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EEB5213/EAB4233

Plant Process Control


Systems
Piping & Instrumentation Drawing
(P&ID)

Objectives
At the end of this lecture, students should be able to:

Identify common symbols and abbreviations


used in piping and instrumentation drawings
(P&IDs)
Describe the operation of a system/plant given
a P&ID

Lecture Contents
Process Control Schematics
P&ID

Connecting Lines
General Instruments Label
Tag Numbers & Identification Letters/Numbers
Process Elements
Final Control Elements

Process Diagrams/Schematics
Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

General outline of plant processes and its feeds and products

Piping & Instrumentation Drawing (P&ID)

Detailed diagram of the process control systems in a plant

Instrument Loop Diagram

Detailed schematics of each measurement/control loop together with


its intermediate connection terminals

Instrument Manual

Description of a specific instrument supplied by the manufacturer


(specification, installation, maintenance, parts number, drawing etc.)

What is a P&ID ?
A drawing that represent a plant and its associated

control systems.
Employs a standard set of symbols and abbreviations

to represent operating units, product flow lines,


measurement and control signal lines, sensors, final
control elements, computers and programmable logic
controllers (PLCs).
Uses letter and number designations to identify each

control and process element.

Why Do We Use P&IDs ?


Standard practice around the world
Visual
Simplified

INTERESTING FACT :
This standard is developed by the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) and the Instrumentation, Systems
and Automation (ISA) Society, designated as ANSI/ISA S5.11984 (R1992) Instrumentation Symbols and Identification.
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(A) Connecting Lines

(B) General Instruments Label

(C) Tag Numbers


Basic Tag Number

readout / passive
function
measured /
initiating variable

unit number

LRC 101

loop number

output
function

(C) Tag Numbers


Expanded Tag Number

unit number

loop number

20 - TAH - 6A

optional
prefix

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(D) Identification Letters


First letter
A

Analyzer

Succeeding letters
Alarm

Control, controller

Voltage

Sensor, primary element

Flow rate

Ratio (fraction)

Hand (manual operation)

Current

Level

Pressure, vacuum

Point, test point

Speed, frequency

Switch

Temperature

Transmitter

Vibration, mechanical analysis

High

Indication, readout
-

Low

Relay, compute, convert

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(D) Identification Letters


First letter
A

Analyzer

Succeeding letters
Alarm

Control, controller

Voltage

Sensor, primary element

Flow rate

Ratio (fraction)

Hand (manual
operation)

Current

Level

Pressure, vacuum

Point, test point

Speed, frequency

Switch

Temperature

Transmitter

Vibration,
mechanical analysis

High

FIC
401

Indication, readout
-

Relay, compute, convert

Low

LAH
612
Give other
examples.
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(E) Process Elements

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(E) Process Elements

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(F) Final Elements


Fail closed valve

Fail locked valve

Fail open valve

Hand valve

Angle valve

Pump

Motor-powered valve

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Example 1
Describe the operation of this plant.

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Example 2
Describe the operation of this plant.
Heating
fluid
Horizontal Drum

Heat Exchanger

Feed
Packed Bed

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Product

Review
Have we achieve the objectives ?

Can we identify the symbols and abbreviations


used in P&IDs?
Given a P&ID, can we describe the operation
of the plant represented by the diagram?

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What Next ?
Next Lecture :

Control Objectives
Reading Assignment : Marlin, Chapter 2

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