Anda di halaman 1dari 41

Information Systems in

Organizations
Chapter 2

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning Objectives


The use of information systems to add value to
the organization is strongly influenced by
organizational structure, culture, and change.
Identify the value-added processes in the supply
chain and describe the role of information systems
within them.
Provide a clear definition of the terms organizational
structure, culture, and change and discuss how they
affect the implementation of information systems.
Principles of Information Systems,
Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning Objectives


Because information systems are so important,
businesses need to be sure that improvements or
completely new systems help lower costs, increase
profits, improve service, or achieve a competitive
advantage.
Identify some of the strategies employed to lower costs or
improve service.
Define the term competitive advantage and discuss how
organizations are using information systems to gain such an
advantage.
Discuss how organizations justify the need for information
systems.
Principles of Information Systems,
Sixth Edition

Principles and Learning Objectives


Information systems personnel are the key to
unlocking the potential of any new or modified
system.
Define the types of roles, functions, and careers
available in information systems.

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Organizations & Information Systems

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Value Chain

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Organizational Structure
Organizational subunits and their relationship with the
overall organization
Categories of organizational structure:
Team
Traditional
Multidimensional
Project
Virtual

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Traditional Organizational Structure

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Traditional Organizational Structure

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Project Organizational Structure

Centered on major products and services


Temporary project teams

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Project Organizational Structure

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Team Organizational Structure


Temporary or permanent teams
Work groups
Various sizes

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Multidimensional Organizational
Structure
May incorporate several structures at the same
time
Advantage:
ability to simultaneously stress both traditional
corporate areas and important product lines
Disadvantage:
multiple lines of authority
Principles of Information Systems,
Sixth Edition

Multidimensional Organizational
Structure

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Virtual Organizational Structure


Employs business units in geographically
dispersed areas
People may never meet face to face
Can be permanent or temporary

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Organizational Culture and


Change

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Organizational Culture
Shared understandings, values, and
assumptions in an organization
Influences information systems

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Organizational Change

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Reengineering

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Reengineering

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Continuous Improvement
Constantly seeking ways to improve business
processes
Benefits:
Increased customer loyalty
Reduction in customer dissatisfaction
Reduced opportunity for competitive inroads

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Continuous Improvement vs.


Reengineering

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Technology Diffusion, Infusion, and


Acceptance
Technology diffusion - measure of widespread
use of technology
Technology infusion - extent to which
technology permeates a department
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) specifies factors that can lead to higher usage of
technology
Principles of Information Systems,
Sixth Edition

Total Quality Management (TQM)


Quality: ability of a product or service to meet or
exceed customer expectations
TQM: approaches and techniques used to
achieve quality throughout the organization

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Outsourcing and Downsizing


Outsourcing: contracting with outside
professionals
Downsizing: cutting the number of employees

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Competitive Advantage
Significant, long-term benefit to a company over
its competition
Ability to establish and maintain a competitive
advantage is vital to the companys success

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Competitive Advantage
Five forces motivate firms to seek
competitive advantage
Rivalry among existing competition
Threat of new entrants
Threat of substitutions
Buyers bargaining power
Suppliers bargaining power

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Strategic Planning for Competitive


Advantage

Change the structure of the industry


Create new products or services
Improve existing products or services
Use information systems for strategic planning

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Strategic Planning for Competitive


Advantage

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Performance-Based Information
Systems

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Productivity
A measure of output achieved divided by input
required
Higher level of output for a given level of input
means greater productivity

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Return on Investments and the Value


of Information Systems

Earnings growth
Market share
Customer awareness and satisfaction
Total cost of ownership

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Justifying Information Systems


Ensure that the system supports business needs
Assess risks
Identify benefits

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Justifying Information Systems


Assessment of Risk:
How well are the requirements understood?
To what degree does the project require pioneering
effort in technology?
Is there a risk of severe business repercussions if the
project is poorly implemented?

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Justifying Information Systems


Most IS projects fall into one of the following
categories:
Tangible Savings
Intangible Savings
Legal Requirement
Modernization
Pilot Project

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

The 10 Best Places to Work for IS

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Roles, Functions, and Careers in


Information Systems Department
Operations - focuses on the efficiency of
information
Systems development - focuses on specific
development projects and ongoing maintenance
and review
Support - provides user assistance

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

The Three Primary Responsibilities of


Information Systems

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Typical IS Titles and Functions


Chief Information Officer (CIO) - employs
the IS departments equipment and personnel
to help the organization attain its goals
LAN administrators - set up and manage
the network hardware, software, and security
processes

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Typical IS Titles and Functions


Internet careers
Strategists
Programmers
Website operators
Chief Internet Officer
Consulting firms

Principles of Information Systems,


Sixth Edition

Summary
Value-added processes increase the relative worth of
combined inputs on their way to becoming final
outputs
Business process reengineering involves the radical
redesign of business processes, organizational
structures, and information systems
Information systems personnel typically work in an
information systems department that employs a chief
information officer, systems analysts, and computer
programmers
Principles of Information Systems,
Sixth Edition