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If a product does not teach

then it has no value!


James LAllier

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

Tell & Ask Instruction


Present (Tell) information
Ask remember-what-you-were-told questions

T&A instruction is not effective instruction.

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

Simon Says Instruction


Simon says, Click on the File menu.
No! Thats not the File menu.

Simon Says instruction is less effective instruction.

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

Effective e-learning is based on


First Principles of Instruction
Merrill, M. D. (2002).
First principles of instruction.
Educational Technology Research
and Development,
50(3), 43-59.
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
University

What is a principle?
A principle
is a relationship that is always true
under appropriate conditions
regardless of program or practice.

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

What is a First Principle


of Instruction?
Included in most ID theories and models
Supported by research
Facilitates Learning
Applies to any Delivery System
Applies to any Architecture
Design Oriented

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

First Principles of Instruction

Integration

Activation
Problem

Application

Demonstration

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


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Demonstration
Dont just tell me, show me!
Consistency
Learner Guidance
Relevant Media

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

Demonstration

Consistency
5 kinds of learning outcomes
Almost all tasks include
these learning outcomes:

Information-about
Parts-of
Kinds-of
How-to
What-happens
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
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Demonstration

Consistency
General vs Specific Information

INFORMATION
General
Inclusive
Generality

refers to many cases


or situations

PORTRAYAL
Specific
Limited
Instance

refers to one case or a


single situation

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Demonstration

Consistency
Dont just tell me, SHOW ME!

USE PORTRAYALS not just information.


Examples and non-examples for kinds of.
Demonstrations for how-to .
Visualizations for what happens.

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


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12

Demonstration

Guidance
Show how information is related to prior
knowledge.
Show how portrayals are related to information.
Show how portrayals are related to each other.

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


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13

Demonstration

Relevant Media

Use both graphics and text.


Put text next to the graphic it explains.
Use audio rather than text to explain.
Do not read on screen text.
Do not use extraneous audio, video or graphics.

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2003).


E-Learning and the Science of Instruction.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer.
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
University

14

First Principles of Instruction

Integration

Activation
Problem

Application

Demonstration

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


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15

Application

Application
Let me do it!

Consistency
Intrinsic or corrective feedback
Gradually Diminishing Coaching
Varied sequence of whole tasks

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16

Application

Consistency
Remember Information
LEARNING OUTCOMES

information about

parts of
kind of

how to

what happens

REMEMBER INFORMATION

remember facts or associations


remember names and
description
remember definitions
remember steps and sequence
remember description of
process (conditions and
consequence)

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17

Application

Consistency
Apply to Portrayal

LEARNING OUTCOME

Information about
parts of
kinds of
how to
what happens

APPLY TO PORTRAYAL

NA
locate part
classify examples
perform task
predict consequence or
find faulted conditions

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18

Application

Corrective Feedback
Show what happens.
Explain why it happens.

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19

Application

Coaching

Show how prior knowledge applies.


Show how information applies.
Provide prompts or hints.
Use more prompting on early problems,
Gradually withdraw prompting.
Continue practice until learner is on their own.

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

20

First Principles of Instruction

Integration

Activation
Problem

Application

Demonstration

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21

Problem-Centered
Let me do the whole task!
Show the problem or task
Problem components
Progression of problems

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22

Instructional components and problem


progression
Does the instruction teach the components of the problem
or task and then help the learner use these components in
solving the whole problem or doing the whole task?

degree of assessment

guidance
T

whole task
components

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


University

23

First Principles of Instruction

Integration

Activation
Problem

Application

Demonstration

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24

Activate Knowledge
Recall or provide experience
Provide Structure

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25

Integrate Knowledge
Go Public
Reflect
Create

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26

Pebble in Pond Development


problem
problem

production
production

progression
analysis

strategy

design
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39

Problem

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41

Progression of problems?

Susan
Susanhas
hasopened
openedaasmall
smallrestaurant.
restaurant.She
Shehas
hasbeen
been
very
successful
and
wants
to
expand
her
business.
very successful and wants to expand her business.
To
Tofinance
financethis
thisproject,
project,Susan
Susanneeds
needsaabank
bankloan.
loan.
She
an
and
well-designed
Sheknows
knowsthat
that
anaccurate
accurate
and
well-designed
Susan
has
given
the
Total
Lunch
Earnings
Susan
has
given
the
Total
Lunch
Earningsworksheet
worksheettoto
presentation
will
help
her
get
the
loan.
You
have
presentation Isaac,
will help
her
the loan.
You have
one
ofofget
her
suppliers,
who
has
Isaac,
one
hermain
main
suppliers,
who
hasbeen
been
agreed
to
prepare
the
last
months
sales
figures
for
agreed to prepare
the last
monthsbank
salesloans
figures
for
successful
in
getting
for
his
business.
successful in getting bank loans for his business.He
Heisis
Susan.
Susan.
impressed
impressedwith
withyour
yourwork
workand
andoffers
offersthree
threeimprovements.
improvements.
First,
include
a
column
that
calculates
percentage
ofof
Susan
expanded
her
business.
Her
isis
First, includeSusan
a column
that calculates
percentage
expanded
her business.
Herrestaurant
restaurant
sales.
add
some
nice
borders
and
shading
busier,
she
needs
more
staff.
To
sales.Second,
Second,
addand
some
nice
borders
and
shading
busier,
and
she
needs
more
staff.
Tojudge
judgeher
hernew
new
formats.
Finally,
set
up
the
page
to
give
the
printout
a
staffing
requirements
accurately,
Susan
conducted
formats. Finally,
set requirements
up the page toaccurately,
give the printout
staffing
Susan aconductedaa
professional
appearance.
count
ofofcustomers
professional
appearance.
count
customersbefore
beforeand
andafter
afterthe
therenovations.
renovations.
Each
Eachsurvey
surveywas
wastaken
takenover
overaafour-week
four-weekperiod.
period.You
You
have
agreed
to
help
Susan
determine
her
new
have agreed to help Susan determine her new
staffing
staffinglevels
levelsby
bycalculating
calculatingstatistics
statisticsfrom
fromher
her
second
survey.
second survey.
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
University

44

Component Analysis
MS Excel Skill Builder Reference Table Scenario 2
Skills & Topics
Step 1 Creating percentages
Unit 1, Lesson 1, Topic 7: Worksheet: Navigating
Unit 1, Lesson 2, Topic 2: Formulas: Entering
Unit 1, Lesson 2, Topic 3: The Fill Handle
Unit 1, Lesson 2, Topic 4: Formulas: Cell Referencing
Unit 1 Lesson 2, Topic 5: Data: Copying
Step 2 Formatting percentages
Unit 1, Lesson 3, Topic 2: Cell Range: Moving
Unit 1, Lesson 4, Topic 4: Formatting: Textual Data
Unit 1, Lesson 4, Topic 5: Formatting: Text Alignment

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48

Instructional components
Does the instruction teach the components of the problem
or task and then help the learner use these components in
solving the whole problem or doing the whole task?

degree of assessment

guidance
T

whole task
components

Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State


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50

Present Problem

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Teach components

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Worked example
Scenarios 1 and 2
Step 1: First, you want to create percentage labels and formulas.
Enter your User ID in cell D1.
To begin the procedure, click cell E5, type % of Sales in cell E5, and press Enter.
To create the percentage of sales figure for the Sandwiches lunch item, type
=D6/$D$13 in cell E6 and press Enter. The $ sign in front of the column reference D
and the row reference 13 makes $D$13 an absolute cell reference. The cell D6 is a
relative cell reference because it does not contain any $ sign. When you copy a cell
formula from one row to another with absolute cell references in it, the absolute cell
references do not change from one row to the next. In this step, you make the cell
reference for the Total Sales, D13, absolute so that its reference will not change when
you copy the formula.
Now copy and paste this formula from cell E6 to cells E7 through E13.
Create the percentage of sales figures for each lunch item and Total Sales. Begin by
selecting E6 to E13. On the Number tab of the Format Cells dialog box, click
Percentage. Under decimal places: select or type 0.
Since there is no lunch item that corresponds with cell E12, use the keyboard to
delete this cell.
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
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53

Gradually diminishing learner guidance


In the previous Scenarios, you were guided step-by-step in the application of
the commands to complete the Scenario. In this Scenario, you will not be
given this step-by-step guidance. You should first review the modules teaching
the commands that you will need to complete this Scenario. Then, you should
try to complete each task in the Scenarios on your own. If you need help,
there is learner guidance provided at the end of the exercise for each of the
tasks. You will learn more if you try to do the task before
you look at this guidance material and use this guidance only when you are
unable to perform the required commands. After each task, you will be shown
an interim spreadsheet that you can use to compare with your own work. In
this Scenario, you will design a new worksheet.

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Prompted examples
Scenarios 3 & 4
Gradually diminishing guidance principle
Step 1:
Enter your User ID in cell D1.
Create Income formulas in cells B9, C9, and D9
Create Cost formulas in cells B15, C15, and D15
Create Profit/Loss formulas in cells B17, C17, and D17 for the Theater Final
worksheet.
If you have completed Scenarios 1 and 2, you are familiar with creating formulas since
this information was covered. The detailed guidance for creating formulas in this
exercise is provided at the end of the Scenario in a section called Learner Guidance.
You should not simply type in the values. You need to apply the appropriate formulas.
You have successfully created Income, Cost, and Profit/Loss formulas for the Theater
Final worksheet. At this point, your worksheet should contain the following data. If your
worksheet does not look like the following worksheet, you may want to try again or go
to the Learner Guidance Section.
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
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55

Unprompted example
Gradually diminishing learner guidance -- Scenario 5
In this exercise, there is no Learner Guidance section. If your screens do not
match the sample screens provided, you should return to the Excel course
and review the appropriate modules.
Step 1: Enter your User ID in cell D1. Add formulas to compute the totals in
column G and generate the expenses (with no decimals) in Row 18.
Step 2: Format the data. Use 12 pt bold for table headings. Add months as
column headings.

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56

Authentic tasks
Authentic Task 1
In this authentic task, you apply your knowledge of Microsoft Excel 2000
to redesigning a worksheet.Jake has returned from a holiday in France.
He had set a budget for the vacation and wants to compare his actual
and planned expenses. He is unsure of the correct exchange rate. You
have agreed to work this out for Jake in return for a bottle of vintage
French Chardonnay.
Jake has given you the basic information on the following worksheet
named Holiday. (worksheet appears here)
You must create formulas and redesign the worksheet to make it look like
the following example. (worksheet appears here)

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57

Authentic task
Objectives
Refer to the target screen on the previous page to ensure the columns and rows in that
example and your final screen are identical.
Insert a new row under row 1.
Calculate the value of goods purchased in $ terms.
Calculate the variance of goods purchased in $ terms compared to the budget.
Calculate the totals for each of the four columns of numeric data.
Center and bold the title across the five main data columns and change the font size to
12 point.
Italicize the Items row labels.
Bold the Total row.
Bold all column labels, except for the exchange rate column label.
Right align column labels over numeric data.
Format the numbers, except for the Exchange Rate value, with thousand separators,
two decimal places, and red negative.
Create a double line border around all the data, except for the exchange rate data.
Shade the column labels, except for the exchange rate, with dark green background
and white font.
Change the exchange rate to 6.685. Is the total variance better or worse?
Save the file with the name Finance Final.
Copyright M. David Merrill Utah State
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