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MAE 1202: AEROSPACE PRACTICUM

Lecture 5: Compressible and Isentropic Flow 1


February 11, 2013
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Florida Institute of Technology
D. R. Kirk

READING AND HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS


Reading: Introduction to Flight, by John D. Anderson, Jr.
For this weeks lecture: Chapter 4, Sections 4.10 - 4.21, 4.27
For next weeks lecture: Chapter 5, Sections 5.1 - 5.13
Lecture-Based Homework Assignment:
Problems: 4.7, 4.11, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.23, 4.27
DUE: Friday, February 22, 2013 by 5 PM
Problems: 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6
DUE: Friday, March 1, 2013 by 5 PM
Turn in hard copy of homework
Also be sure to review and be familiar with textbook examples in
Chapter 5

ANSWERS TO LECTURE HOMEWORK

5.2: L = 23.9 lb, D = 0.25 lb, Mc/4 = -2.68 lb ft


Note 1: Two sets of lift and moment coefficient data are given for the NACA
1412 airfoil, with and without flap deflection. Make sure to read axis and
legend properly, and use only flap retracted data.
Note 2: The scale for cm,c/4 is different than that for cl, so be careful when
reading the data

5.3: L = 308 N, D = 2.77 N, Mc/4 = - 0.925 N m

5.4: = 2

5.6: (L/D)max ~ 112

CREO DESIGN CONTEST


Create most elaborate, complex, stunning Aerospace Related project
in Creo
Criteria: Assembly and/or exploded view
First place
Either increase your grade by an entire letter (C B), or
Buy your most expensive textbook next semester
Second place: +10 points on final exam
Third place: +10 points on final exam

CAD DESIGN CONTEST

CAD DESIGN CONTEST

If you do the PRO|E challenge


Do not let it consume you!

BERNOULLIS EQUATION
2
2

2
1

V
V
p2
p1
2
2
2
V
p
Constant along a streamline
2
One of most fundamental and useful equations in aerospace engineering!
Remember:
Bernoullis equation holds only for inviscid (frictionless) and
incompressible (= constant) flows
Bernoullis equation relates properties between different points along a
streamline
For a compressible flow Eulers equation must be used ( is variable)
Both Eulers and Bernoullis equations are expressions of F = ma
expressed in a useful form for fluid flows and aerodynamics

EXAMPLE: MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED (4.11)

How do we measure an airplanes speed in flight?


Pitot tubes are used on aircraft as speedometers (point measurement)

13

STATIC VS. TOTAL PRESSURE


In aerodynamics, 2 types of pressure: Static and Total (Stagnation)
Static Pressure, p
Due to random motion of gas molecules
Pressure we would feel if moving along with flow
Strong function of altitude
Total (or Stagnation) Pressure, p0 or pt
Property associated with flow motion
Total pressure at a given point in flow is the pressure that would exist if flow were
slowed down isentropically to zero velocity
p0 p

14

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1
2
p V1 p0
2
Static
pressure

Dynamic
pressure

Total
pressure

2 p0 p
V1

Incompressible Flow

Total and Static Ports

16

TOTAL PRESSURE MEASUREMENT (4.11)

Measures total pressure


Open at A, closed at B
Gas stagnated (not moving) anywhere in tube
Gas particle moving along streamline C will be
isentropically brought to rest at point A, giving
total pressure
17

EXAMPLE: MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED (4.11)


Point A: Static Pressure, p
Only random motion of gas
is measured
Point B: Total Pressure, p0
Flow is isentropically
decelerated to zero velocity
A combination of p0 and p
allows us to measure V1 at a
given point

p
Instrument is called a Pitotstatic probe

p0
18

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1
2
p V1 p0
2
Static
pressure

Dynamic
pressure

1
V12 p0
2

Total
pressure

2 p0 p
V1

Incompressible Flow
19

TRUE VS. EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED


What is value of ?
If is measured in actual air
around the airplane
Measurement is difficult to do

Practically easier to use value at


standard seal-level conditions, s
This gives an expression called
equivalent airspeed

Vtrue

2 p0 p

2 p0 p
Ve
s
20

TRAGIC EXAMPLE: Air France Crash

Aircraft crashed following an aerodynamic stall caused by inconsistent airspeed


sensor readings, disengagement of autopilot, and pilot making nose-up inputs
despite stall warnings
Reason for faulty readings is unknown, but it is assumed by accident investigators
to have been caused by formation of ice inside pitot tubes, depriving airspeed
sensors of forward-facing air pressure.
21
Pitot tube blockage has contributed to airliner crashes in the past

HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?

Lift due to imbalance of pressure distribution over top and bottom surfaces of
airfoil (or wing)
If pressure on top is lower than pressure on bottom surface, lift is generated
Why is pressure lower on top surface?

We can understand answer from basic physics:


Continuity (Mass Conservation)
Newtons 2nd law (Euler or Bernoulli Equation)

Lift Force = PA

HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?


1. Flow velocity over top of airfoil is faster than over bottom surface
Streamtube A senses upper portion of airfoil as an obstruction
Streamtube A is squashed to smaller cross-sectional area
Mass continuity AV=constant: IF A THEN V
Streamtube A is squashed
most in nose region
(ahead of maximum thickness)

A
B

HOW DOES AN AIRFOIL GENERATE LIFT?


2. As V p
Incompressible: Bernoullis Equation
Compressible: Eulers Equation
Called Bernoulli Effect

1
V 2 constant
2
dp VdV
p

3. With lower pressure over upper surface and higher pressure over bottom surface,
airfoil feels a net force in upward direction Lift
Most of lift is produced
in first 20-30% of wing
(just downstream of leading edge)

Can you express these ideas in your own words?

Incorrect Lift Theory

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/wrong1.html

SUMMARY OF GOVERNING EQUATIONS (4.8)

Steady, incompressible flow of an


inviscid (frictionless) fluid along a
streamline or in a stream tube of
varying area
Most important variables: p and V
T and are constants throughout flow

A1V1 A2V2

continuity

1
1
2
p1 V1 p2 V22
2
2

What if flow is high speed, M > 0.3?


What if there are temperature effects?
How does density change?

Bernoulli

1st LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS (4.5)


Boundary
System

Surroundings

e (J/kg)

System (gas) composed of molecules moving in random motion


Energy of molecular motion is internal energy per unit mass, e, of system
Only two ways e can be increased (or decreased):
1. Heat, q, added to (or removed from) system
2. Work, w, is done on (or by) system

THOUGHT EXPERIMENT #1

Do not allow size of balloon to change (hold volume constant)


Turn on a heat lamp
Heat (or q) is added to the system

How does e (internal energy per unit mass) inside the balloon change?

THOUGHT EXPERIMENT #2

*You* take balloon and squeeze it down to a small size


When volume varies work is done
Who did the work on the balloon?

How does e (internal energy per unit mass) inside the balloon change?
Where did this increased energy come from?

1st LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS (4.5)


Boundary
e (J/kg)

SYSTEM
(unit mass of gas)

SURROUNDINGS
q

System (gas) composed of molecules moving in random motion


Energy of all molecular motion is called internal energy per unit mass, e, of
system
Only two ways e can be increased (or decreased):
1. Heat, q, added to (or removed from) system
2. Work, w, is done on (or by) system

de q w

1st LAW IN MORE USEFUL FORM (4.5)


1st Law: de = q + w
Find more useful expression for w, in
terms of p and (or v = 1/)

W force distance
W pdA s

w psdA p sdA
A

w pdv

When volume varies work is done


Work done on balloon, volume
Work done by balloon, volume

de q w
de q pdv

Change in
Volume (-)

ENTHALPY: A USEFUL QUANTITY (4.5)


Define a new quantity
called enthalpy, h:
(recall ideal gas law: pv = RT)

h e pv e RT

Differentiate

dh de pdv vdp

Substitute into 1st law


(from previous slide)

q de pdv
q de dh de vdp

Another version of 1st law


that uses enthalpy, h:

q dh vdp

HEAT ADDITION AND SPECIFIC HEAT (4.5)


Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system

q
d

q
J
c

kg K
dT
Specific heat is heat added per unit change in temperature of system
Different materials have different specific heats
Balloon filled with He, N2, Ar, water, lead, uranium, etc
ALSO, for a fixed dq, resulting dT depends on type of process

SPECIFIC HEAT: CONSTANT PRESSURE


Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system
System pressure remains constant

q
d

q
J
c

kg K
dT

q
cp

dT

q c p dT
dh c p dT
h c pT

constant pressure

Extra Credit #1:


Show this step

SPECIFIC HEAT: CONSTANT VOLUME


Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system
System volume remains constant

q
d

q
J
c

kg K
dT

q
cv

dT

q cv dT
de cv dT
e cvT

constant volume

Extra Credit #2:


Show this step

HEAT ADDITION AND SPECIFIC HEAT (4.5)


Addition of q will cause a small change in temperature dT of system
Specific heat is heat added per unit change in temperature of system

q
J
c

kg K
dT
However, for a fixed dq, resulting dT depends on type of process:

Constant Pressure

q
cp

dT

q c p dT
dh c p dT
h c pT

constant pressure

Constant Volume

q
cv

dT

q cv dT
de cv dT
e cvT

Specific heat ratio


For air, = 1.4
constant volume

cp
cv

ISENTROPIC FLOW (4.6)


Goal: Relate Thermodynamics to Compressible Flow
Adiabatic Process: No heat is added or removed from system
q = 0
Note: Temperature can still change because of changing density
Reversible Process: No friction (or other dissipative effects)
Isentropic Process: (1) Adiabatic + (2) Reversible
(1) No heat exchange + (2) no frictional losses
Relevant for compressible flows only
Provides important relationships among thermodynamic variables at two
different points along a streamline

1 = ratio of specific heats

p2 2


p1 1

T2


T1

= cp/cv
air=1.4

DERIVATION: ENERGY EQUATION (4.7)


Energy can neither be created nor
destroyed
Start with 1st law
Adiabatic, q=0
1st law in terms of enthalpy

de q w

q 0
q dh vdp 0
dp VdV

Recall Eulers equation


Combine

Integrate
Result: frictionless + adiabatic flow

dh vVdV 0
dh VdV 0

h2

h1

V2

dh VdV 0
V1

V22 V12
h2 h1

0
2
2

ENERGY EQUATION SUMMARY (4.7)


Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; can only change physical form
Same idea as 1st law of thermodynamics
2
1

2
2

V
V
h1
h2
2
2
2
V
h
constant
2
V12
V22
c pT1
c pT2
2
2
2
V
c pT
constant
2

Energy equation for frictionless,


adiabatic flow (isentropic)
h = enthalpy = e+p/= e+RT
h = cpT for an ideal gas

Also energy equation for


frictionless, adiabatic flow
Relates T and V at two different
points along a streamline

SUMMARY OF GOVERNING EQUATIONS (4.8)


STEADY AND INVISCID FLOW

Incompressible flow of fluid along a


streamline or in a stream tube of
varying area
Most important variables: p and V
T and are constants throughout flow

Compressible, isentropic
(adiabatic and frictionless)
flow along a streamline or in a
stream tube of varying area
T, p, , and V are all variables

A1V1 A2V2

continuity

1
1
2
p1 V1 p2 V22
2
2

continuity

Bernoulli

1 A1V1 2 A2V2

isentropic
energy

equation of state
at any point

T1 1
p1 1


p2 2
T2
1 2
1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT2 V2
2
2
p1 1 RT1
p2 2 RT2

EXAMPLE: SPEED OF SOUND (4.9)


Sound waves travel through air at a finite speed
Sound speed (information speed) has an important role in aerodynamics
Combine conservation of mass, Eulers equation and isentropic relations:

dp
a
d
2

p
a RT

Speed of sound, a, in a perfect gas depends only on temperature of gas


Mach number = flow velocity normalizes by speed of sound

V
M
a

If M < 1 flow is subsonic


If M = 1 flow is sonic
If M > flow is supersonic
If M < 0.3 flow may be considered incompressible

KEY TERMS: CAN YOU DEFINE THEM?


Streamline
Stream tube

Constant pressure process


Constant volume process

Steady flow
Unsteady flow

Adiabatic

Viscid flow
Inviscid flow
Compressible flow
Incompressible flow
Laminar flow
Turbulent flow

Reversible
Isentropic
Enthalpy

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUBSONIC COMRESSIBLE FLOW
If M > 0.3, flow is compressible (density changes are important)
Need to introduce energy equation and isentropic relations

1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT0
2
2
T0
V1
1
T1
2c pT1
T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2

p0
1 2
1
M1
p1
2

0
1 2
1
M1
1
2

1
1

cp: specific heat at constant pressure


M1=V1/a1
air=1.4

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUBSONIC COMRESSIBLE FLOW
So, how do we use these results to measure airspeed

2

M 12
1

2
a
2
1

V1
1

2
a
2
1

V1
1

2
a
2
s

Vcal
1

p0

p1
p0

p1

p0 and p1 give
Flight Mach number
Mach meter

p0 p1
1
p1

p0 p1
1
ps

M1=V1/a1
Actual Flight Speed

Actual Flight Speed


using pressure difference

What is T1 and a1?


Again use sea-level conditions
Ts, as, ps (a1=340.3 m/s)

EXAMPLE: TOTAL TEMPERATURE


Total temperature

T0
1 2
1
M1
T1
2
Static temperature

Vehicle flight
Mach number

A rocket is flying at Mach 6 through a portion of the


atmosphere where the static temperature is 200 K

What temperature does the nose of the rocket feel?

T0 = 200(1+ 0.2(36)) = 1,640 K!

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUPERSONIC FLOW
What can happen in supersonic flows?
Supersonic flows (M > 1) are qualitatively and quantitatively different
from subsonic flows (M < 1)

HOW AND WHY DOES A SHOCK WAVE FORM?


Think of a as information speed and
M=V/a as ratio of flow speed to
information speed
If M < 1 information available throughout
flow field
If M > 1 information confined to some
region of flow field

MEASUREMENT OF AIRSPEED:
SUPERSONIC FLOW

p02 1 M

2
p1 4M 1 2 1
2

2
1

1 2M 12
1

Notice how different this expression is from previous expressions


You will learn a lot more about shock wave in compressible flow course

SUMMARY OF AIR SPEED MEASUREMENT

2 p0 p
Ve
s

2
cal

2a p0 p1

1
1
ps

2
s

p02
1 M

p1 4M 12 2 1

2
1

Subsonic,
incompressible

Subsonic,
compressible

1 2M 12
Supersonic
1

HOW ARE ROCKET NOZZLES SHAPPED?

MORE ON SUPERSONIC FLOWS (4.13)


Isentropic flow in a streamtube
Differentiate
Eulers Equation
Since flow is isentropic
a2=dp/d

Area-Velocity Relation

AV constant
ln lnA lnV ln constant
d dA dV

A V
dp VdV
dVdV dA dV

0
dp
A V
VdV dA dV
2

0
a
A V
dA
dV
2
M 1
A
V

CONSEQUENCES OF AREA-VELOCITY RELATION

dA
dV
2
M 1
A
V
IF Flow is Subsonic (M < 1)
For V to increase (dV positive) area must decrease (dA negative)
Note that this is consistent with Eulers equation for dV and dp
IF Flow is Supersonic (M > 1)
For V to increase (dV positive) area must increase (dA positive)
IF Flow is Sonic (M = 1)
M = 1 occurs at a minimum area of cross-section
Minimum area is called a throat (dA/A = 0)

TRENDS: CONTRACTION

1: INLET

2: OUTLET

M1 < 1

V2 > V1

M1 > 1

V2 < V1

TRENDS: EXPANSION

1: INLET

2: OUTLET

M1 < 1

V2 < V1

M1 > 1

V2 > V1

PUT IT TOGETHER: C-D NOZZLE

1: INLET

2: OUTLET

MORE ON SUPERSONIC FLOWS (4.13)

A converging-diverging, with a minimum area throat, is necessary to


produce a supersonic flow from rest

Supersonic wind tunnel section

Rocket nozzle

SUMMARY OF GOVERNING EQUATIONS (4.8)


STEADY AND INVISCID FLOW

Incompressible flow of fluid along a


streamline or in a stream tube of
varying area
Most important variables: p and V
T and are constants throughout flow

Compressible, isentropic
(adiabatic and frictionless)
flow along a streamline or in a
stream tube of varying area
T, p, , and V are all variables

A1V1 A2V2

continuity

1
1
2
p1 V1 p2 V22
2
2

continuity

Bernoulli

1 A1V1 2 A2V2

isentropic
energy

equation of state
at any point

T1 1
p1 1


p2 2
T2
1 2
1 2
c pT1 V1 c pT2 V2
2
2
p1 1 RT1
p2 2 RT2