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Lecture 9

Mary Ann Price


map2293@columbia.edu
Mudd 744A
Office Hours: M 11-12; W 4-5

Announcements
Piazza is up
The test scores are raw scores out of 100
Exam weighting highest counts for more than lowest
(~1.25/.75)
Problems from the book (not to be graded)

Platelets

Platelets

No nucleus, but contain mitochondria,


smooth ER, and membrane-bound

Hemostasis
Must stop blood flow from
vessels without blocking flow
and while under pressure
3 major steps
1

Vasocontriction
2
Temporary blockage by
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platelet plug
Coagulation formation of clot
seals hole until tissues are
repaired

Once tissue is repaired, clot


is dissolved5

Platelet plug formation

Prostacyclin and NO
released from nearby
intact endo-thelium
prevent platelet plug
from spreading by
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blocking
platelet

Platelet activating factor (PAF)

NSAIDs

Binding of platelet integrins to


exposed collagen leads to
release of serotonin, ADP, and
PAF from granules
PAF causes activation of more
platelets, positive feedback loop
PAF also leads to thromboxane
A2 production
Serotonin and thromboxane A2
are vasoconstrictors and they
contribute to platelet activation
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Coagulation cascade

aka tissue thromboplast

Most of these factors are


serine proteases that are
kept in an inactive (zymogen)
form until they are activated
by cleavage.

Coagulation Common pathway


IX* and VIII

III and VII*

Fibrinogen to Fibrin polymer

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Fibrin and fibrinolysis

PA = tissue plasminogen activator


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Anticoagulation
Inhibition of platelet adhesion
Inhibition of coagulation cascade
Heparin and antithrombin III together block activated factors IX, X, XI, XII
Protein C inhibits factors V and VIII

Treatments for myocardial infarction, clotting risk


Streptokinase and tPA to dissolve clots together with antiplatelet agents
(e.g., integrin antagonists) to prevent further platelet plug and clot
formation
Acetylsalicylic acid, a COX inhibitor, blocks formation of thromboxaneA2
Coumarin anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin) block action of vitamin K, a
cofactor in the synthesis of factors VII, IX, X, and thrombin
EGTA used in blood collection chelates Ca2+

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Clotting Disorders
Hemophilia
A factor VIII
B factor IX

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The Respiratory
System

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Four functions of respiratory


systems
Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the
blood
Homeostatic regulation of body pH
Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating
substances
Vocalization
Technically, were talking about external respiration (as
opposed to cellular respiration)
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Bulk Flow of Air


Flow takes place from higher to lower pressure
A muscular pump creates pressure gradients
Resistance to air flow is influenced primarily by the
diameter of the tubes through which the air is flowing

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External Respiration:

Four integrated processes

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Structures involved in ventilation


and gas exchange
Airways that lead from outside to exchange surface of
lung
The exchange surface: alveoli, a series of
interconnected sacs, and their associated pulmonary
capillaries
The bones and muscles of the thorax and abdomen that
assist in ventilation

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19

The bones of spine and rib


cage and their associated
muscles form the thoracic
cage
The diaphragm, a dome
shaped sheet of skeletal
muscle, forms the bottom
of the cage

20

Pleural sacs and pleural fluid


Thorax is a sealed container filled
with 3 sacs: 2 pleural sacs around
the lungs and the pericardial sac
around the heart
Each pleural membrane contains
several layers of elastic connective
tissue
The two layers are held together by
a thin layer of pleural fluid
Moist slippery surfaces that slide
across each other when lungs expand
Holds lungs against the thoracic wall,
lungs are stretched and partially
inflated even at rest
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The trachea is held open by 15-20


C-shaped cartilage rings semiflexible
The trachea branches into two primary
bronchi, which divide (within lungs)
into progressively smaller bronchi (divs
2-11)
The bronchi are also semiflexible and
supported by cartilage
The smallest bronchi branch to
become bronchioles small collapsible
passageways with smooth muscle
walls
They continue branching (divs. 12-23)
until the respiratory bronchioles form a
transition from the airways to the
exchange epithelium of the lung
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Air is conditioned in the upper


airways
Warmed to body temperature
Water vapor added to 100% humidity
Foreign material filtered out

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Mucociliary escalator

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Watery saline layer and Cystic


Fibrosis

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Alveoli

Alveoli are air filled structures in


clusters at the ends of terminal
bronchioles
Primary function: exchange of
gases with the blood
Each alveolus is a single layer of
epithelium with no smooth
muscle
Two cell types type I and II
alveolar cells
Type I is for gas exchange with
blood
Type II is for surfactant secretion
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alveolar surface area is used for gas exchange; Blood vessels fill 80-90% of space
between alveoli.

pulmonary circulation

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The Pulmonary Circulation

Pulmonary circulation contains


~0.5L blood (~10%)
Since CO of right ventricle = CO
of left ventricle = ~5L, rate of
blood flow through lungs is
higher than other tissues
Despite this, pulmonary BP is
low ~25/8 mmHg
Right ventricle doesnt need to
pump as hard
Poiseuilles law: R = 8L/r
Why?
consequence: PH is low and IF is
low,
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allowing for
rapid exchange of