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Skills Enhancement
PROCESS
9.0 NINER CEBU IELTS
REVIEW CENTER

INTRODUCTION
The task is to describe the graphic
The statistical figures are on two
formats: the statics and the processes.
The examinee is required to describe
the information in a report of AT
LEAST 150 WORDS.
This task should be completed in 20
MINUTES.

***Statics***
pie chart
tables
line graph

***Processes***
process A
processes that do not have
an end
Cycles

process B
processes that have an end

bar graph

flow chart
map
diagrams
illustrations of how something
works/created

MARKING
150 words
Clear, accurate, and relevant description
of the information

MARKING
COHERENCE and COHESION
Did you present all relevant information?

MARKING
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR
Sentence construction
Wide range of vocabulary used
Verb tenses

PROCESS

No trends
No statistical figures to write down
Be good with descriptions
information as long as those relevant
and scientific facts

## A diagram shows a PROCESS, which

means a SERIES OF EVENTS, and
1. State WHAT the diagram is ABOUT
2. State WHAT HAPPENS in the
diagram
3. Describe the STEP-BY-STEP process
of the diagram

## An essay about a process has

THREE parts:

Introduction
Body description
Conclusion

Introduction
An introduction for a process should
have TWO things:
needs to state what the diagram is
must state what HAPPENS in the
diagram

Example:
1. What is the diagram
Solar Power
2. What does the diagram
SHOW?
- how solar energy is
converted into
electricity to power
homes

Introduction
The illustration exhibits the basic
principles of solar power. It presents
how energy from the sun is captured
and converted into electricity to
power homes.

Description
In the body, you need to do TWO
things:
Be aware of how many STAGES there are
in the diagram
Describe each stage IN THE ORDER they
happen in the diagram

## What are the STAGES?

1. Sunlight hits the
photovoltaic panel
2. The photovoltaic panel
converts the energy of the
sun into electricity
3. The electricity is sent into
an inverter
4. The inverter changes the
electricity from direct
current to alternating
current
5. The inverter sends the
electricity to houses,
where it is used to power
peoples homes

BODY
When the sun is shining bright, its
rays hit the photovoltaic panels, and
the energy is absorbed. These
panels then convert it into electrical
energy. After that, this electrical
energy is sent to an inverter which
is used to change electricity from
one form to another. At this point,
the inverter takes direct current
from the panels and turns it into
alternating currents, which can be
used by the people. Finally, the
power from the said device is
distributed to houses where it is
used to power the lights and
appliances inside.

Some KEYWORDS to
remember

## When you are writing about a process, you

need to use words that show the ORDER OF
EVENTS. Here is a list of words that may be
useful:
First

Finally

Next

Soon after

After that

Afterwards

At this point

Immediately after

## Following this step

Later

Subsequently

In the end

Lastly

Eventually

At this time

Then

Conclusion
Last step or stage - How different the
last stage is from the earlier process
Overall observation
Number of steps
Raw materials / main equipment or
procedures used or included
Major changes noted in the process

## In summary, sunlight undergoes

five distinct stages in order for it
electricity for people to be used
at home. Also, it is important
that one is equipped with the
appropriate tools namely
photovoltaic panel and inverter
for it to be successful.

The Process A
a.k.a. the Cycle
the type of process figure that does not
have a beginning and an end.
determine the most logical starting
point of the cycle.
describe the information by following the
sequence of events.
denote a beginning or an end

## The development of frogs varies depending on the

species but most undergo the same process. A frog will
find a mate and eventually the female lays eggs, the
male fertilize them, and the whole process begins.

## The illustration shows the life cycle of a typical frog. It

demonstrates the several discrete stages from the
transformation of an egg to an adult frog.
After mating, female frogs lay eggs. These eggs, called frog
spawn, appear as clustered spheres that are distinctly darker at
the center. Cells inside these eggs eventually multiply into
numerous cells until they are organized enough to be an
embryo. Once the mass of cells enter the embryo stage, major

## Once they emerge from the eggs, tadpoles still have to

undergo several phases of their development before they
mature. Initially, tadpoles have an oblong-shaped body that is
connected to a long tail. After five weeks, the body starts to
compartmentalize as the head starts to form. At the same time,
the rudiments of the creatures legs start to grow near the area
where the tail attaches to the body. Afterwards, the tadpoles
lungs begins to form as the tail degenerates. Come 11 weeks,

Conclusion
Last step or stage - How
different the last stage
is from the earlier
process
Overall observation
Number of steps
Raw materials / main
equipment used
Major changes noted in
the process

## One may infer that the life of a frog consists of 6

stages. All these are important for the frog to mature
sufficiently for it to reproduce and repeat the cycle
once more.

The Process B
has an ending
a.k.a the illustration of how a
thing is produced / manufactured /
functions / flowchart / diagram /
map
the easiest to organize.
just follow the sequence of events
describing the relevant events that
happen.

FLOWCHART
Follow the direction of the arrow from
the first down to the last step
Never skip a step

## The data describes the production of a chocolate bar. This

exhibits the different stages on how to create chocolate starting
from cocoa to its final product.

## First, the cocoa undergoes a process called grinding. This, then,

produces the waste and cocoa liquor. Subsequently, the latter
compound goes through pressing yielding two results: cocoa
butter and cocoa powder. A portion of these two products can
be sold or used in the food industry, Meanwhile, the remaining
quantities are combined with sugar and other ingredients. This
mixture is converted to an industrial chocolate which is
afterwards transformed into a dark-coloured (rectangular-

## One may infer that the creation of chocolate comprises 6 steps

in which two major procedures are involved namely grinding
and pressing. Also, there are two main ingredients of this
process: cocoa butter and cocoa powder.

An illustration on how
something works
present the parts and their
functions before the actual
description of how the object
works/ how the process develops

## The figure illustrates how a tap regulates

the release of water from the supply pipe
to the spout of the unit. Taps make use of a
spiral mechanism which controls the flow of
water.

## Extending atop an easy-to-clean cover is

the taps handle. This is also the top end of
a screw, called the spindle, which goes
down into the casing of the faucet. At the
bottom end of the spindle is the jumper
unit, comprised of the spindle thread and
jumper. A washer is also attached to the
end of this mechanism.

## When the faucet is not in use, the washer is

forced down on the washer seating. This
seals off the opening inside the tap and
prevents water from flowing out. However,
when the tap handle is turned on by
twisting it counterclockwise, the spindle
rises and the mechanism just below it is
lifted to allow a stream of pressurized
water to run through the faucets spout.
Clockwise turning produces the opposite
effect.

Maps
Point out the changes in the map
Make sure you know your directions
N-E-W-S

## The 3 maps show Palm

Grove is a coastal town
from the nearest city. It
has recently become a
major resort. Summarize
the information by
selecting and reporting
the main features, and
make comparisons
where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Beware of making value judgements in Task 1. Do no talk about
improvement. It is just a change. Who knows, perhaps life was better
with less people! Just describe and compare the data. No opinion of any
sort.

## The diagram depicts the

transformation of Palm Grove
from a coastal town into a
major resort. This happened
over a 50-year period from
1950 to 2000.
In 1950, there were 3 hotels,
dock and 1 near the 3 western
docks using beaches as
reference points. A two-lane
highway skirted the eastern
side of the Palm Grove and ran
northwest in relationship to the
two beaches which appeared
separated.

## Twenty five years later,

modifications were observed. The
beaches appeared to be joined.
There were 3 more hotels near
the western docks and another
one next to the eastern dock.
by two lanes, still following the
seemed to also allow access off
the main road to both the 3
hotels to east and four ones to
the north.
By the year 2000, the most
obvious change was the
existence of an airport to allow
easier access, given the
remoteness of the town, a 450
kilometre distance from the city.
There were also a complete
absence of any docks. Hotels on

## In its entirety, hotel facilities had

disappeared to be replaced by a

EXERCISE

directly
1. The library is _________________
the police station.
opposite
to
the west of the town.
2. The airport is 8km
________________
the south side of
3. The station on
is ____________________
Elm Square.
4. Chestnut Park isto
_______________
the east of the town.
5. The Town Hall is
on______________________
the left-hand sideElm Square.
6. The caf in
is _______________
Chestnut Park.
of
the middle of
7. The museum ishalfway
________________
alongLincoln Street.
9. Swan Streetat
is _________________
right angles toLincoln Street.
10.The shopping centre
__________________
Swan Street.
onisthe
north side of
11. Western Avenue is ________________ Elm Square and Mill
halfway between
diagonally opposite
12.The college is __________________ the museum.
surrounded by
13.The market is ______________ shops.
on
14.The health club is _________ Green Street.
the corner ofWestern Avenue and
15.The art galleryon
is _______________
Green Street.

A.
You are going to ___________.
HOTEL