Anda di halaman 1dari 16





As much as 80% of all electrical injuries are
burns resulting from an arc-flash and ignition
of flammable clothing.
Arc temperature can reach 35,000F - this is
four times hotter than the surface of the sun
Fatal burns can occur at distances over 10 ft.


Exposure Energy is Expressed in cal/cm2
1 cal/cm2 Equals the Exposure on the tip of a finger
by a Cigarette Lighter in One Second
An Exposure Energy of Only One or Two cal/cm2
Will Cause a 2nd Degree Burn on Human Skin

Industry Standards and Regulations


OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart S

OSHA Enforces NEC2002 110.16 & NFPA70E
NFPA 70E-2000
Requirements for shock and arc flash boundaries
Requirements for personal protective equipment
NEC 110.16-2002

NEC 2002

110.16 Flash Protection.


Switchboards, panel boards, industrial control

panels, and motor control centers in other than dwelling occupancies,
that are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or
maintenance while energized, shall be field marked to warn qualified
persons of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be
located so as to be clearly visible to qualified persons before
examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment.

FPN No. 1: NFPA 70E-2000, Electrical Safety Requirements for

Employee Workplaces, provides assistance in determining severity of
potential exposure, planning safe work practices, and selecting personal
protective equipment.
FPN No. 2: ANSI Z535.4-1998, Product Safety Signs and Labels,
provides guidelines for the design of safety signs and labels for
application to products.

Sample NEC Warning Article 110.16



Arc Flash and Shock Hazard
Appropriate PPE Required

ARC Flash Analysis


OSHA 1910.132(d) Where work will be performed within the

flash protection boundary, the flash hazard analysis shall
determine, and the employer shall document, the incident energy
exposure to the worker (in cal/cm2)

OSHA 1910.269(I)(6) Flame resistant (FR) clothing and PPE

shall be used by the employee based upon the incident energy
exposure associated with the specific task.

As an alternative, PPE requirements of NFPA 70E Part II 3-3.9

may be used in lieu of a detailed flash hazard analysis.

Sample NEC Warning Article 110.16



Approach Boundaries

Nominal System
Voltage Range

Limited Approach Boundary

Restricted Approach

Prohibited Approach


Exposed Moveable

Exposed Fixed Circuit


Includes Inadvertent
Movement Adder

0 - 50

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

Not specified

51 - 300

10 ft. 0 in.

3 ft.6 in.

Avoid contact

Avoid contact

301 - 750

10 ft. 0 in.

3 ft.6 in.

1 ft. 0 in.

0 ft. 1 in.

751V - 15 kV

10 ft. 0 in.

5 ft.0 in.

2 ft. 2 in.

0 ft. 7 in.

15.1 36 kV

10 ft. 0 in.

6 ft.0 in.

2 ft. 7 in.

0 ft. 10 in.

36.1 46 kV

10 ft. 0 in.

8 ft.0 in.

2 ft. 10 in.

1 ft. 5 in.

46.1 72.5 kV

10 ft. 0 in.

8 ft.0 in.

3 ft. 3 in.

2 ft. 1 in.

72.6 121 kV

10 ft. 8 in.

8 ft.0 in.

3 ft. 3 in.

2 ft. 8 in.

138 145 kV

11 ft. 0 in.

10 ft.0 in.

3 ft. 7 in.

3 ft. 1 in.

NFPA 70E provides two choices for PPE



Do an arc flash hazard analysis, and document

the incident energy exposure
IEEE 1584
SKM (Arc Flash Evaluation Module)
ArcPro Software
Duke Power Cal/Flux Software
As an alternate, use the Hazard Risk Category
Classifications table to choose the PPE level
required for the task

Hazard Risk Category Tables


Hazard Risk Category Classification


NFPA 70E Hazard Risk 0

This hazard risk category poses minimal risk.

NFPA 70E Hazard Risk 1

This hazard risk category poses some risk.

NFPA 70E Hazard Risk 2

This hazard risk category involves tasks that pose a
moderate risk.

NFPA 70E Hazard Risk 3

This hazard risk category involves tasks that pose a
high risk.

NFPA 70E Hazard Risk 4

This hazard risk category represents tasks that pose
the greatest risk.

Methods of Reducing Hazard Risk


Specifying Current Limiting Fuses on Low Voltage

Switchgear Breakers
Specifying ARC Resistance Medium Voltage
Remote Control of Switchgear Breakers
High Resistance Grounding on Low Voltage and
Medium Voltage (15kV and below) Systems

What We Offer Our Clients


Design of safer power systems while insuring compliance

with OSHA NFPA 70E standards and IEEE 1584
Save time with the fully integrated Short Circuit, Time
Current Coordination, Equipment Evaluation and Arc Flash
Offer alternatives to reduce exposure to ARC Flash