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Self Study First Stage Evaluation

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

R V College of Engineering, Bangalore


RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Sl. No.
1.

USN
1RV12CS001

Name
A RAKESH

2.
3.

1RV12CS002
1RV12CS003

ABHINAV GOYAL
ACHAL
SHANTHARAM

4.

1RV12CS004

ADITYA BADDUR

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Presentation Outline
Efficiency of CPU scheduling algorithms
- Awareness of Global Effects
- Economic Factors
- Implications to Society
- Contemporary Issues
Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DAA)
Dynamic Power Management (TOC)
Implementation (OOPS)
Impact on environment (EB)
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Efficiency of CPU Scheduling


Algorithms
The energy usage of computer systems is becoming more
important, especially for battery operated systems. Displays,
disks, and CPUs, in that order, use the most energy.
What are the right scheduling algorithms for taking
advantage of reduced clock-speed, especially in the
presence of applications demanding ever more instructionsper-second? We consider several methods for varying the
clock speed dynamically under control of the operating
system, and examine the performance of these methods
against workstation traces. The primary result is that by
adjusting the clock speed at a fine grain, substantial CPU
energy can be saved with a limited impact on performance.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Awareness of Global Effects

Battery life (i.e. energy supply and rate of depletion) and


execution time performance are arguably the two chief
parameters determining the usability of mobile embedded
devices such as PDAs, cellphones, wearables, and
handheld/notebook computers everywhere around the globe.
The problem is that the goals of high performance and low
energy consumption are at odds with each other: while
successive generations of general-purpose microprocessors
have realized improved performance levels, they have also
become more power-hungry. Designing efficient CPU
scheduling algorithms is the key.
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4 Aug 2013

Dynamic Voltage Scaling


Maintaining energy efficiency is crucial in
battery operated embedded systems.
The two primary ways to reduce power
consumption in the processor:
Resource slow down, also known as dynamic
voltage scaling (DVS).
Resource shutdown, also known as dynamic
power management (DPM)
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Dynamic Voltage Scaling


Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is a well-known
low power design technique that reduces the
processor energy by slowing down the DVS
processor and stretching the task execution time.
It is a power management technique where the
processor voltage and frequency is scaled down.
DVS techniques exploit an energy-delay tradeoff
that arises due to the quadratic relationship between
voltage and power
Pcmos =v2f.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Dynamic Voltage Scaling


Algorithms for DVS systems focus mainly
on task voltage adjustment. This is achieved
through the following algorithms :
EDD (Jacksons) Algorithm
EDF (Earliest Deadline First) Algorithm
RM (Rate Monotonic) Algorithm

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Earliest Deadline Due EDD


(Jacksons) Algorithm
The Earliest Deadline Due (EDD) algorithm schedules tasks
with earlier due date first. It has a complexity of O(nlogn),
since the procedure sorts the tasks by increasing deadlines.
If after the application of the EDD algorithm, a feasible
solution exists and unused slack is available, then the
following algorithm is invoked to decrease the energy
consumption.
In each iteration, the voltage of the critical task (or task m)
is decreased, the voltages of the other tasks adjusted, and
the finishing time of the task, f, compared with its deadline.

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

EDF (Earliest Deadline First)


Algorithm
Earliest Deadline First (EDF) is a dynamic scheduling
algorithm that at any instant executes the task with the
earliest absolute deadline among all the ready tasks.
In our algorithm, whenever a new task arrives, the voltage
values of the unscheduled tasks are updated according to the
minimum energy equation provided that the deadline
constraints are not violated.
Complexity: In each cycle, the task with the earliest deadline is scheduled with complexity O(nlog(kmax)), using a
binary search. The overall complexity of the algorithm is
O(n2log(kmax )).
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

RM (Rate Monotonic) Algorithm


The Rate Monotonic (RM) scheduling algorithm
assigns priorities to tasks according to their request
rates. In addition, deadline of a task (dj ) is equal to its
period. The sufficient but not necessary guarantee test
is U Ulub = n(21/n -1). In our algorithm, the voltage
values of the unscheduled tasks are updated according
to the minimum energy equation provided U Ulub .
Complexity: The worst case complexity of the
algorithm is O(nlog(kmax)). This is because at most
log(kmax) iterations are needed, and in each iteration at
most n calculations are done.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Power Reduction Techniques


Static techniques for low power
Applied at conceptualization and design time
Synthesis for low power
Compilation for low power
Dynamic techniques for low power
Dynamic power management (DPM) - use run time
behavior to reduce power consumption when system is
serving light load or when idle
Shutdown unused I/O devices, NIC, display or HDs

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Dynamic Power Management


Computer Systems are designed to deliver peak
performance, but are often idle or used to perform
tasks that do not require such performance.
For a given technology or architecture there is a
close relation between a performance provided by a
system and the power it consumes.
DPM is a control strategy aimed at adapting the
power or performance of a system to its workload.

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System Components
Power manageable resources(servers)
a. Provides a given functionality.
b. Provides different power-performance tradeoffs.
. Power Manager(PM)
a) Observes the state of the system and the workload.
b) Controls the power performance tradeoffs of the
server by issuing DPM commands according to
DPM policy.
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4 Aug 2013

State Diagrams
PSMs can be represented as state diagrams.
If transition times are not implicitly represented as
properties of the edges of the state diagram, they need
to be explicitly represented by transient states with
outgoing transitions triggered by self events.

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4 Aug 2013

Strong ARM SA-1100 processor

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Drawbacks of DPM
Returning from low power state to the active
state requires possibly long time for: Turning on and stabilizing the power supply
and the clock.
Re-initializing the system.
Restoring the context.

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Implementation
In Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling, at every scheduling
point the task having the shortest deadline is taken up for
scheduling.
After applying some modification to the global Earliest Deadline
First (EDF) algorithms to decrease the number of task migration
and also to add predictability to its behaviour, now it is called as
EFDF(Earliest Feasible Deadline First).
In order to decrease the number of migrations we prevent a job
from moving one processor to another processor if it is among
the m higher priority jobs. Therefore, a job will continue its
execution on the same processor if possible (processor affinity).

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Implementation
Let m denote the number of processing nodes and n, (nm)
denote the number of Available tasks in a uniform parallel realtime system.
We are going to implement this by using two different
CLASSES and making them friendly by using friend function
so that each one of them can have access to each others member
variables and member functions.
First CLASS is going to consist of the number and variety of
tasks / jobs (n) that are going to be implemented.
Second CLASS will consist of the variety of processors or
processing nodes(m) we are having for implementation of these
tasks.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Friend Functions And Classes


A Class is a way to bind the data and its associated
functions together, it allows the data(and functions)
to be hidden.
Class has a property that a non-member function
cannot have an access to the private data of a class.
However, there could be a situation where we
would like two classes to share a particular
function, this can be achieved by making an outside
function friendly to a class, so that both the
classes can have access to that particular function.
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4 Aug 2013

Environmental Issues

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Economic Factors
Efficient algorithms lead to increased battery
life and thus, reduced power consumption.
Reduced power consumption implies more
energy is saved. Since energy, is a major
resource it has an impact on the economy.
Thus energy conservations protects the
economy and consumers from possible price
fluctuations and from energy service
disruptions.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Implications to Society
The modern society includes people who
expect services on the go, demanding energy
efficient portable devices which provide
adequate performance without
compromising on battery life.
This is delivered through energy efficient
CPU scheduling algorithms for the operating
systems.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Ethical and Professional Issues


A modern day user, apart from sheer
performance also expects a certain amount
of security from the operating system.
The systems must be able to protect the
device from potential viruses and malware
without compromising on performance.

RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Contemporary Issues
An example of such an is that of Apples
iOS7.
Users of the older iPhone models(especially
4,4S and 5) who upgraded to the iOS7 report
that their devices battery life reduced to
nearly half of what it used to be earlier.
This could be a direct consequence of the
algorithms used in the development of the
operating system.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Future Work
Dynamic Voltage Scaling has been projected
as a promising technique for minimizing
power consumption of low powered devices.
An inherit drawback associated with DVS is
performance degradation.
As future work, we are intended to further
reduce performance penalty through slack
stealing mechanism by considering the early
completion of jobs.
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013

Thank You
RVCE - Marching Ahead

4 Aug 2013