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Malaysia, December 2014

PUSAT SUMBER DAYA GEOLOGI, BADAN GEOLOGI


KEMENTERIAN ENERGI DAN SUMBER DAYA MINERAL

HYDROTHERMAL
ALTERATION
OUTLINE :
1. Principles
2. What are the main
hydrothermal minerals
3. Surface alteration
4. Subsurface alteration

The concept of
hydrothermal
alteration

An initial fluid of composition A1 reacts with primary minerals in


the parent rock R1. The water rock interaction alters the fluid
to A2 and forms alteration minerals of composition R2.
Hydrothermal alteration is a process that occurs due to a
reaction between the rocks with the geothermal fluid.
Hydrothermal alteration depend on: Temperature, pressure, type
of rock, fluid composition (especially pH) and duration of the
reaction (Browne, 1984).

The alteration mineralogy can tell you


information about:

Fluid type
Temperature
Permeability
(Relative) CO2, O2 and H2S contents of
fluid
Changes in hydrology (e.g. shifts in T,
location
of
steam/water
interface,
cooling)

Methods to use
Petrography. To identify minerals and
determine their textural relations.
PIMA (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer
Spectrometer
X-Ray Diffraction. To identify minerals,
such as clays, zeolites group.
Fluid Inclusion geothermometry: To
determine temperatures and fluid
salinities

PROCESSES IN GEOTHERMAL
SYSTEM (affecting minerals in
rock)
Leaching and mineral dissolution.
---Tells us about fluid/mineral relations

Direct deposition of minerals in veins .


---Tells us about processes that affect fluids

Replacement of older minerals.

---Tells us about fluid/mineral relations

Leaching

Direct deposition from a cooling fluid.

Albite replacing andesine

Surface Alteration

Subsurface Alteration

Subsurface Alteration

What are some geothermal


minerals?
i.e. REACTION

&

DEPOSITION PRODUCTS

Silicate Group

Quartz
Adularia (KAlSi3O8)
Albite (NaAlSi3O8)
Wairakite (CaAl2Si4O12.2H2O)
Laumontite (CaAl2Si4O12.4H2O)
Epidote (Ca(Al,Fe)3Si3O12(OH)
Prehnite (Ca2(Al,Fe)[AlSi3O10](OH)2
Titanite (CaTiSiO5)

Clay Minerals
Chlorite (Mg,Fe)6AlSi3O10(OH)
Illite KAl2Si4O10(OH)
Smectites
(Ca,Na)0.7(Al,Mg,Fe)4[Si,Al]8O20]OH4.nH2O
Interlayered clays ( illite-smectites)

Kaolins Al2Si2O5(OH)4

Sulphates, Sulphides &


Carbonates

Pyrite (FeS2)
Pyrrhotite (~FeS)
Sphalerite and other base-metal sulphides
Anydrite (CaSO4)
Barite (BaSO4)
Alunite (Na,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)
Calcite (CaCO3)
Siderite (FeCO3)
Aragonite

Others ( minor )

Apatite
Fluorite
Tourmaline
Biotite
Actinolite
Leucoxene
Hematite
Titanite(sphene)

Temperature
Can be indicated by:
Clay Minerals
Calc-silicates
Some other minerals
And also by:
Fluid inclusion geothermometry

Clays and Temperature


Montmorillonite is stable to ~140 0
Discrete illite is stable above ~210 0
Interlayered illite/smectites are stable in
the range 140- 2100 (the hotter the more the illite)
Crystallinity of clays increases with
increasing T.

Calc-silicates
E.G: mordenite is stable up to 1200
Laumontite is stable from 120 to
2100 Wairakite is stable from 210
to > 3000
Epidote is stable above 2500
Ca-garnet is stable above ~ 2900
Prehnite is stable above ~2200
Actinolite is stable above ~2900

Temp/calc-silicate mineral
relations
Apply in many geothermal fields
Are independent of rock type
Zeolites are very thermally sensitive
in the range 80 to 150 0C

Acid waters (low pH) and


clays
Halloysite stable to ~ 900?
Kaolinite stable to ~1500
Dickite is stable from ~150 to ~2400
Pyrophyllite is stable above ~2500

Minerals with no temperature


significance

Adularia
Calcite
Pyrite
Anhydrite
Titanite (sphene)
Hematite

Ranking of feldspar
alteration
Can be used to:
Determine depth of production
casing
Recognising permeable formations
Predicting well outputs (qualitative)
Locating permeable zones
Feldspars are sensitive to overprints
(e.g. pH changes)

Permeability Ranking of
feldspars

Replacement occurs
IMPERMEABLE: Primary andesine
LOW K: albite, pyrrhotite
MODERATE K: albite + adularia
HIGH K: adularia

Minerals and fluid type


Acid steam condensate: kaolins, sulfates
(alunite and natroalunite), Opal-A
Hot acid: alunite, diaspore, pyrophylitte,
dickite, marcasite?.
Bicarbonate/CO2-rich: montmorillonite, siderite
Neutral pH thermal: calc-silicates, adularia
etc
Heated ground waters: clinoptilolite,mordenite,
smectites

Boiling and Minerals


Boiling zones may be recognised by
veins with:
Quartz
Adularia
Bladed calcite
Inclusions with different liquid to
vapour ratios (By FLUID INCLUSION
METHODE)

Boiling and minerals


Calcite deposits because of loss of CO 2
( Ca2+ HCO3-

CaCO3 +CO2 +H2O)

Adularia deposits because of a pH


increase caused by CO2 loss
H+ +HCO3-

CO2 +H2O

Quartz deposits because of cooling.

Lattice Bladed texture : Boiling Indication

Predicting Scaling
Is there much SiO2 ? If Yes......Bad News
Is there much calcite ? If Yes......Bad News
Do calc-silicates occur ? If so which ones?
(epidote is a good sign; Ca-garnet even better)

Predicting Corrosion
Beware of cores and cuttings with:
Alunite
Diaspore
Dickite
Pyrophyllite
Siderite/hematite/jarosite/marcasite

FLUID INCLUSION

What are fluid inclusions ?


Fluid inclusions are samples of fluid (liquid,
gas, melt) trapped in minerals during or
following formation of the mineral.
When observed at room temperature, fluid
inclusions often contain multiple phases.

Assumptions upon which fluid inclusion


geothermobarometry is based
1. The fluid trapped upon sealing of the
inclusion was a single, homogeneous phase.
2. The cavity in which the fluid is trapped does
not change in volume after sealing.
3. Once sealed, nothing is added to or
removed from the inclusion.
4. The effect of pressure are insignificant
5. The origin of the inclusion is known

Data available from fluid inclusions

Temperature

Pressure (depth)

Fluid composition

Fluid density

Evolution of all of the above with


time

Temporal classification of
fluid inclusions

Primary

Secondary

Pseudosecondary

Commonly occurs in trasparant minerals :


Quartz, calcite, anhydrite, fluorite, Halite
etc.

Fluid inclusions classification

How big are fluid inclusions ?

> mm are rare (museum specimens)

< 2 m are not usable for micro


thermometry

3 50 m most common size range for


micro thermometry

Fluid Inclusion Microscope


Liquid
Nitrogen
containe
r

Heate
r Unit

Camera
to
Monitor

Classification of inclusions based on


room temperature phase ratios
Single-phase inclusions
Two-phase inclusions

Liquid-rich
Vapor-rich

Halite-bearing inclusions
CO2-bearing inclusions

Hydrocarbon inclusions
Melt inclusions
Multi-phase inclusions

Inclusion terminology

Homegenization temperature (Th)

Isochore

Eutectic (first-melting) temperature


(Te)

Freezing (melting) temperature (Tm)

NaCl-equivalent salinity

Tm

Th

Homegenization temperature (Th)

Eutectic (first-melting) temperature (Te) and Freezing (melting) temperature (Tm)

Photograph of Fluid Inclusion

T E M P E R A T U R E ( C )
50

100

150

200

250

300

350
D o w n h o le m e a s u r e d te m p e r a tu re
o f w e ll D R J S - 1

n=39

200

3 0 0 C

D e p th in f e e t

D e p th in m e t e rs

100

n=67

n=13

D e p th in fe e t

D e p th in m e te r s

n=20

Keys :

n=10

H is to g r a m s :
N u m b e r o f m e a s u r e m e n ts
S e c o n d a ry
f l u i d in c lu s io n s
L a t e d e p o s it e d

n=30

P rim a r y
f l u i d in c lu s i o n s
E a r ly d e p o s i t e d

H o s t m in e r a ls :

n=15

A n h y d rite
C a lc ite

n=4

Q u a r tz
P r e h n it e
C u rv e s :
D o w n h o le m e a s u r e d t e m p e r a t u r e o f D R J S - 1
t a k e n o n 2 4 O c t o b e r 1 9 9 6 , i. e . 2 d a y s a f t e r
d r i llin g c o m p le t io n

n=39

D o w n h o le m e a s u r e d t e m p e r a t u r e o f D R J S - 1
t a k e n o n 2 4 N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 6 , i. e . 1 m o n t h a ft e r
d r i llin g c o m p le t io n

n=37

n=34

n= 15
B o i l in g p o in t c u r v e f o r p u r e w a t e r

n=15

n= 14
n=43

Reference:

Bimbingan teknis pengembangan sumber daya panas


bumi, PSDG 2012
Fluid Inclusions Workshop@MFR 2014
Water-Rock Interaction, Alteration Minerals and Mineral
Geothermometry, Colin C. Harvey
website di internet.