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SAFETY IN

WELDING

Group 16

Ilham Romadhona (13/02858)


Arga Prasetya
(13/02896)
Weny Faradita
(13/05463)

General Safety

General safety refers to condition as they


apply to all phase of welding and cutting.
Specifically it deals with :
Ventilation
Clothing
Equipment

Ventilation

Three factors govern the amount of


contamination to which welders may be
exposed:
Dimensions of the space
Number of welders
Possible evolution of hazardous fumes

Management must ensure welders have proper


protection and ventilation

Natural and
Mechanical
Ventilation

Must not be restricted by screens


Sufficient to keep concentrations
Mechanical ventilation required for:

Metals not described here


Spaces <10.000 feet per welder
Rooms with ceilings lower than 16 feet
Confined spaces or areas with barriers to
natural cross ventilation


Poor

Fair

Good

Best

Contaminant
should travel away
from breathing
zone.
Local exhaust
ventilation may be
more effective.

Welding zone

Minimum air
flow CU Ft/ Min

Duct Diameter in

4 to 6 from arc or torch

150

6 to 8 from arc or torch

275

8 to 10 from arc or torch

425

10 to 12 from arc or
torch

600
Exhaust hoods

Protective Clothing

Woolen clothing is preferable to cotton because it does not ignite


as readily and protects the skins better from temperature change

Equipments

Safety in Oxyacetylene Welding

Basic Rules for Oxy-acetylene Welding :


Ensure the safety fuse plug or disk is functional
Attach regulator
Stand to one side of regulator
Open cylinder valve slowly
Not more than 150 psi
Purge oxygen and acetylene lines
Light the acetylene
Never use oil or grease near oxygen
Do not use oxygen to clean or blow off dirt or clothing
Keep your work area clean

Gas Cylinders Safety

1. Never lift cylinders by the service valve or


valve protection (use slings, net, or other
approved means)
2. Keys, handles, and hand wheels must be
present
3. Use the proper regulator
4. Open acetylene valve no more than 11/2 turns
5. If in doubt about a cylinder, dont use it

Use Protective
Devices

Pressure relief
valves, backflow
preventers or check
valves
Flash back arrestors
Fuel gas hosered
(sometimes black)
Oxygen hosegreen
Hose protection
required
Pressure-reducing
regulators

Store Gas Cylinders


Safety

The storage area must be well ventilated


Keep fuel cylinders 20 feet or more from
combustibles
Close valves, ensure valves are protected
Limit inside storage to 2,000 cubic feet
Store cylinders in the upright position and
secured from falling
Separate oxygen from fuel gas

Piping

All pipig and fittings used to convey gases from a


central supply system to work stations must withstand
a minimum preasure of 150 psi
Oxygen piping can be of black steel, wrought iron, brass
or copper, and only oil free compounds should be used
on oxygen threaded connections.
Piping for acetylene must be of wrought iron.

Testing for Leaks

Joints and hoses should be checked for leaks before any


welding is attempted. Whilst acetylene may be
detected by its distinctive smell (usually at levels of less
than 2%) oxygen is odourless.
Leak detection is best carried out applying a weak
(typically 0.5%) solution of a detergent in water or a
leak detecting solution from one of the gas supply
companies. It is applied to the joints using a brush and
the escaping gas will form bubbles. On curing the leak,
the area should be cleaned to remove the residue from
the leak detecting solution.

Lighting a Torch
First - before you attempt to light the torch follow these checks:
Make sure regulator pressure adjustment screws are backed out!
Make sure torch valves are closed!
Stand away from front of regulator
Separatelyand slowly open the oxygenand acetylene cylinder valves
Adjust regulator p/a screws to tip pressure settings
Open/close torch valves separately and fine tune pressure settings on
regulators
Depress cutting lever and adjust pressure if necessary

Lighting and adjusting the torch (with a positive/equal


pressure mixer):
Separately purge both oxygen and fuel gas lines
Open fuel gas valve 1/2 turn
Ignite flame with striker
Increase fuel gas flow until flame leaves end of tip and
no smoke is present
Decrease until flame goes back to tip
Open oxygen valve and adjust to neutral flame
Depress oxygen lever and make necessary adjustments

Shutdown a Torch

Shutting down the torch (with a positive/equal pressure


mixer):
Close oxygen torch valve
Close fuel gas torch valve
If the torch/regulators and gases are done being used for a
while, follow these procedures:
Close oxygenand fuel gas cylinder valves
Separately purge oxygenand fuel gas lines
Make sure all regulator gauges read0
Back out regulator pressure adjustment screws!
If you are using in a commercial environment,report any damage,
etc. to your supervisor

Backfires and
Flashbacks

Backfires occur when the torch flame burns back into the
blowpipe, sometimes it can continue burning back to the
point where oxygen and the fuel gas are mixed causing a
potentially serious situation.
Flashbacks are caused by a reverse flow of oxygen into the
fuel gas hose (or fuel gas into the oxygen hose) this then
produces an explosive mixture in the hose. The flame can
then burn back through the blowpipe, into the hose and may
even reach the pressure regulator and the cylinder. This can
result in damage or destruction of equipment, and could
even cause the cylinder to explode. This could end in serious
injury (or worse) and severe damage to property.

Backfire or flashback procedure


After an unsustained backfire in which the flame is extinguished:
close the blowpipe control valves (fuel gas first)
check the nozzle is tight
check the pressures on regulators
re-light the torch using the recommended procedure
If the flame continues to burn:
close the oxygen valve at the torch (to prevent internal burning)
close the acetylene valve at the torch
close cylinder valves or gas supply point isolation valves for both oxygen
and acetylene
close outlets of adjustable pressure regulators by winding out the
pressure-adjusting screws
open both torch valves to vent the pressure in the equipment
close torch valves
check nozzle tightness and pressures on regulators
re-light the torch using the recommended procedure

If a flashback occurs in the hose and equipment, or fire in the hose,


regulator connections or gas supply outlet points:
isolate oxygen and fuel gas supplies at the cylinder valves or gas supply outlet
points (only if this can be done safely)
if no risk of personal injury, control fire using first aid fire-fighting equipment
if the fire cannot be put out at once, call emergency fire services
after the equipment has cooled, examine the equipment and replace defective
components
When a backfire has been investigated and the fault rectified, the torch may be
re-lit. After a flashback, because the flame has extended to the regulator it is
essential not only to examine the torch, but the hoses and components must be
checked and, if necessary, replaced. The flashback arrestor should also be
checked according to manufacturer's instructions and, with some designs, it may
be necessary to replace it. BCGA Code of Practice CP7 recommends that nonreturn valves and flashback arrestors are replaced every 5 years.

Safety in Welding and Cutting


Containers

All containers should be considered unsafe for welding or cutting


unless they have been rendered safe, or declared safe by a qualified
person. When welding or cutting containers, there is the possibility
of explosions, fires, and the release of toxic vapors or fumes.
Containers include jacketed vessels, tanks, drums, covered parts or
other equivalent situations. Seemingly empty containers might have
materials

hidden

in

cracks and crevices, which will release

hazardous fumes when heated by welding or cutting. And the


flammable and explosive materials include gasoline, light oil and
many others

An accumulation of air or gas in a confined area will expand when


heated and the internal preasure may build up to cause an
explosion

There are some cleaning method :

Cleaning the container

that has held combustibles is necessary in all

cases before any welding or cutting is done. This cleaning may be supplemental by
filling the container with water or an inert gas both before and during such work.
Treat each compartment in a container in the same manner, regardless of which
comparment is be welded or cut.

Water Cleaning water-soluble substances can be removed by repeatedlv filling


and draining the container with water. Water-soluble acids, acetone, and alcohol
can be removed in this manner. Diluted acid frequently reacts with metal to produce
hydrogen; care must be taken to ensure that all traces of the acid are removed.

Hot Chemical Cleaning, there are some procedure recommended:


1. Flush out any remaining residue of the container with water and drain.
2. Dissolve 2-4 ounces of trisodium phospate or commercial caustic cleaning compound
into a gallon of boiling water. Pour this solution into the container and fill the water.
3. Attach a steam line to the container and admit steam to maintain the solution at a
temperature of 170o-190o for 15-20 minutes, during the steaming periode add water to
allow discharge of volatile. At the end of the prescribed periode, drain the container.

Steam Cleaning, There are the procedures:


1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

Blow steam into the container, preferably through the drain, for a period of time to be
governed by the condition or nature of the flammable substance previously held by the
container
Continue steaming until the container is free from odor and the metal parts are hot
enough to permit steam vapors to flow freely out of the container vent or similar
opening.
Thoroughly flush the inside of the container with hot, preferably boiling, water.
Drain the container.
Inspect the inside of the container to see if it is clean. To do this, use a mirror to reflect
light into the container
Close the container openings. In 15 minutes, reopen the container and test with a
combustible gas indicator. If the vapor concentration is in excess of 14 percent of the
lower limit of flammbility, repeat the cleaning procedure.

Safety in Cutting

Never use a cutting torch where sparks will be a hazard


If cutting is to be over a wooden floor, clean the floor and wet it
Keep a fire extinguisher nearby whenever any cutting is done
Whenever possible perform cutting in wide open areas so
sparks and slag will not become lodged in confined cracks.
If cutting is to be done near flammable material and the
material cannot moved, suitable fire resisting guard
In plants where a dirty or gassy atmosphere exists extra
precaution should be taken to avoid explosions resulting from
electric spark or open fire during cutting or welding operation.

Safety in Arc Welding

Arc welding includes shielded metal-arc, gasshielded

arc

and

resistance

welding.

Only

general safety measures can be indicated for


these areas because arc welding equipment
varies considerably in size and type.

Safety practices which are generally common to all types of arc


welding operations are as follows:
1. Welding can be safe when sufficient measures are taken to protect
yourself and others from potential hazards
2. Students should read and understand the following before welding:

Warning Labels
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

3. Students should also be familiar with the following information

Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes (ANSI Z49.1)


Lincoln Electrics Arc Welding Safety (E205)

4. Fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health


5. Keep your head out of the fumes
6. Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes
and gases from your breathing zone and the general area
7. See product labeling and MSDS for ventilation and respirator
requirements

8. Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting, and
are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current required by the
electrodes, shall be used
9. Any current-carrying parts passing through the portion of the holder which the arc welder or
cutter grips in his hand, and the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder, shall be fully insulated
against the maximum voltage encountered to ground
10. Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of 10 feet from the cable end to
which the electrode holder is connected shall be used. Except that cables with standard
insulated connectors or with splices whose insulating quality is equal to that of the cable are
permitted)
11. All ground connections shall be inspected to ensure that they are mechanically strong and
electrically adequate for the required current

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