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# DESIGING OF DISTRIBUTION

TRANSFORMER
BY
MATLAB PROGRAMMING

ABSTRACT
The concept of optimization and performance of three phase
distribution transformer will be achieved by using the computer
technology.
The computer aided design eliminates the tedious and time
consuming hand calculations thereby realizing the designers
from numerical drudgery to enable the designer time to grapple
with physical and logical ideas thereby accelerating the design
process.
In this project for designing of transformer we are using the
MATLAB software because MATLAB is using everywhere in
Electrical fields. MATLAB program facilitates us to make design
simple and accurate. As our project requires lot of mathematical
calculations

we

implementation.

have

chosen

MATLAB

for

programming

Transformer construction

Core
Windings
Insulting materials
Insulating oil
Tank
Fittings and accessories

Core

Different grades of CRGO core and their losses at different Flux densities
Flux density
(T)

M3
(W/kg)

M4
(W/Kg)

23MOH
(W/Kg)

1.5

0.70

0.84

0.67

1.6

0.85

1.00

0.77

1.7

1.09

1.20

0.92

In our design we select the flux density from 1.5 T to 1.7 T (max),
depending on the rated no load loss.

Stepped core

Window

Core structure

MS

## W/H = Window height

W/W = window width
C/L = Center limb distance
MS = maximum step

Winding materials
Copper
Aluminum

Maximum
Current density
for Aluminum

1.5 A/sq mm

Current density
for copper
winding

3.0 A/Sq mm

## Choice of using copper or aluminum as winding material generally

depends upon the end-users. Most of our power utilities in India
desire transformers up to 250 KVA/11 KV with aluminum windings,
because of its wide availability and economy in cost. But owing to
some limitation in its inherent properties, higher rating
transformers are made with copper winding.

## Why we use Rectangular Strip for LV conductor ?

10

10 mm

Area of LV conductor = 80 sq mm
Diameter for round conductor = 10 mm

10 mm

8 mm

## Length for rectangular conductor = 10 mm

Width for rectangular conductor = 8mm

8 mm

## Why parallel conductor in LV ?

10 mm
8mm

RL
Surface length = 2x (10+8) = 36 mm

10 mm
4mm

4mm

## Skin effect is reduced as surface resistance is inc

Windings Insulation
Major insulation
It is well known to the transformer designer that the main
and most important insulation consists of the insulation between
the high voltage coil and the low voltage coil in the same phase and
from the LV coil to ground. In Medium and Low Voltage transformers,
the insulation material used between High and low voltage coils are
pressboard and cooling ducts, which are also used for cooling.
Minor Insulation
This category is normally for the insulation between the
adjacent turns in a coil and between different sections in the same
coil. Synthetic enamel covered and DPC wires are normally used in
Medium and Low voltage transformers.
A Pressboard represents a thick insulation paper made of
extremely pure cellulose fiber, suitably treated at the wet stage of
manufacturing process and then compacted at very high pressure.

coi
l

Clearance
between

Minimum
(mm)

Maximum
(mm)

## Limb to LV coil (CLLV )

2.5

3.0

LV coil to HV coil
(CLVHV )

11

10

10

## Yoke to HV coil (CYHV

)

16

25

Spacer between HV
coil

10

HV winding to Tank
Side walls

30

LV Winding Assembly

LV coil

CYLV
CLLV

Front view
Top view

HV winding Assembly

CYHV

Front view
Top view

CLVHV

## BASIC STRUCTURE OF DESIGN PROCEDURE

START
ENTER THE SPECIFICATIONS OF
DTR WITH ALL NECESSARY
LIMITATIONS
PERFORM THE
CALCULATION S
IS THE
CALCULATED
RESULTS ARE
MATCHED WITH
SPECIFICATIONS
YES
PRINT THE REQUIRED OUTPUT
DATA
STOP

MAKE NECESSARY
CHANGES WITH IN
LIMITS
NO

## PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING

Step 1: start the design by calculating Et .
Step 2: Calculate the core area and core diameter.
Step 3: Calculate the LV winding details.
Step 4: Calculate the HV winding details.
Step 5: Calculate the dimensions of core.
Step 6: Calculate the main dimensions of tank.

## FORMULAE FOR DESIGNING

To calculate of EMF per turn (Et ):

KVA

Where
KVA = Rating of the Transformer
K is a constant and varies from
0.31 0.39 for Aluminum winding transformer
0.41 0.45 for copper winding transformer
To calculate number of LV turns

Where
VLV = LV phase voltage
Et = EMF per turn

## Calculation of gross core area (Ag ) and core diameter (Do ) :

2.22 X

X 100

XCUF

sqcm

Where
Bm = maximum flux density (1.5 T 1.7 T)
CUF = core utilization factor (0.95 0.97)

X4

X K1

X 10mm

Where
K1 = constant and depends on number of steps used in core.
Number of steps varies from 6 14 depending on core diameter
K1 varies from 0.92 0.96 with an increment of 0.005.

LV coil Design
Calculation of LV current :

LV

KVAX 1000

A
3 X V LV

Where
VLV = LV phase Voltage

## Calculation of Area of LV Conductor :

ALV

I
CD

LV

Sqmm
LV

Design of LV conductor
Selection of number of parallel conductors
Step 1: Fix boundary area of each parallel conductor.
(aepc)
Step2: Calculate number of parallel conductors.(NPC)

## Step3: Round off to next integer

NPC= Fix(npc)
(for ex: 3.41 to 4)
Step4: Calculate new area of each parallel conductor,

## Calculation of dimensions of conductor

Step1: Specify maximum limit of conductor thickness.
Setp2: Select starting range of Conductor length.
Step4: By using conductor area calculate the actual
dimensions of conductor.(LEC and WEC)

## Flow chart for calculation of dimensions of LV conductor

AEPC
Limits
of
wec=x
lec= y
WEC=AEPC/y
Is
WEC
<x
Yes
LEC= y
Display LEC
& WEC

No

y=
y+0.1

MATLAB Program
AEPC=40
LEC=5;
WEC=AEPC/LEC;
while (WEC>3.25)
LEC=LEC+0.1;
WEC=AEPC/LEC;
End;
fprintf (Length of Lv conductor= %3.2f mm \n\n, LEC);
fprintf (Width of Lv conductor= %3.2f mm \n\n, WEC);
Out put
length of Lv conductor=12.40 mm
width of Lv conductor=3.23 mm

## Calculation of dimensions of LV coil

Axial Height (HLV ):
HLV = (TPL+1) x (nA x (LECI +0.1)) mm
Inner diameter of LV coil(IDLV):
IDLV = Do + 2 CLLV mm
Outer diameter of LV coil (ODLV):
ODLV = IDLV+ 2x ((2x nR x WECI) + Layer insulation) mm
Mean diameter(MDLV):
MDLV = (IDLV + ODLV )/2 mm
Mean length of Conductor (MLc ):
MLc = MDLV x 3.14 x NLV x 10-3 M
Resistance (RLV ):
RLV =( X MLc)/ ALV
LV winding loss (PLV ):

Ohms

## MATLAB program for LV coil Design

NL=2;
TLP=NLV/NL;
%enter 1 for transposition and 0 for no transposition%
TRANS=1;
IDLV=DO+2*CLLV;
if (TRANS==1)
HLV=((TLP+2)*(LECI+0.1))*a;
end;
if (TRANS==0)
HLV=(TLP+1)*a*(LECI+0.1);
ODLV=IDLV+2*((2*b*WECI)+LI);
MLV=mean([IDLV,ODLV]);
%calculation of LV winding Resistance%
if WM==1
R=0.021;
else R=0.034;
end;
RLV=(MLV*pi*0.001*TLP*2*R)/ALVN;

## Why HV coils Are more than One?

1833.3 V

Layer insulation

11000 V

1833.3 V
1833.3 V
1833.3 V
1833.3 V
1833.3 V
Single coil per limb

Coil
voltage

Layer Voltage

For
Single
coil

11000 V

42 x 3.5 x 2=
294 V

For six

1833.3 V

7 x 3.5 x 2 =

## Calculation of window height

WH = HLV + 2 CYLV mm

## Calculation of HV coil details:

Number of HV turns ( NHV ) :
NHV = NLV x 44
HV Current (IHV ):
IHV = (KVA x 1000)/(3 x 11000)
Area of HV conductor (AHV):
AHV = IHV / CDHV
where CDHV = Current density on HV side.
HV conductor Diameter ( DHV ):

DHV =

HV

X4

mm

## Inner diameter of HV coil (IDHV ):

IDHV = ODLV + 2x CLVHV mm
Height of HV coil (HHV ):
HHV = (WH-2CYHV -(n-1)SCC)/CPL

## Select number HV coils and should be even.

Calculate turns per coil :
TPC = N HV /Number of HV coils
Calculate Turns per Layer (TPL):
TPL =( H HV / (D HVI +0.05) ) -1
Calculate number of layers (NL):
NL = TPC/ TPL
Outer diameter ( OD HV ):
OD HV = 2 x ((NL x D HVI )+((NL-1) x Layer insulation)) mm
Mean diameter(MDHV):
MDHV = (IDHV + ODHV )/2 mm
Mean length of Conductor (MLc ):
MLc = MDHV x 3.14 x NHV x 10-3 M
Resistance (RHV ):
RHV =( X MLc)/ AHV

Ohms

## HV winding loss (PLV ):

PHV = 3 I2HV RHV Watts

FLL= P LV + P HV Watts
Calculation of core dimensions
center limb distance (CL) = OD
window width (WW) = CL MS
Where MS = Maximum step

HV

+C

LL

mm

3

## Calculation of no load loss (NLL):

NLL = W

x (W/KG) x B.F

watts

Where
W/KG = core loss per kg at specified flux density
B.F = Building factor (1.20 1.24)

Efficiency

KVACOS% L
2

FLL( KW )
%R
100
KVA

100

## Percentage reactance (%X) :

RT

%X

LV

RT
3

HV

C LVHV

7.91 50 10 I LV N LV MD W 0.95

LV

MH W

Where
RT

LV

RT

HV

LVHV

## = radial thickness of LV coil in cm

= radial thickness of HV coil in cm
= clearance between LV and HV coils cm

MD

MH

100

%Z

%R

%X

## For distribution transformer the impedance voltage should be 4.5%

with 10% tolerance

% Impedance

5 % impedance

4 % impedance

3 % impedance

2 % impedance

## Main dimensions of tank

Length of tank = (2x CL) + OD
Width of tank = OD

HV

HV

+60 mm

## Height of tank = Overall height of core + bottom clearance 35-50mm)+

top
clearance (100 mm)

MATLAB Program

Output

conclusion
Computer aided design has various advantages over
manual design. It is error free, economical and saves valuable
time. In computer aided design programme, very few inputs are
available from the customer specifications. The rest of the
inputs are estimated by the designer on the basis of
performance parameters. Since programme discussed is on
performance based, we may run the programme with different
values

of

impedance.

variable

inputs

and

with

close

proximity

of