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On the use of Different Digital and Analog Sensor

and Gizduino Microcontroller Atmega328 on Simple


Classical Time Dependent Physics Experiments
Researchers:

Mark Danielle Cardio, Alyssa Valerio, Bryan Llenarizas,


Patrick Joshua Montales, Marjoe Permejo and Reynold
Luna
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
College of Science
Department of Physical Sciences
Sta. Mesa, Manila 1101, Philippines

OUTLINE

Old Vs Modern Way of Classroom Physics Experiments


Objectives
Significance of the study
Scope and Limitation
Difference of Analog and Digital sensor
The Gizduino ATmega328
Experimental Process and Data Acquisition
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
Work in Progress
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Old vs Modern way of performing Classical Time


Dependent Physics Experiments in the Classroom
The traditional way of measurements in classroom physics experiments
made use of ruler, timer or stopwatch.
The precision of the measurements were affected by the judgment and
reaction time of the person who is doing the measurement.
Some experiments are bounded and limited to perform due to fast actions
that cant be accurately measured by the naked eye as it needs cameras and
other video editing software to take measurements for a very small time
interval.
Data Encoding, Calculation and Modeling are manually done after the
Actual Experiment.
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Old vs Modern way of performing Classical Time


Dependent Physics Experiments in the Classroom
The modern way of measurements in classroom physics experiments made
use of the available technology like digital equipment that could generate
the numerical and modeled behavior using computers.
The precision relies on the signals send by the sensors through the
processing units like computer, and microcontrollers. (Note: The accuracy is
still affected on how you designed or assembled the experimental setup)
Due to the sensor capabilities a broader set of experiments are now can be
performed that could give higher resolutions for less uncertainties.
The Recording, Encoding, Calculations (Arithmetic) and Modeling are now
can be done simultaneous to the experimentation.
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Lets recall some of the Classical Time Dependent


Physics Experiments
In simple harmonic motion,
the motion is sinusoidal in
time and demonstrates a
single resonant frequency.

Fig. 1.: Examples of the Classical Time


Dependent Physics Experiments
[3] Young and Freedman University Physics with Modern Physics, 13 th ed.

Objectives
To test an accessible digital experimental method that can be
used in performing time dependent classical physics
experiments.
To re-perform certain classical time dependent physics
experiments using digital and analog sensors.

Significance of the Study

With the use of sensors and microcontrollers, physics experiments


are can be re-performed easily and efficiently where the behavior of
the experiment is can be simultaneously observed on the computer
while taking the measurements.

To address the need of public schools students in terms of new


interesting and challenging experimental methods that could
develop learning process.

To enhance technical skills of the public students focusing on


programming, electronics and instrumentation in accordance to the
STEM curriculum.
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Scope and Limitations of the Study


The study will focus on Classical Time Dependent Experiments such as
Simple Harmonic Motion in form of Simple Pendulum and Vertical
Spring Oscillations, also a non time dependent experiment like Hookes
Law were performed for the determination of the spring constant.
The microcontroller used is Gizduino (Mini) ATmega328 v.4.1., it is a
copy or cloned version of the Arduino UNO R3. It is available at eGizmo a local mechatronics shop.
The sensors used were Ultrasonic Distance Sensor, and Magnetic Reed
Switch.

Scope and Limitation


The experiments were done on a flat balanced surface to
prevent miscalculations and errors on the data acquisition.
The experimentation process were done at room
temperature to make stable condition and minimize the
effect of the temperature on the sensors.
The experiments were performed on small amplitude of
oscillations.

Analog Sensors
Analog sensors produce
continuous and proportional
signal. Example of it is an
Ultrasonic Distance Sensor.
Barrier
Distance

Fig. 2.: Plot of the Possible Values that


could be obtain from an Analog
Instrument.

[2] Webster, John and Halit Eren. Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, 2 nd ed. CRC Press, Copryright 2014

Fig. 3.: Working principle of


an Ultrasonic Distance Sensor
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Digital Sensors
Digital sensors
produce only binary
outputs 0 or 1.

Fig. 4.: Example of a setup that produces digital


outputs (left) and plot from a digital sensor reading
(right).
[2] Webster, John and Halit Eren. Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, 2 ed. CRC Press, Copryright 2014
nd

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Gizduino ATmega328
Table 1 Specifications of the Gizduino Board
Component Specification

ATMEGA 328

U1 ATMEGA 328 Microprocessor


Chip
U2 On Board 5V Voltage
Regulator

U3 PL-2303 USB to RS232


Bridge Controller

32KB (Flash
Memory), 1KB
EEPROM, 1KB RAM

Y1 16MHz crystal oscillator

Fig. 5.: Parts of the Gizduino ATmega328


[1] Technical Manual Rev. 1r1. Gizduino V4.0. e-gizmo Mechatronics Central

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Data Acquisition on the Experiments


LED
Magnet
Reed Switch

Gizduino ATmega 328


Serial Connection

Spring
Mass with disk
Ultrasonic
Distance
Sensor

Fig. 6.: Block diagram of how the data was obtained from the
experiment.

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Data Logging and Display

Arduino IDE

Serial Monitor and Serial


Plotter

BU
T!
!!

Log File

Python

Plot

Fig. 7.: Software used for data logging and modeling. The
video clip on the right side was recorded using CamStudio.

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Simple Pendulum - Determining g


Relation of the Strings Length and the Square of the Half Period of Oscillation
0.38

0.33

f(x) = 0.84x + 0.04


R = 0.98

0.28
Length
0.23

Theoretical
Experimental
Linear
(Experimental)

0.18
Correlation 0.99147257
0.13
0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4
Square of the Period

Fig. 8.: It shows that the acquired value of g


conforms on its actual value of 9.8 m/s2.

Fig. 9.: Arrangement of the Reed


Switch and Magnet (Bob) to avoid large
errors
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Error Analysis on the Simple Pendulum


Experiment
Length
0.348
0.273
0.243
0.193
0.148

Experimental

Theoretical

Elapsed
Value of
Length
Time
"g"
0.59761904 9.61880.
0.348
8
02
0.54273809 9.26530.
0.273
5
13
0.48821428 10.07910
0.243
6
.05
0.44011904 9.85510.
0.193
8
06
0.35154761 11.94990
0.148
9
.16

Elapsed
Time

Value of "g"

Percentage Error on the


Values of "g"

0.59201

1.8 %

0.5243

5.5 %

0.4947

9.8

2.8 %

0.4409

0.6 %

0.3861

21.9 %

Table 2. It shows the calculated error of the acquired g from


the experiment.
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Hookes Law Determining the Spring


Constant
Spring Constant

0
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
-0.5

0.1

0.11

f(x)==- -24.29x
24.81x++0.15
0.23
f(x)
RR==1 0.99

-1

Force (N)

Sensor Based

-1.5

Linear (Sensor
Based)
Manually Measured

-2

-2.5

Correlation -0.996765684

Change in Length (m)

Fig. 10.: Plot of the Spring constant


(k=20.860.39)

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Simple Harmonic Motion of a 170 grams weigths in a 20.86


N/m Laboratory Spring
Simple Harmonic Motion
0.08
0.07
0.06

Position 0.05
(m)
0.04
0.03
0.02
0

0.5

1.5

Smallest Diff.:
2.10E-06
Highest Diff.: 0.01
2.5
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Time (s)
Reading from the Sensor

Theoretical Position

Fig. 11.: Plot of the Theoretical and Experimental Position of


the Oscillator
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Phase Space of the Mass during the Oscillation


Phase Space
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.05

Position (m) 0.05


0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.04

0.04

0.05

0.05

0.06

0.06

0.07

0.07

Velocity (m/s)
Reading from the Sensor

Theoretical Position

Fig. 12.: Plot of the Experimental and Theoretical


Phase Space

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Real Time Plot of Simple Harmonic Motion

Fig. 13.: Generated figure from the actual real


time plotting.

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Smoothed Data by means of Moving Average

Fig. 14.: Smoothed data with


filtered Noise

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Conclusion
The used of Gizduino Microcontroller Atmega328 and Sensors
brought a simple and precise methods of data acquisition on
Classical Time Dependent Physics Experiments.
The advantage on the use electronics and programming benefits
the students on technical knowledge and skills.
Initially the data acquired are precise with a lesser uncertainty to
the theoretical values of the physical quantity.
The use of the microcontroller and sensors are flexible that allows
it to be applied and use at different fields of application.
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Work in Progress
Improvisation of Rotational Displacement Sensor
Improvisation of Photo-gate and Photo-Interrupter.

Fig. 15.: Photogate


Setup

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Thank You!
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