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OBESITAS

dr. Nurhayati SpA

Body mass index (BMI) is the ratio of weight in


kilograms to the square of height in meters.
BMI is widely used to define overweight and obesity,
because it correlates well with more accurate
measures of body fatness and is derived from
commonly available dataweight and height.
It has also been correlated with obesity-related
comorbid conditions in adults and children. Clinical
judgment must be used in applying these criteria to a
patient, because obesity refers to excess adiposity
rather than excess weight, and BMI is a surrogate for
adiposity.
The pediatric growth charts for the US population now
include BMI for age and gender, are readily available
online (http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts), and allow
longitudinal tracking of BMI.8

Causes of Childhood Obesity


Lack of physical activity or
sedentary lifestyle
Eats more calories than he or she
expends
Too much fat in the diet
Too much sugar in the diet
Family genetics

Klasifikasi BMI Menurut WHO (1998)

Kategori

BMI (kg/m2)

Resiko Comorbiditas

Underweight

< 18.5 kg/m2

Rendah (tetapi resiko terhadap masalah-masalah klinis lain


meningkat)

Batas Normal

18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2

Rata-rata

Overweight:

> 25

Pre-obese

25.0 29.9 kg/m2

Meningkat

Obese I

30.0 - 34.9kg/m2

Sedang

Obese II

35.0 - 39.9 kg/m2

Berbahaya

Obese III

> 40.0 kg/m2

55

Adapted from Chapter 25 Endocrine Determinants of Obesity. Handbook of


Obesity Etiology and Pathophysiology. Second Edition. Edited by George Bray
and Gary Bouchard. p.663, figure 2.
Wilborn et al. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2005 2:4
doi:10.1186/1550-2783-2-2-4

Leptin function at various target tissues.


of obesity and leptin in the pubertal process and pubertal growtha rev
SShalitin and MPhillip

The National Institute for Health


and Clinical Excellence (NICE)
recommends the following.

Include starchy foods in meals such as potatoes, bread, rice


and pasta, choosing wholegrain where possible.
Eat plenty of fibre-rich foods, such as oats, beans, grains,
fruit and vegetables, wholegrain bread, and brown rice and
pasta.
Eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables
each day.
Eat a low-fat diet and dont increase your fat and/or calorie
intake.
Eat as little as possible of fried foods, sweets which are high
in added sugars and fat and high-fat foods such as takeaway meals or fast food.
Reduce the amount of sugary drinks you have, including
fruit juices with added sugar, and drink more water.

Watch the portion size of meals and snacks, and how often youre
eating.
Eat regular meals, including breakfast, in a pleasant, sociable
environment without distractions.
You should eat with your child and make sure that everyone is
eating the same food.
Make enjoyable activities walking, cycling, swimming and
gardening part of everyday life.
Minimise sedentary activities, such as sitting for long periods
watching television, at a computer or playing video games.
Encourage active play, for example dancing and skipping.
Be more active as a family, for example walking and cycling to
school and the shops, going to the park or swimming.
Encourage your child to participate in sports or other active
recreation, and make the most of opportunities for exercise at
school.
Never put your child on a weight-loss diet without getting advice, as
this can affect his or her growth. Talk to your GP or a dietitian if