T , solubility ): and


concentration of other dissolved
material (DM , solubility )

Mixture of gases
If space above liq is a mixture of gases,
each gas will have its own equilibrium
mole fraction
Daltons Law each gas in a mixture
exerts a partial pressure in proportion to
its percentage by volume in a mixture

PV ( p1 p 2 p3 ...... p n )V

or

P pi

Pi
x
Hi

Substitute into Henrys Law :

Transfer rate
An important parameter in aeration
Governed by several factors,
Saturation conc
expressed as:

dC
(C S C )k
dt

Instantaneous rate of
change of the conc of
gas in the liq

Actual conc

Constant

Constant ka is affected by:


1)Temperature predicted by vant HoffArrhenius rule
2)Available interfacial area measured
by the total contact surface between
the gas & liq
3)Resistance to movement from one
phase to the other often explained by
the two-film theory of mass transfer

Concentration gradient (Cs-C)


The driving force causing mass transfer
Resistance to mass transfer involving
steps exhibit different level of resistance
Step offering the most resistance ratelimiting step
In stagnant condition (no internal
movement of bulk phase), movement of
gas molecules to & away from the
interface depends totally upon diffusion
and therefore very slow

If there is internal movement of the bulk


phases, gas molecules are transferred to &
away from interface by turbulence & eddie
diffusion
In most natural water, films become the
limiting factor (if sufficient agitation of bulk
exist)
Gas-film controlled gases highly soluble in
water
Liq-film controlled slightly soluble gases
Mixed-film controlled intermediate
solubility

5. HEAT TRANSFER
Bodies of water lose & gain heat more
slowly compared to land & air
Aquatic life cannot adapt to abrupt change
in T (may die)
Increase in T affect ionic strength,
conductivity, dissociation constants,
solubility & corrosion potential
Many meteorological variables, channel
characteristics (depth, width, surface area,
volume) affect heat transfer rate

CHEMICAL PROCESSES
Natural water contain many dissolved
minerals & gases they interact
chemically with one another
Oxidation-reduction, dissolutionprecipitation, other chemical
conversion may aid/obstruct natural
purification processes of natural water
system

1. CHEMICAL CONVERSIONS
Most oxidation-reduction conversions in self
purification are biochemically mediated
Nitrogen & phosphorus- considered the most
essential nutrients found in watercourse
Iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum
and cobalt micronutrients
Natural chemical conversions change
materials into other form

In reservoirs & deep lake, chemical conv is


vital in the accessibility of phosphorus
Phosphorus enter water by attaching to
particles /as soluble orthophosphate and
incorporated in biomass & settle to bottom
When ferric iron is also present in water, it
reacts with phosphate to form ferric
phosphate ppt & settle to bottom
In the absence of O2 , iron is reduced to
ferrous form, the ions go into solution
Phosphorus recombine with ferric ion, form
ppt, settle again to bottom, wait for
reduction

In streams & lake, chem conv help to


stabilize pH
Limestone & other form of CaCO3,
dissolve in water (containing CO2)
H+ ion formed will react with CaCO3
to yield highly soluble Ca & more
bicarbonate ions
Bicarbonate acts as buffer to protect
stream from pH fluctuation that can
be harmful to aquatic life

BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES
Many chem rxns in self purification
process must be biologically mediated
These chem rxn are not spontaneous,
need external energy source for initiation
For biodegradable organics & other
nutrients, activation energy is supplied by
microorganisms that utilize these
materials for food & energy
The sum of processes (living organisms
use food for subsistence, growth,
reproduction) is called METABOLISM

1. METABOLIC PROCESSES
Biochemical rxtn in metabolism are
extremely complicated
Two steps of processes must occur
simultaneously (1) catabolism and (2)
anabolism
Catabolism provides energy for
synthesis of new cells
Anabolism provides material
necessary for cell growth

Enzymes
Major role in biochemical rxtn
Organic catalysts influence the rxtn without
becoming reactant
In biochemical processes, lower the
activation energy to initiate rxtn
Complex protein compounds and very
specific in terms of the reaction that they
support
Microorganism use specific enzymes for each
reaction

MICROORGANISMS IN NATURAL
WATER SYSTEMS
Protista term to classify organisms
in which there is no cell specialization
(each cell is capable of carrying out
all of the functions of that organism)
Most organisms (bacteria, algae,
protozoa) of significance in natural
purification processes are protist
Protist can be plant or animal

1. BACTERIA

They are primary decomposers or organic


material
Are classified according to the energy &
materials sources that hey require
Autotrophs organism that derive energy
and material from inorganic compounds
Heterotrophs - organism that derive energy
and material from organic compounds
Phototrophs derive energy from sunlight,
material from inorganic substances

Role of bacteria
Heterotrophic bact are most important in
the degradation of organic material
Aerobic heterotrophs require O2 in their
metabolic process, anaerobic heterotrophs
utilize organics in absence of O 2
Facultative heterotrophs function as
aerobes when O2 present, switch to
anaerobe when no O2
Autotrophic bact oxidize N2 & S compound
to stable end products

2. PROTOZOA

Are voracious consumers of organic material


Magnitude 1 to 2 orders larger than bacteria
Diet often includes bacteria cells & colloidal
organic
Most are strict aerobes
Like heterotrophic bact, obtain energy &
material for growth from same organic food
source
Most important protozoal group in water
system is called ciliata (has hairlike
appendages called cilia used for swimming or
gathering food)

3. ALGAE

Are unicellular, filamentous or


multicellular (thallic)
Are classified according to their
structure and pigments
There are thousands of species of
various sizea, shapes, colours
May be found in clusters, long
filaments attached to banks, may
remain as single cell suspended in
water

Role of algae in nature


Are the primary producers in aquatic
food chains
In the presence of sunlight (to obtain
energy), it metabolize waste product of
heterotrophic bact (CO2, NO3-, PO43-, etc)
and produce O2 from the rxtn
Planktonic algae produce most of the
molecular oxygen in the earths atm
Most petroleum is the fossilized remains
of planktonic algae

OTHER ORGANISM

Rotifers & crustacea lower-order animals


that prey on bacteria, protozoa and algae
Help to maintain a balance in population

Sludge worm (e.g tubifex, blood


worm),helminths and insect larvae
feed on sludge deposits help to
break down and solubilize organics

Response of streams to
biodegradable organic waste
Chemical & biochemical reaction
conversion process
Physical removal process
Biochemical rxtn converts organic to
biological solids and other end
product sedimentation or released
as gases

1. DISSOLVED O2 BALANCE
End products of chemical &
biochemical rxtn are in anaerobic
system (produce problem colors,
taste, odors)
The DO used must be replaced to
prevent anaerobic system
Two mechanism contribute O 2 to water
(1) reaeration and (2)algal
photosynthesis

1.1 REAERATION
When DO conc drop below equilibrium
value, net movement of O2 is from air
to water
Oxygen deficit the difference
between equilibrium conc & actual
conc
DO deficit is the driving force (deficit
and conc of DO - rate of reaeration )

1.2 ALGAL PHOTOSYNTHESIS


With sunlight, algae metabolize inorganic
compound to produce O2 (waste product)
Bright sunlight & excessive nutrients,
algae metabolism produce so much O 2
that C>Cs (-ve deficit)
Absence of light, obtain energy from
endogenous catabolism
DO conc peaks between 2 4 pm and the
lowest is just before sunrise

Excess O2 during the day cannot be


stored for use at night because
expelled to atm to maintain equil
For cases of heavy algal growth,
endogenous catabolism deplete the
DO kill fish

2. DISSOLVED O2 MODEL
Developed by Streeter & Phelps 1925
Model predicts changes in deficit as
function of BOD exertion & stream
reaeration
3 subtopics:
Rate of O2 removal (rD = k1Lt)
Rate of O2 addition (rR = -k2D)
Oxygen sag curve

Oxygen sag curve


Deficit, critical deficit and critical tim
e

APPLICATION OF NATURAL
PROCESSES IN ENGINEERED
SYSTEM
Many physical, chemical &
bioclogical processes in natural water
system have been incorporated into
engineered system
By controlling system variables, can
maximize rate, minimize time &
space

OVERVIEW
Physical
processes

Chemical
processes

Biological
processes

-Basic removal
processes
-Frequent use :
sedimentation,
filtration, gas
transfer
-May be used to
remove materials in
raw water/wwater
-Sedimentation =
clarification

-Chemical are used


in water & wwater
processes
-Add to cause
precipitation of
undesirable species
-Act as oxidizing
agents chlorine,
potassium
permanganate
-Chemical
coagulation
-Conversion process

-Little use in treatment


of potable water
-Used extensively in
WWT
-Form the basis for
secondary treatment
(ST)
-ST systems are
designed to optimize
contact btwn microorg
& organics under most
favourable env
conditions
-Biological treatment is
one of the most
important & difficult

TUTORIAL
3.2, 3.7, 3.11, 3.14, 3.19 & 3.20
(HOMEWORK)