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# MAE 1202: AEROSPACE PRACTICUM

## Lecture 5: Compressible and Isentropic Flow 1

February 11, 2013
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Florida Institute of Technology
D. R. Kirk

Reading: Introduction to Flight, by John D. Anderson, Jr.
For this weeks lecture: Chapter 4, Sections 4.10 - 4.21, 4.27
For next weeks lecture: Chapter 5, Sections 5.1 - 5.13
Lecture-Based Homework Assignment:
Problems: 4.7, 4.11, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.23, 4.27
DUE: Friday, February 22, 2013 by 5 PM
Problems: 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6
DUE: Friday, March 1, 2013 by 5 PM
Turn in hard copy of homework
Also be sure to review and be familiar with textbook examples in
Chapter 5

## 5.2: L = 23.9 lb, D = 0.25 lb, Mc/4 = -2.68 lb ft

Note 1: Two sets of lift and moment coefficient data are given for the NACA
1412 airfoil, with and without flap deflection. Make sure to read axis and
legend properly, and use only flap retracted data.
Note 2: The scale for cm,c/4 is different than that for cl, so be careful when

5.4: = 2

## CREO DESIGN CONTEST

Create most elaborate, complex, stunning Aerospace Related project
in Creo
Criteria: Assembly and/or exploded view
First place
Second place: +10 points on final exam
Third place: +10 points on final exam

## If you do the PRO|E challenge

Do not let it consume you!

BERNOULLIS EQUATION
2
2

2
1

V
V
p2
p1
2
2
2
V
p
Constant along a streamline
2
One of most fundamental and useful equations in aerospace engineering!
Remember:
Bernoullis equation holds only for inviscid (frictionless) and
incompressible (= constant) flows
Bernoullis equation relates properties between different points along a
streamline
For a compressible flow Eulers equation must be used ( is variable)
Both Eulers and Bernoullis equations are expressions of F = ma
expressed in a useful form for fluid flows and aerodynamics

## How do we measure an airplanes speed in flight?

Pitot tubes are used on aircraft as speedometers (point measurement)

13

## STATIC VS. TOTAL PRESSURE

In aerodynamics, 2 types of pressure: Static and Total (Stagnation)
Static Pressure, p
Due to random motion of gas molecules
Pressure we would feel if moving along with flow
Strong function of altitude
Total (or Stagnation) Pressure, p0 or pt
Property associated with flow motion
Total pressure at a given point in flow is the pressure that would exist if flow were
slowed down isentropically to zero velocity
p0 p

14

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1
2
p V1 p0
2
Static
pressure

Dynamic
pressure

Total
pressure

2 p0 p
V1

Incompressible Flow

16

## Measures total pressure

Open at A, closed at B
Gas stagnated (not moving) anywhere in tube
Gas particle moving along streamline C will be
isentropically brought to rest at point A, giving
total pressure
17

## EXAMPLE: MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED (4.11)

Point A: Static Pressure, p
Only random motion of gas
is measured
Point B: Total Pressure, p0
Flow is isentropically
decelerated to zero velocity
A combination of p0 and p
allows us to measure V1 at a
given point

p
Instrument is called a Pitotstatic probe

p0
18

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1
2
p V1 p0
2
Static
pressure

Dynamic
pressure

1
V12 p0
2

Total
pressure

2 p0 p
V1

Incompressible Flow
19

## TRUE VS. EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED

What is value of ?
If is measured in actual air
around the airplane
Measurement is difficult to do

## Practically easier to use value at

standard seal-level conditions, s
This gives an expression called
equivalent airspeed

Vtrue

2 p0 p

2 p0 p
Ve
s
20

## Aircraft crashed following an aerodynamic stall caused by inconsistent airspeed

sensor readings, disengagement of autopilot, and pilot making nose-up inputs
despite stall warnings
Reason for faulty readings is unknown, but it is assumed by accident investigators
to have been caused by formation of ice inside pitot tubes, depriving airspeed
sensors of forward-facing air pressure.
21
Pitot tube blockage has contributed to airliner crashes in the past

## HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?

Lift due to imbalance of pressure distribution over top and bottom surfaces of
airfoil (or wing)
If pressure on top is lower than pressure on bottom surface, lift is generated
Why is pressure lower on top surface?

## We can understand answer from basic physics:

Continuity (Mass Conservation)
Newtons 2nd law (Euler or Bernoulli Equation)

Lift Force = PA

## HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?

1. Flow velocity over top of airfoil is faster than over bottom surface
Streamtube A senses upper portion of airfoil as an obstruction
Streamtube A is squashed to smaller cross-sectional area
Mass continuity AV=constant: IF A THEN V
Streamtube A is squashed
most in nose region

A
B

## HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?

2. As V p
Incompressible: Bernoullis Equation
Compressible: Eulers Equation
Called Bernoulli Effect

1
V 2 constant
2
dp VdV
p

3. With lower pressure over upper surface and higher pressure over bottom surface,
airfoil feels a net force in upward direction Lift
Most of lift is produced
in first 20-30% of wing

## Incorrect Lift Theory

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/wrong1.html

## Steady, incompressible flow of an

inviscid (frictionless) fluid along a
streamline or in a stream tube of
varying area
Most important variables: p and V
T and are constants throughout flow

A1V1 A2V2

continuity

1
1
2
p1 V1 p2 V22
2
2

## What if flow is high speed, M > 0.3?

What if there are temperature effects?
How does density change?

Bernoulli

Boundary
System

Surroundings

e (J/kg)

## System (gas) composed of molecules moving in random motion

Energy of molecular motion is internal energy per unit mass, e, of system
Only two ways e can be increased (or decreased):
1. Heat, q, added to (or removed from) system
2. Work, w, is done on (or by) system

THOUGHT EXPERIMENT #1

## Do not allow size of balloon to change (hold volume constant)

Turn on a heat lamp
Heat (or q) is added to the system

How does e (internal energy per unit mass) inside the balloon change?

THOUGHT EXPERIMENT #2

## *You* take balloon and squeeze it down to a small size

When volume varies work is done
Who did the work on the balloon?

How does e (internal energy per unit mass) inside the balloon change?
Where did this increased energy come from?

## 1st LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS (4.5)

Boundary
e (J/kg)

SYSTEM
(unit mass of gas)

SURROUNDINGS
q

## System (gas) composed of molecules moving in random motion

Energy of all molecular motion is called internal energy per unit mass, e, of
system
Only two ways e can be increased (or decreased):
1. Heat, q, added to (or removed from) system
2. Work, w, is done on (or by) system

de q w

## 1st LAW IN MORE USEFUL FORM (4.5)

1st Law: de = q + w
Find more useful expression for w, in
terms of p and (or v = 1/)

W force distance
W pdA s

w psdA p sdA
A

w pdv

## When volume varies work is done

Work done on balloon, volume
Work done by balloon, volume

de q w
de q pdv

Change in
Volume (-)

## ENTHALPY: A USEFUL QUANTITY (4.5)

Define a new quantity
called enthalpy, h:
(recall ideal gas law: pv = RT)

h e pv e RT

Differentiate

dh de pdv vdp

## Substitute into 1st law

(from previous slide)

q de pdv
q de dh de vdp

## Another version of 1st law

that uses enthalpy, h:

q dh vdp

## HEAT ADDITION AND SPECIFIC HEAT (4.5)

Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system

q
d

q
J
c

kg K
dT
Specific heat is heat added per unit change in temperature of system
Different materials have different specific heats
Balloon filled with He, N2, Ar, water, lead, uranium, etc
ALSO, for a fixed dq, resulting dT depends on type of process

## SPECIFIC HEAT: CONSTANT PRESSURE

Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system
System pressure remains constant

q
d

q
J
c

kg K
dT

q
cp

dT

q c p dT
dh c p dT
h c pT

constant pressure

Show this step

## SPECIFIC HEAT: CONSTANT VOLUME

Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system
System volume remains constant

q
d

q
J
c

kg K
dT

q
cv

dT

q cv dT
de cv dT
e cvT

constant volume

Show this step

## HEAT ADDITION AND SPECIFIC HEAT (4.5)

Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system
Specific heat is heat added per unit change in temperature of system

q
J
c

kg K
dT
However, for a fixed dq, resulting dT depends on type of process:

Constant Pressure

q
cp

dT

q c p dT
dh c p dT
h c pT

constant pressure

Constant Volume

q
cv

dT

q cv dT
de cv dT
e cvT

For air, = 1.4
constant volume

cp
cv

## ISENTROPIC FLOW (4.6)

Goal: Relate Thermodynamics to Compressible Flow
q = 0
Note: Temperature can still change because of changing density
Reversible Process: No friction (or other dissipative effects)
Isentropic Process: (1) Adiabatic + (2) Reversible
(1) No heat exchange + (2) no frictional losses
Relevant for compressible flows only
Provides important relationships among thermodynamic variables at two
different points along a streamline

p2 2

p1 1

T2

T1

= cp/cv
air=1.4

## DERIVATION: ENERGY EQUATION (4.7)

Energy can neither be created nor
destroyed
1st law in terms of enthalpy

de q w

q 0
q dh vdp 0
dp VdV

Combine

Integrate

dh vVdV 0
dh VdV 0

h2

h1

V2

dh VdV 0
V1

V22 V12
h2 h1

0
2
2

## ENERGY EQUATION SUMMARY (4.7)

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; can only change physical form
Same idea as 1st law of thermodynamics
2
1

2
2

V
V
h1
h2
2
2
2
V
h
constant
2
V12
V22
c pT1
c pT2
2
2
2
V
c pT
constant
2

## Energy equation for frictionless,

h = enthalpy = e+p/= e+RT
h = cpT for an ideal gas

## Also energy equation for

Relates T and V at two different
points along a streamline

## Incompressible flow of fluid along a

streamline or in a stream tube of
varying area
Most important variables: p and V
T and are constants throughout flow

Compressible, isentropic
flow along a streamline or in a
stream tube of varying area
T, p, , and V are all variables

A1V1 A2V2

continuity

1
1
2
p1 V1 p2 V22
2
2

continuity

Bernoulli

1 A1V1 2 A2V2

isentropic
energy

equation of state
at any point

T1 1
p1 1

p2 2
T2
1 2
1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT2 V2
2
2
p1 1 RT1
p2 2 RT2

## EXAMPLE: SPEED OF SOUND (4.9)

Sound waves travel through air at a finite speed
Sound speed (information speed) has an important role in aerodynamics
Combine conservation of mass, Eulers equation and isentropic relations:

dp
a
d
2

p
a RT

## Speed of sound, a, in a perfect gas depends only on temperature of gas

Mach number = flow velocity normalizes by speed of sound

V
M
a

## If M < 1 flow is subsonic

If M = 1 flow is sonic
If M > flow is supersonic
If M < 0.3 flow may be considered incompressible

Streamline
Stream tube

## Constant pressure process

Constant volume process

Viscid flow
Inviscid flow
Compressible flow
Incompressible flow
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow

Reversible
Isentropic
Enthalpy

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUBSONIC COMRESSIBLE FLOW
If M > 0.3, flow is compressible (density changes are important)
Need to introduce energy equation and isentropic relations

1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT0
2
2
T0
V1
1
T1
2c pT1
T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2

p0
1 2
1
M1
p1
2

0
1 2
1
M1
1
2

1
1

## cp: specific heat at constant pressure

M1=V1/a1
air=1.4

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUBSONIC COMRESSIBLE FLOW
So, how do we use these results to measure airspeed

2

M 12
1

2
a
2
1

V1
1

2
a
2
1

V1
1

2
a
2
s

Vcal
1

p0

p1
p0

p1

p0 and p1 give
Flight Mach number
Mach meter

p0 p1
1
p1

p0 p1
1
ps

M1=V1/a1
Actual Flight Speed

## Actual Flight Speed

using pressure difference

## What is T1 and a1?

Again use sea-level conditions
Ts, as, ps (a1=340.3 m/s)

## EXAMPLE: TOTAL TEMPERATURE

Total temperature

T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2
Static temperature

Vehicle flight
Mach number

## A rocket is flying at Mach 6 through a portion of the

atmosphere where the static temperature is 200 K

## T0 = 200(1+ 0.2(36)) = 1,640 K!

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUPERSONIC FLOW
What can happen in supersonic flows?
Supersonic flows (M > 1) are qualitatively and quantitatively different
from subsonic flows (M < 1)

## HOW AND WHY DOES A SHOCK WAVE FORM?

Think of a as information speed and
M=V/a as ratio of flow speed to
information speed
If M < 1 information available throughout
flow field
If M > 1 information confined to some
region of flow field

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUPERSONIC FLOW

p02 1 M

2
p1 4M 1 2 1
2

2
1

1 2M 12
1

## Notice how different this expression is from previous expressions

You will learn a lot more about shock wave in compressible flow course

2 p0 p
Ve
s

2
cal

2a p0 p1

1
1
ps

2
s

p02
1 M

p1 4M 12 2 1

2
1

Subsonic,
incompressible

Subsonic,
compressible

1 2M 12
Supersonic
1

## MORE ON SUPERSONIC FLOWS (4.13)

Isentropic flow in a streamtube
Differentiate
Eulers Equation
Since flow is isentropic
a2=dp/d

Area-Velocity Relation

AV constant
ln lnA lnV ln constant
d dA dV

A V
dp VdV
dVdV dA dV

0
dp
A V
VdV dA dV
2

0
a
A V
dA
dV
2
M 1
A
V

## CONSEQUENCES OF AREA-VELOCITY RELATION

dA
dV
2
M 1
A
V
IF Flow is Subsonic (M < 1)
For V to increase (dV positive) area must decrease (dA negative)
Note that this is consistent with Eulers equation for dV and dp
IF Flow is Supersonic (M > 1)
For V to increase (dV positive) area must increase (dA positive)
IF Flow is Sonic (M = 1)
M = 1 occurs at a minimum area of cross-section
Minimum area is called a throat (dA/A = 0)

TRENDS: CONTRACTION

1: INLET

2: OUTLET

M1 < 1

V2 > V1

M1 > 1

V2 < V1

TRENDS: EXPANSION

1: INLET

2: OUTLET

M1 < 1

V2 < V1

M1 > 1

V2 > V1

1: INLET

2: OUTLET

## A converging-diverging, with a minimum area throat, is necessary to

produce a supersonic flow from rest

Rocket nozzle

## Incompressible flow of fluid along a

streamline or in a stream tube of
varying area
Most important variables: p and V
T and are constants throughout flow

Compressible, isentropic
flow along a streamline or in a
stream tube of varying area
T, p, , and V are all variables

A1V1 A2V2

continuity

1
1
2
p1 V1 p2 V22
2
2

continuity

Bernoulli

1 A1V1 2 A2V2

isentropic
energy

equation of state
at any point

T1 1
p1 1

p2 2
T2
1 2
1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT2 V2
2
2
p1 1 RT1
p2 2 RT2