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ANCIENT GREEK

AND ROMAN ART


Prepared by: Zharmina De Paz

GREEK SCULPTURES

Greek Art is divided into three(3) periods namely:


Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic.

ARCHAIC
Carvings in stone.
Free-standing figures share
the solidity and frontal
stance of Eastern models.
Often depicted with the
Archaic Smile and
accurate comprehension of
human anatomy.
Shows three(3) types: the
standing nude youth
(Kouros), Standing draped
girl (Kore), and the seated
woman.

The Kore (Left) often used


for Goddesses like Artemis
and is draped because
female nudity is not
allowed not until 4th
century BC.
Molded from terracotta clay.

CLASSICAL
Zeus of Artemison, Bronze
Sculpture (Left).
Poses became more
naturalistic.
At 500BC statues started to
depict real people. Often
used to overthrow tyranny.
Also has wider uses: relief
sculpture for decorative
friezes, and sculpture in the
round to fill the triangular
fields of the pediments.
Funeral Statuary also
evolved in this time depicting
highly personal family
groups.

The statues of Harmodius


and Aristogeiton (Upper
Left). Funeral Statuary
Grave Marker (Above)
and Sculpted friezes
(Lower Left)

HELLENISTIC
The transition from
Classical to Hellenistic
happened during the 4th
century BC, where it
became diversified from
Greco-Bactrians, GrecoBuddhist to Indo-Greeks as
it spread due to Alexander
the Greats Conquests.
Acceptable subjects
became common people,
women, children, animals,
and domestic scenes.
The Winged Victory of
Often used for adornment Samothrace, Marble Sculpture .
of homes and gardens
Also called Nike of Samothrace.

Pergamon Altar showing the


battle between the Giants and
the Olympian Gods (Above).
Statue of Aphrodite (Right)
Galatea (Ivory), Pygmalion
and Eros

METAL ART

GREEK PAINTINGS

There are (6) types of Greek painting depending on the type or surface and
object painted as canvas namely: Panel painting, wall painting, polychromy,
architecture,, sculpture, and vase painting or pottery painting.

PANEL PAINTING
Panel paintings were
individual, mobile
paintings on wooden
boards called Pitsa panels.
Techniques used were
encaustic (wax) painting
and tempera.
Classical to Hellenistic,
depiction of portraits and
still-lifes and figural
scenes.
Perishable in nature.

WALL PAINTING
Traditional wall painting started
during the Minoan and
Mycenaean Bronze Age but
produced widely produced
during the classical and
Hellenistic periods.
Lavish fresco decorations.
Often used as tomb decorations
like those of Grave of Philipp
and Tomb of Persephone.
Sometimes depict hoplite
combat (Upper Left)

Polychromy and
Architecture Painting
Polychrome is the practice of
decorating architectural
elements, sculpture, etc. in a
variety of colors. Mostly for
reconstruction and already
faded.
Painted temples during the
Archaic period are used to
enhance the visual aspects of
architecture.
Colored friezes of Parthenon
(Lower Right), reconstructed color
scheme of the entablature on a
Doric temple (upper right)

SCULPTURE
PAINTING
Woman with Blue gilt
garment (Left).
Most Greek sculptures were
painted in strong, bright
colors depicting clothing,
hair, etc.
Polychromy of stone
statues was paralleled by
the use of different
materials to distinguish
skin, clothing and other
details and by the use of
different metals to depict
lips, fingernails, etc. on
high-quality bronzes like.

The Riace Bronzes


(Far Right) and the
Chryselephantine
sculpture (Upper
Right) made with
Gold and fireblackened Ivory in
Delphi

VASE PAINTING /
POTTERY
Most copious evidence of
ancient Greek painting.
Dark Age Protogeometric Jar
consists of concentric circles,
and patterns of straight and
zigzag lines. (Below)

HELLENISTIC RED-FIGURE JAR


Reversed Black-figure technique: orange
silhouetteswere formed by painting
around them in black, allowing interior
details to be paintedrather than incised.

ARCHAIC AGE

GEOMETRIC JAR
variety ofpatterns,
such as checkers,
repeated shapes,
and meanders.
(Ameanderis a
pattern formed by a
single continuous
line)

PROTOATTIC JAR
BLACK-FIGURE JAR
Two types: The bold and thesilhouettesof
lavishprotoatticstyle
figures are painted in
of Athens, well-suited to
solid black (typically on
large jars, essentially
a vibrant orange
takes the geometric style background); details
and adds large figures.
are then added
bycutting linesinto the
AND
protocorinthianstyle of silhouettes.
Corinth, features small
beginning
figures and light
ofnarrativescenes in
geometric elements (e.g.
Greek pottery
rosettes), making it
decoration
perfect for smaller

ANCIENT GREEK ARCHITECTURE


derived from Mycenaean

PROPYLON
-Professional
Gateway

Agora
Public
Square/
Market Place

EPIDAURUS
OPEN
THEATER

STOA
LONG
COLONNAD
E

Mausoleum
Monumental
Building for
the dead

Bouleuterion
town
council
building

HIPPODROME
- Stadium for
horses

PARTHENON
Athenas temple
during the
Classical Period.
Means unmarried
womens
apartments/maide
n.

CLASSICAL ORDERS

OTHER PROMINENT BUILDINGS

OLYMPIEION OR THE
TEMPLE OF ZEUS

ERECHTHEION

ROMAN SCULPTURES

- Influenced by Greeks and the


Etruscans
- Mood is often serious, solemn
and unsmiling.

BUSTS
Roman portraiturewas one of
the most significant periods in
the development ofhigh quality
of portraitart.
Most popular type of sculpture
of Romans.
Sculpture of the head up to the
shoulders or until the breast.
Mostly placed at the atrium of
their homes, a way to show off
their lineage
Juno, Claudius(Next in reign
from Caligula), Augustus &
Antonius

EQUESTRIAN STATUE
"equestrian statue" describes
astatueof a rider mounted on
a horse.
If the horse is riderless, the
sculpture is usually called an
"equine statue".
It derives from the Latin word
"equus" (meaning "horse")
from which we get "eques"
("knight")

NARRATIVE
STATUES
Divided into two
categories: the Bas Reliefs
(3D Sculpture) and the
Statues (4D Sculpture)
Often depicting historical
events or even events
which are personal. Often
seen in tombs.
Romulus and Remus
(Left), 12 labors of
Hercules in a sarcophagus

TRAJANS COLUMN
A Roman triumphal
column inRome,Italy,
that
commemoratesRoman
emperorTrajan's victory
in theDacian Wars.
constructed under the
supervision of the
architectApollodorus of
Damascus.
a bas relief that
describes the epic wars
between the Romans and
Dacians(101102 and
105106)

FULL-BODY
STATUES
These statues are often
copied statues with their
own roman
representation, depending
on the type of material
used or the form.
Often depicts gods and
goddesses, emperors, etc.
Marble statue of Discusthrower (Left), Lady Justice
Statue (Far Left)

ROMAN PAINTINGS

WALL PAINTING (Frescoes)


Paintings on plaster and painted with tempera,
and/or beeswax or just water and pigment, a
technique obtained from the Greeks.
Some are on wood, ivory, and other materials.

LINEAR
PERSPECTIVE
PAINTINGS
General characteristic of
ancient Roman
paintings. It shows
images that are painted
as directly seen by the
eye.
Often depicts narrative
and traditional events.
Consummation of an
empire (Right), Trojan
War wall painting (Upper
Right)

STILL-LIFES/
OBJECT PAINTING
Though most painting are
still done on walls, Roman
also started painting stilllifes which the Greeks
show of little interest.
Paintings show objects like
the Fruit bowl (Lower left)
and some are sceneries
like those of Pompeii, Italy
(Upper Left)

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

FORUM TOWN
CENTER

BASILICA town
council building/
Congress/
Government
Center

CIRCUS
MAXIMUS
Stadium for
chariot
racing
COLOSSEUM also
called FLAVIAN
AMPITHEATER.
Biggest
amphitheater. A
place for Gladiator
fights.

DOMUS
Roman
Mansion

INSULAE
tenement
housing

HOUSE OF VESTAL
VIRGINS temple
of Vesta, the
Roman goddess of
hearth and home,
counterpart of
Hestia.

THERMAE AND BALNAE


Public bath house,
provided with cold bath
(Frigidarium), warm bath
(Tepidarium), Warm
(Caldarium), Dressing Room
(Apodyteria), Sweat room
(Laconicum) and Oils and
perfumes room (unctuaria)

PANTHEON
- Pantheon means every god (the 12
gods)
- Constructed with mostly granite and
marble.
- Oculus to represent (Eye of God)

EPHESUS It is once an
ancient Greek city,
conquered by Romans
and stated as Capital
city.
The remains contains
whats left of the temple
of Artemis and some
baths (Thermae)

AQUEDUCTS
- carries water from
distant sources into
their cities, towns
supplying public baths,
latrines, fountains, etc.

ARCADE or
VAULT
interconnected
arches

ARCH one of
the greatest
engineering
inventions of
Romans

CLASSICAL ORDERS

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